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£~i ^ou ;:pcoV;j.a Xsuxoca. 

Meleager iii Anth. Pal. iv. 1. 

Dim now and soiVd, 
Like the soiVd tissue of white violets 
Left, freshly yather'd, on their native bank. 

M. Arnold, Sohrah and Rustum. 


The purpose of this book is to present a complete 
collection, subject to certain definitions and exceptions 
which will be mentioned later, of all the best extant 
Greek Epigrams. Although many epigrams not given 
here have in different ways a special interest of their 
own, none, it is hoped, have been excluded which are 
of the first excellence in any style. But, while it 
would be easy to agree on three-fourths of the matter 
to be included in such a scope, perhaps hardly any 
two persons would be in exact accordance with regard 
to the rest ; with many pieces which lie on the border 
line of excellence, the decision must be made on a 
balance of very slight considerations, and becomes in 
the end one rather of personal taste than of any fixed 

For the Greek Anthology proper, use has chielly 
been made of the two great works of Jacobs, 
Avhich have not yet been superseded by any more 
definitive edition: Anthologia Graeca sive Poet" rum 
Graecorum lusus ex recensione Brunckii; indices et 
commenta/riv/m adiecit Friedericus Iacobs (Leipzig, 
1794-1814 : four volumes of text and nine of indices, 
prolegomena, commentary and appendices), and Au- 
thologia Graeca adjidem codicis olirti Palatini nunc 
Parisini ex apographo Gothano edita; curavit <>/>i</i'<<ui- 

VI 1 1 


mata in Codice Palatini) desiderata et annotationem 
criticam adiecit Fridericus Jacobs (Leipzig, 1813- 
1817 : two volumes of text and two of critical notes). 
An appendix to the latter contains Paulssen's fresh 
collation of the Palatine MS. The small Tauclmitx 
text is a very careless and inaccurate reprint of thi.s 
edition. The most convenient edition of the Antho- 
logy for ordinary reference is that of F. Dllbner in 
Didot's Bibliotheque Grecque (Paris, 18G4), in two 
volumes, with a revised text, a Latin translation, and 
additional notes by various hands. The epigrams 
recovered from inscriptions have been collected and 
edited by G. Kaibel in his Epigramrnata Graeca ex 
lapidibus conlecta (Berlin, 1878). As this book was 
going through the press, a third volume of the Didot 
Anthology has appeared, edited by M. Ed. Cougny, 
under the title of Appendix nova epigrammatum 
veterum ex libris et marmoribus ductorum, containing 
what purports to be a complete collection, now made 
for the first time, of all extant epigrams not in the 

In the notes, I have not thought it necessary to 
acknowledge, except here once for all, my continual 
obligations to that superb monument of scholarship, 
the commentary of Jacobs ; but where a note or a 
reading is borrowed from a later critic, his name is 
mentioned. All important deviations from the re- 
ceived text of the Anthology are noted, and referred 
to their author in each case ; but, as this is not a 
critical edition, the received text, when retained, is as 
a rule printed without comment where it differs from 
that of the mss. or other originals. 


The references in the notes to Bergk's Lyrici Graeci 
give the pages of the fourth edition. Epigrams from 
the Anthology are quoted by the sections of the 
Palatine collection (Anth. Pal.) and the appendices to 
it (sections xiii-xv). After these appendices follows 
in modern editions a collection {App. Plan.) of all the 
epigrams in the Planudean Anthology which are not 
found in the Palatine MS. 

I have to thank Mr. P. E. Matheson, Fellow of New 
College, for his kindness in looking over the proof- 
sheets of this book. 





I. Love, ..... 


II. Prayers and Dedications, 


III. Epitaphs, .... 


IV. Literature and Art, 


V. Religion, .... 


VI. Nature, .... 


VII. The Family, .... 


VIII. Beauty, .... 


IX. Fate and Change, 


X. The Human Comedy, . 


XI. Death, ..... 


XII. Life, ..... 


Biographical Index of Epigrammatists, 


Notes, ...... 


Indices, ...... 



The Greek word 'epigram' in its original meaning is precisely 
equivalent to the Latin word 'inscription'; and it probably came 
into use in this sense at a very early period of Greek history, 
anterior even to the invention of prose. Inscriptions at that 
time, if they went beyond a mere name or set of names, or 
perhaps the bare statement of a simple fact, were necessarily 
in verse, then the single vehicle of organised expression. Even 
after prose was in use, an obvious propriety remained in the 
metrical form as being at once more striking and more easily 
retained in the memory ; while in the case of epitaphs and 
dedications — for the earlier epigram falls almost entirely under 
these two heads — religious feeling and a sense of what was due 
to ancient custom aided the continuance of the old tradition. 
Herodotus in the course of his History quotes epigrams of both 
kinds; and with him the word sTaypay^.a is just on the point 
of acquiring its literary sense, though this is not yet fixed defi- 
nitely. In his account of the three ancient tripods dedicated 
in the temple of Apollo at Thebes, 1 he says of one of them, 
6 yiv c^ tic, tojv xpixoSttv STuypayya iyzi, and then quotes the 
single hexameter line engraved upon it. Of the other two he 
says simply, 'they say in hexameter/ Xsyst sv scayiroto tovw. 
Again, where he describes the funeral monuments at Ther- 
mopylae, 2 he uses the words ypy.f/|cy. and sxtvpafma almost in 
the sense of sepulchral epigrams ; i~i^i^zy~xy.: yzy.'j.u.y-y. Xsyovtoc 
to&s, and a little further on, s-i/.osav-^y.vTS: jtal 
GTTjtop, ' epitaphs and monuments'. Among these epitaphs is 
the celebrated couplet of Simonides 3 which has found a place 
in all subsequent Anthologies. 

Hdt. v. 59. a Hrtt. vii. 228. 3 in. 4 in this collection. 



In the Anthology itself the word does not however in fact 
occur till a late period. The proem of Meleager to his collection 
uses the words aoi&ty, up.vo?, piXicrp.a, sXsyo?, all vaguely, hut has 
no term which corresponds in any degree to our epigram. That 
of Philippus has one word which describes the epigram by a 
single quality ; he calls his work an oliyocriyiy. or collection of 
poems not exceeding a few lines in length. In an epitaph by 
Diodorus, a poet of the Augustan age, occurs the phrase ypaima 
7-sysi, 1 in imitation of the phrase of Herodotus just quoted. This 
is, no doubt, an intentional archaism ; but the word e-iypaj/.f/.a 
itself does not occur in the collection until the Roman period. 
Two epigrams on the epigram, 2 one Roman, the other Roman 
or Byzantine, are preserved, both dealing with the question 
of the proper length, The former, by Parmenio, merely says 
that an epigram of many lines is bad — cpr^l Tzokjcziyirp i~<- 
ypay.y.aTO? ou y.ara Moucra; stvai. The other is more definite, 
but unfortunately ambiguous in expression. It runs thus : 

llocyy.aXdv est' ZT:Lypoi[j.[j.a. to Sia-i/ov ijv ok -apsXOr,; 
xou; xpEi?, pa-I/ioost; xoux £r:iypa|j.|xa Xe'yEi?. 

The meaning of the first part is plain ; an epigram may be 
complete within the limits of a single couplet. But do ' the 
three ' mean three lines or three couplets ? ' Exceeding three ' 
would, in the one case, mean an epigram of four lines, in the 
other of eight. As there cannot properly be an epigram of 
three lines, it would seem rather to mean the latter. Even so 
the statement is an exaggeration ; many of the best epigrams 
are in six and eight lines. But it is true that the epigram 
may ' have its nature ', in the phrase of Aristotle, 3 in a single 
couplet; and we shall generally find that in those of eight 
lines, as always without exception in those of more than eight, 
there is either some repetition of idea not necessary to the 
full expression of the thought, or some redundance of epithet 
or detail too florid for the best taste, or, as in most of the 
Byzantine epigrams, a natural verbosity which affects the 
style throughout and weakens the force and directness of the 

The notorious difficulty of giving any satisfactory definition 

Anth. Pal. vi. 348. - find. ix. 342, 369. s Poet. 1449a. 14. 


of poetry is almost equalled by the difficulty of defining with 
precision any one of its kinds; and the epigram in Greek, 
while it always remained conditioned by being in its essence 
and origin an inscriptional poem, took in the later periods so 
wide a range of subject and treatment that it can perhaps 
only be limited by certain abstract conventions of length and 
metre. Sometimes it becomes in all but metrical form a 
lyric ; sometimes it hardly rises beyond the versified statement 
of a fact or an idea; sometimes it is barely distinguishable 
from a snatch of pastoral. The shorter pieces of the elegiac 
poets might very often well be classed as epigrams but for 
the uncertainty, due to the form in which their text has come 
down to us, whether they are not in all cases, as they un- 
doubtedly are in som'e, portions of longer poems. Many 
couplets and quatrains of Theognis fall under this head ; and 
an excellent instance on a larger scale is the fragment of 
fourteen lines by Simonides of Amorgos, 1 which is the exact 
type on which many of the later epigrams of life are moulded. 
In such cases respice audoris animum is a safe rule ; what was 
not written as an epigram is not an epigram. Yet it has 
seemed worth while to illustrate this rule by its exceptions ; 
and there will be found in this collection fragments of Mimner- 
mus and Theognis 2 which in everything but the actual cir- 
cumstance of their origin satisfy any requirement which can 
be made. In the Palatine Anthology itself, indeed, there are a 
few instances 3 where this very thing is done. As a rule, 
however, these short passages belong to the class of vvwp-ai or 
moral sentences, which, even when expressed in elegiac verse, 
is sufficiently distinct from the true epigram. One instance 
will suffice. In the Anthology there occurs this couplet : 4 

riav to JtepiTTOV a/.atpov iizii Xoyo? iari TOxXaio? 
to; -/.at to j [/.eXito; to —Xsov eoti '/oXt ( . 

This is a sentence merely ; an abstract moral idea, with an 
illustration attached to it. Compare with it another couplet 6 
in the Anthology: 

Aitov izavxa. oiozi' SoXt/o; yjsovo? O'.oev apici^av 
Obvojxa y.a\ [/.opcpr^v cpuatv rjos Tuy7jv. 

1 Simon, fr. 85 Bergk. 

- Infra, xu. 6, 17, 37. s Anth. Pal. ix. 50, 118, x. 113. 

4 App. Plan. 16. 5 Anth. Pal. ix. 51. 


Here too there is a moral idea ; but in the expression, abstract 
as it is, there is just that high note, that imaginative touch, 
which gives it at once the gravity of an inscription and the 
quality of a poem. 

Again, many of the so-called epideictic epigrams are little 
more than stories told shortly in elegiac verse, much like the 
stories in Ovid's Fasti. Here the inscriptional quality is the 
surest test. It is this quality, perhaps in many instances due 
to the verses having been actually written for paintings or 
sculptures, that just makes an epigram of the sea-story told by 
Antipater of Thessalonica, and of the legend of Eunomus the 
harp-player 1 ; while other stories, such as those told of Fittacus, 
of Euctemon, of Serapis and the murderer, 2 both tend to exceed 
the reasonable limit of length, and have in no degree either the 
lapidary precision or the half lyrical passion which would be 
necessary to make them more than tales in verse. Once more, 
the fragments of idyllic poetry which by chance have come 
down to us incorporated in the Anthology, 3 beautiful as they 
are, are in no sense epigrams any more than the lyrics ascribed 
to Anacreon which form an appendix to the Palatine collection, 
or the quotations from the dramatists, Euripides, Menander, 
or Diphilus, 4 which have also at one time or another become 
incorporated with it. 

In brief then, the epigram in its first intention may be 
described as a very short poem summing up as though in a 
memorial inscription what it is desired to make permanent!}' 
memorable in any action or situation. It must have the com- 
pression and conciseness of a real inscription, and in proportion 
to the smallness of its bulk must be highly finished, evenly 
balanced, simple, and lucid. In literature it holds something 
of the same place as is held in art by an engraved gem. But 
if the definition of the epigram is only fixed thus, it is difficult 
to exclude almost any very short poem that conforms externally 
to this standard ; while on the other hand the chance of 
language has restricted the word in its modern use to a sense 
which it never bore in Greek at all, defined in the line of 
Hoileau, un bon mot de deux rimes orn4. This sense was made 

1 Infra, ix. 14, II. 14. - Anth. Pal. vii. 89, ix. 367, 378. 

3 Anth. Pal. ix. 136, 362, 363. 4 Ibid. x. 107. xi. 43S, 439. 


current more especially by the epigrams of Martial, which as 
a rule lead up to a pointed end, sometimes a witticism, some- 
times a verbal fancy, and are quite apart from the higher 
imaginative qualities. From looking too exclusively at the 
Latin epigrammatists, who all belonged to a debased period in 
literature, some persons have been led to speak of the Latin as 
distinct from the Greek sense of the word 'epigram'. But in 
the Greek Anthology the epigrams of contemporary writers 
have the same quality. The fault was that of the age, not of 
the language. No good epigram sacrifices its finer poetical 
qualities to the desire of making a point ; and none of the best 
depend on having a point at all. 


AVhile the epigram is thus somewhat incapable of strict 
formal definition, for all practical purposes it may be confined 
in Greek poetry to pieces written in a single metre, the elegiac 
couplet, the metre appropriated to inscriptions from the earliest 
recorded period. 1 Traditionally ascribed to the invention of 
Archilochus or Callinus, this form of verse, like the epic 
hexameter itself, first meets us full grown. 2 The date of 
Archilochus of Paros may be fixed pretty nearly at 700 B.C. 
That of Callinus of Ephesus is perhaps earlier. It may be 
assumed with probability that elegy was an invention of the 
same early civilisation among the Greek colonists of the eastern 
coast of the Aegean in which the Homeric poems flowered out 
into their splendid perfection. From the first the elegiac metre 
was instinctively recognised as the one best suited for inscrip- 
tional poems. Originally indeed it had a much wider area, as it 
afterwards had again with the Alexandrian poets ; it seems to 
have been the common metre for every kind of poetry which 
was neither purely lyrical on the one hand, nor on the other 

; The first inscriptions of all were probably in hexameter : cf. Hdt. v. 59. 

2 Horace, A. P. 11. 75-8, leaves the origin of elegiac verse in obscurity. 
When he says it was first used for laments, he probably follows the Alex- 
andrian derivation of the word IXeyo? from S liyziv. The voti sententia compos 
to wh,ich he says it became extended is interpreted by the commentators as 
meaning amatory poetry. If this was Horace's meaning he chose a most 
singular way of expressing it. 


included in the definite scope of the heroic hexameter. The 
name EXeyo?, 'wailing', is probably as late as Simonides, when 
from the frequency of its use for funeral inscriptions the 
metre had acquired a mournful connotation, and become the 
fristis clegc'ia of the Latin poets. But the war-chants of 
Callinus and Tyrtaeus, and the political poems of the latter, are 
at least fifty years earlier in date than the elegies of Mimner- 
mus, the first of which we have certain knowledge : and in 
Theognis, a hundred years later than Mimnermus, elegiac verse 
becomes a vehicle for the utmost diversity of subject, and a 
vehicle so facile and flexible that it never seems unsuitable or 
inadequate. For at least eighteen hundred years it remained 
a living metre, through all that time never undergoing any 
serious modification. 1 Almost up to the end of the Greek 
Empire of the East it continued to be written, in imitation it is 
true of the old poets, but still with the freedom of a language 
in common and uninterrupted use. As in the heroic hexa- 
meter the Asiatic colonies of Greece invented the most fluent, 
stately, and harmonious metre for continuous narrative poetry 
which has yet been invented by man, so in the elegiac couplet 
they solved the problem, hardly a less difficult one, of a metre 
which would refuse nothing, which could rise to the occasion 
and sink with it, and be equally suited to the epitaph of a hero 
or the verses accompanying a birthday present, a light jest or 
a great moral idea, the sigh of a lover or the lament over a 
perished Empire. 2 

The Palatine Anthology as it has come down to us includes 
a small proportion, less than one in ten, of poems in other 
metres than the elegiac. Some do not properly belong to the 
collection, as for instance the three lines of iambics heading 
the Erotic section and the two hendecasyllabics at the end of 
it, or the two hexameters at the beginning of the Dedicatory 
section. These are hardly so much insertions as accretions. 
Apart from them there are only four non-elegiac pieces among 
the three hundred and eight amatory epigrams. The three 

1 Mr. P. D. Allen's treatise On Greek Versification in Inscriptions (IJoston, 
1888) gives an account of the slight changes in structure (caesura, etc.) 
between earlier and later periods. 

8 Cf. infra, in. 2, vn. 4, x. 45, mi. 18, r. 30, i.\. 23. 


hundred and fifty-eight dedicatory epigrams include sixteen 
in hexameter and iambic, and one in hendecasyllabic ; and 
among the seven hundred and fifty sepulchral epigrams are forty- 
two in hexameter, iambic, and other mixed metres. The 
Epideictic section, as one would expect from the more mis- 
cellaneous nature of its contents, has a larger proportion of non- 
elegiac pieces. Of the eight hundred and twenty-seven epigrams 
no less than a hundred and twenty-nine are in hexameter 
(they include a large number of single lines), twenty-seven in 
iambic, and six others in various unusual metres, besides one 
(No. 703) which comes in strangely enough : it is in prose : and 
is the inscription in commendation of the water of the Thracian 
river Tearos, engraved on a pillar by Darius, transcribed from 
Herodotus, iv. 91. The odd thing is that the collector of the 
Anthology appears to have thought it was in verse. The 
Hortatory section includes a score of hexameter and iambic 
fragments, some of them proverbial lines, others extracts from 
the tragedians. The Convivial section has five-and-twenty in 
hexameter, iambic, and hemiambic, out of four hundred and 
forty-two. The Musa Stratonis, in which the hand of the 
Byzantine editor has had a less free play, is entirely in elegiac. 
But the short appendix next following it in the Palatine MS. 
consists entirely of epigrams in various metres, chiefly com- 
posite. Of the two thousand eight hundred and thirteen 
epigrams which constitute the Palatine Anthology proper, 
(sections v., VI., vii., ix., x., and XL), there are in all a hundred 
and seventy-five in hexameter, seventy-seven in iambic, and 
twenty-two in various other metres. In practice, when one 
comes to make a selection, the exclusion of all non-elegiac 
pieces leads to no difficulty. 

Nothing illustrates more vividly the essential unity and con- 
tinuous life of Greek literature than this line of poetry, reaching 
from the period of the earliest certain historical records down 
to a time when modern poetry in the West of Europe had 
already established itself; nothing could supply a better and 
simpler corrective to the fallacy, still too common, that Greek 
history ends with the conquests of Alexander. It is on some 
such golden bridge that we must cross the profound gulf which 
separates, to the popular view, the sunset of the Western 
Empire of Rome from the dawn of the Italian republics and 


the kingdoms of France and England. That gulf to most 

persons seems impassable, and it is another world which lies 

across it. But here one sees how that distant and strange 

world stretches out its hands to touch our own. The great 

burst of epigrammatic poetry under Justinian took place when 

the Consulate of Rome, after more than a thousand years' 

currency, at last ceased to mark the Western year. While 

Constantinus Cephalas was compiling his Anthology, adding to 

the treasures of past times much recent and even contemporary 

work, Athelstan of England inflicted the great defeat on the 

I )anes at Brunanburh, the song of which is one of the noblest 

records of our own early literature ; and before Planudes made 

the last additions the Divine Comedy was written, and our 

English poetry had broken out into the full sweetness of its 

flower : 

Bytuene Mershe ant Averil 

When spray biginneth to springe, 
The lutel foul hath hire wyl 
On hyre lud to synge. 1 

It is startling to think that so far as the date goes this might 
have been included in the Planudean Anthology. 

Yet this must not be pressed too far. Greek literature at 
the later Byzantine Court, like the polity and religion of the 
Empire, was a matter of rigid formalism ; and so an epigram 
by Cometas Chartularius differs no more in style and spirit 
from an epigram by Agathias than two mosaics of the same 
dates. The later is a copy of the earlier, executed in a 
somewhat inferior manner. Even in the revival of poetry 
under Justinian it is difficult to be sure how far the poetry 
was in any real sense original, and how far it is parallel to 
the Latin verses of Renaissance scholars. The vocabulary of 
these poets is practically the same as that of Callimachus ; 
but the vocabulary of Callimachus too is practically the same 
as that of Simonides. 


The material out of which this selection has been made is 
principally that immense mass of epigrams known as the Greek 

1 From the Leominster MS. circ. A.D. 1307 (Percy Society, 1S4S). 


Anthology. An account of this celebrated collection and the 
way in which it was formed will be given presently ; here it 
will be sufficient to say that, in addition to about four hundred 
Christian epigrams of the Byzantine period, it contains some 
three thousand seven hundred epigrams of all dates from 700 
B.C. to 1000 or even 1200 A.D., preserved in two Byzantine 
collections, the one probably of the tenth, the other of the 
fourteenth century, named respectively the Palatine and 
Planudean Anthologies. The great mass of the contents of 
both is the same ; but the former contains a large amount of 
material not found in the latter, and the latter a small amount 
not found in the former. 

For much the greatest number of these epigrams the Antho- 
logy is the only source. But many are also found cited by 
various authors or contained among their other works. It 
is not necessary to pursue this subject into detail. A few 
typical instances are the citations of the epitaph by Sirnonides 
on the three hundred Spartans who fell at Thermopylae, not 
only by Herodotus 2 but by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, the 
former in a historical, the latter in a geographical, work : of the 
epigram by Plato on the Eretrian exiles 2 by Philostratus in his 
Life of Apollonius : of many epigrams purporting to be written 
by philosophers, or actually written upon them and their 
works, by Diogenes Laertius in his Lives of the Philosophers. 
Plutarch among the vast mass of his historical and ethical 
writings quotes incidentally a considerable number of epigrams. 
A very large number are quoted by Athenaeus in that treasury 
of odds and ends, the Deipnosophistae. A great many too are 
cited in the lexicon which goes under the name of Suidas, 
and which, beginning at an unknown date, continued to receive 
additional entries certainly up to the eleventh century. 

These same sources supply us with a considerable gleaning 
of epigrams which either were omitted by the collectors of the 
Anthology or have disappeared from our copies. The present 
selection for example includes epigrams found in an anonymous 
Life of Aeschylus : in the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux, a 
grammarian of the early part of the third century, who cites 
from many lost writings for peculiar words or constructions : 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 249 ; Hdt. vii. 228. - Ibid. vii. 256. 


and from the works of Athenaeus, Diogenes Laertius, Plutarch, 
and Suidas mentioned above. The more famous the author of 
an epigram was, the more likely does it become that his work 
should be preserved in more than one way. Thus, of the thirty- 
one epigrams ascribed to Plato, while all but one are found in 
the Anthology, only seventeen are found in the Anthology alone. 
Eleven are quoted by Diogenes Laertius ; and thirteen wholly 
or partially by Athenaeus, Suidas, Apuleius, Philostratus, 
Gellius, Macrobius, Olympiodorus, Apostolius, and Thomas 
Magister. On the other hand the one hundred and thirty-four 
epigrams of Meleager, representing a peculiar side of Greek 
poetry in a perfection not elsewhere attainable, exist in the 
Anthology alone. 

Beyond these sources, which may be called literary, there is 
another class of great importance : the monumental. An 
epigram purports to be an inscription actually carved or 
written upon some monument or memorial. Since archaeology 
became systematically studied, original inscriptions, chiefly on 
marble, are from time to time brought to light, many of which 
are in elegiac verse. The admirable work of Kaibel l has made 
it superfluous to traverse the vast folios of the Corpus Inscrip- 
tionum in search of what may still be hidden there. It supplies 
us with several epigrams of real literary value ; while the best 
of those discovered before this century are included in appen- 
dices to the great works of Brunck and Jacobs. Most of these 
monumental inscriptions are naturally sepulchral. They are of 
all ages and countries within the compass of Graeco-Eoman 
civilisation, from the epitaph, magnificent in its simplicity, 
sculptured on the grave of Cleoetes the Athenian when Athens 
was still a small and insignificant town, to the last outpourings 
of the ancient spirit on the tombs reared, among strange gods 
and barbarous faces, over Paulina of Eavenna or Vibius Licini- 
anus of Nimes. 2 

It has already been pointed out by how slight a boundary 
the epigram is kept distinct from other forms of poetry, and 
how in extreme cases its essence may remain undefinable. 
The two fragments of Theognis and one of Mininermus included 

1 Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta. Berlin, 1S7S. 

2 Infra, in. 35, 47 ; XI. 48. 


here ' illustrate this. They are examples of a large number 
like them, which are not, strictly speaking, epigrams; being 
probably passages from continuous poems, selected, at least 
in the case of Theognis, for an Anthology of his works. 

The epigrams extant in literature which are not in the 
Anthology are, with a few exceptions, collected in the appendix 
to the edition of Jacobs, and are reprinted from it in modern 
texts. They are about four hundred in number, and raise the 
total number of epigrams in the Anthology to about four 
thousand five hundred; to these must be added at least a 
thousand inscriptional epigrams, which increase year by year 
as new explorations are carried on. It is, of course, but seldom 
that these last have distinct value as poetry. Those of the best 
period indeed, and here the best period is the sixth century 
B.C., have always a certain accent, even when simplest and 
most matter of fact, which reminds us of the palace whence 
they came. Their simplicity is more thrilling than any elo- 
quence. From the exotic and elaborate word-embroidery of 
the poets of the decadence, we turn with relief and delight to 
work like this, by a father over his son : 

2r,[j.a. -axrjp KXeopouXoc aTOtpahjJiivti) ffievocpavTto 
9-rjx.E too' avx' apsxTJj? 7joe iraospoauvr]?.'- 2 

(This monument to dead Xenophantus his father Cleobulns 
set up, for his valour and wisdom) ; 
or this, on an unmarried girl : 

2v^j.a <£pao"r/.Xaa;" xotJp7j y.£x.Arjao| au\ 

avx\ ya;j.ou Tzocpa {tetov xoGxo Xa/ouo ovojia.-' 

(The monument of Phrasicleia ; I shall for ever be called 
maiden, having sjrot this name from the gods instead of mar- 

So touching in their stately reserve, so piercing in their deli- 
cate austerity, these epitaphs are in a sense the perfection of 
literature, and yet in another sense almost lie outside its limits. 
For the workmanship here, we feel, is unconscious ; and with- 
out conscious workmanship there is not art. In Homer, in 
Sophocles, in all the best Greek work, there is this divine sim- 
plicity ; but beyond it, or rather beneath it and sustaining it, 
there is purpose. 

Infra, xn. li, 17, 37. '-' Corp. Inscr. An. 477 B. 3 Ibid. 469. 



From the invention of writing onwards, the inscriptions on 
monuments and dedicated offerings supplied one of the chief 
materials of historical record. Their testimony was used by 
the earliest historians to supplement and reinforce the oral 
traditions which they embodied in their works. Herodotus 
and Thucydides quote early epigrams as authority for the his- 
tory of past times; l and when in the latter part of the fourth 
century B.C. history became a serious study throughout Greece, 
collections of inscribed records, whether in prose or verse, began 
to be formed as historical material. The earliest collection of 
which anything is certainly known was a work by Philochorus, 2 
a distinguished Athenian antiquary who flourished about 300 
B.C., entitled Epigrammata Attica. It appears to have been a 
transcript of all the ancient Attic inscriptions dealing with 
Athenian history, and would include the verses engraved on 
the tombs of celebrated citizens, or on objects dedicated in the 
temples on public occasions. A century later, we hear of a 
work by Polemo, called Periegetes, or the ' Guidebook-maker,' 
entitled rapl tcov /.v.tx tto^sm; £-'.yp 7.|z;zaTcov. 3 This was an at- 
tempt to make a similar collection of inscriptions throughout 
the cities of Greece. Athenaeus also speaks of authors other- 
wise unknown, Alcetas and Menetor, 4 as having written 
treatises 7cept avy.i)vjaaT<ov, which would be collections of the 
same nature confined to dedicatory inscriptions ; and, these 
being as a rule iu verse, the books in question were perhaps 
the earliest collections of monumental poetry. Even less is 
known with regard to a book ' on epigrams ' by Neoptolemus 
of Paros. 5 The history of Anthologies proper begins for us 
with Meleager of Gadara. 

The collection called the Garland of Meleager, which is the 
basis of the Greek Anthology as we possess it, was formed by 
him in the early part of the first century B.C. The scholiast on 

1 Cf. especially Hdt. v. 59, GO, 77 ; Thuc. i. 132, vi. 54, 59. 

- Suid. 8.v. <IhXo'/ooo;. :; Athen. x. 436 D, 442 E. 

4 Athen. xiii. 591 c, 594 v. 

5 Ibid. x. 454 v. The date of Neoptolemus is uncertain; he probably 
lived in the second century B.C. 


the Palatine .Ms. says that Meleager flourished in the reign of 
the last Seleucus ("/pcy.xssv s~l SsXsujcou tou IcyaTOu). This is 
Seleucus Vl. Epiphanes, the last king of the name, who reigned 
B.C. 95-93 ; for it is not probable that the reference is to the 
last Seleucid, Antiochus XIII., who acceded B.C. 69, and was 
deposed by Pompey when he made Syria a Roman province in 
B.C. 65. The date thus fixed is confirmed by the fact that the 
collection included an epigram on the tomb of Antipater of 
Sidon, 1 who, from the terms in which Cicero alludes to him, 
must have lived till 110 or even 100 B.C., and that it did not 
include any of the epigrams of Meleager's townsman Philo- 
demus of Gadara, the friend of L. Calpurnius Piso, consul 
in B.C. 58. 

This Garland or Anthology has only come down to us as form- 
ing the basis of later collections. But the prefatory poem which 
Meleager wrote for it has fortunately been preserved, and gives 
us valuable information as to the contents of the Garland. This 
poem, 2 in which he dedicates his work to his friend or patron 
Diodes, gives the names of forty-seven poets included by him 
besides many others of recent times whom he does not specifi- 
cally enumerate. It runs as follows : 

" Dear Muse, for whom bringest thou this gardenful of song, 
or who is he that fashioned the garland of poets ? Meleager 
made it, and wrought out this gift as a remembrance for noble 
Diodes, inweaving many lilies of Anyte, and many martagons 
of Moero, and of Sappho little, but all roses, and the narcissus 
of Melanippides budding into clear hymns, and the fresh 
shoot of the vine-blossom of Simonides ; twining to mingle 
therewith the spice-scented flowering iris of Nossis, on whose 
tablets love melted the wax, and with her, margerain from 
sweet-breathed Rhianus, and the delicious maiden-fleshed 
crocus of Erinna, and the hyacinth of Alcaeus, vocal among the 
poets, and the dark-leaved laurel-spray of Samius, and withal 
the rich ivy-clusters of Leonidas, and the tresses of Mnasalcas' 
sharp pine ; and he plucked the spreading plane of the song of 
Pamphilus, woven together with the walnut shoots of Pancrates 
and the fair-foliaged white poplar of Tymnes, and the green 
mint of Nicias, and the horn-poppy of Euphemus growing on 

1 Anih Pal. vii. 428 ; Cic. Or. iii. 194, Pis. tiS-7<>. 2 Ibid. iv. 1. 

14 ( i R E E K A N T II L G Y 

the sands; ami with these Damagetas, a dark violet, and the 
sweet myrtle-berry of Callimachus, ever full of pungent honey, 
and the rose-campion of Euphorion, and the cyclamen of the 
Muses, him who had his surname from the Dioscori. And 
with them he inwove Hegesippus, a riotous grape-cluster, and 
mowed down the scented rush of Perses ; and withal the 
quince from the branches of Diotimus, and the first pome- 
granate flowers of Menecrates, and the myrrh-twigs of Nicae- 
netus, and the terebinth of Phaennus, and the tall wild pear of 
Simmias, and among them also a few flowers of Parthenis, 
plucked from the blameless parsley-meadow, and fruitful 
remnants from the honey-dropping Muses, yellow ears from the 
corn-blade of Bacchylides; and withal Anacreon, both that 
sweet song of his and his nectarous elegies, unsown honey- 
suckle; and withal the thorn-blossom of Archilochus from a 
tangled brake, little drops from the ocean ; and with them the 
young olive-shoots of Alexander, and the dark-blue cornflower 
of Polycleitus; and among them he laid amaracus, Polystratus 
the flower of songs, and the young Phoenician cypress of 
Autipater, and also set therein spiked Syrian nard, the poet 
who sang of himself as Hermes' gift ; and withal Posidippus 
and Hedylus together, wild blossoms of the country, and the 
blowing windflowers of the son of Sicelides ; yea, and set 
therein the golden bough of the ever divine Plato, shining 
everywhere in excellence, and beside him Aratus the knower 
of the stars, cutting the first-born spires of that heaven-high 
palm, and the fair-tresseel lotus of Chaeremon mixed with the 
gilliflower of Phaeclinms, and the round ox-eye of Antagoras, 
and the wine-loving fresh-blown wild thyme of Theodorides, 
and the bean-blossoms of Phanias, and many newly-scriptured 
shoots of others ; and with them also even from his own Muse 
some early white violets. But to my friends 1 give thanks; 
and the sweet-languaged garland of the Muses is common to 
all initiate." 

In this list three poets are not spoken of directly by name, 
but, from metrical or other reasons, are alluded to paraphrasti- 
cally. 'He who had his surname from the Dioscori' is 
Dioscorides ; 'the poet who sang of himself as Hermes' gift 
is Hermodorus; and 'the son of Sicelides' is Asclepiades, 
referred to under the same name by his great pupil Theocritus. 


The names of these forty-eight poets (including Meleager him- 
self) show that the collection embraced epigrams of all periods 
from the earliest times up to his own day. Six belong to the 
early period of the lyric poets, ending with the Persian wars ; 
Archilochus, who flourished about 700 B.C., Sappho and Erinna 
a century afterwards, Simonides and Anacreon about 500 B.C., 
and a little later, Bacchylides. Five more belong to the fourth 
century B.C., the period which begins with the destruction of 
the Athenian empire and ends with the establishment of the 
Macedonian kingdoms of the Diadochi. Of these, Plato is still 
within the Athenian period ; Hegesippus, Simmias, Anyte, 
and Phaedimus, all towards the end of the century, mark the 
beginning of the Alexandrian period. Four have completely 
disappeared out of the Anthology as we possess it ; Melanip- 
pides, a celebrated writer of dithyrambic poetry in the latter 
half of the fifth century B.C., of which a few fragments survive, 
and Euphemus, Parthenis, and Polycleitus, of whom nothing 
whatever is known. The remaining thirty-three poets in 
Meleager's list all belong to the Alexandrian period, and bring 
the series down continuously to Meleager himself. 

One of the epigrams in the Anthology of Strato 1 professes to 
be the colophon (-/.opwvi?) to Meleager's collection ; but it is a 
stupid and clumsy forgery of an obviously later date, probably 
by Strato himself, or some contemporary, and is not worth 
quoting. The proem to the Garland is a work of great in- 
genuity, and contains in single words and phrases many 
exquisite criticisms. The phrase used of Sappho has become 
proverbial ; hardly less true and pointed are those on Erinna, 
Callimachus, and Plato. All the flowers are carefully and 
appropriately chosen with reference to their poets, and the 
whole is done with the light and sure touch of a critic who is 
also a poet himself. 

A scholiast on the Palatine MS. says that Meleager's An- 
thology was arranged in alphabetical order (xaxa ctoi/siov). 
This seems to mean alphabetical order of epigrams, not of 
authors; and the statement is borne out by some parts of the 
Palatine and even of the Planudean Anthologies, where, in 
spite of the rearrangement under subjects, traces of alpha- 

1 Anth. Pal. xii. 257. 


betical arrangement among the older epigrams are still visible. 
The words of the scholiast 1 imply that there was no further 
arrangement by subject. It seems most reasonable to suppose; 
that the epigrams of each author were placed together; but 
of this there is no direct evidence, nor can any such arrange- 
ment be certainly inferred from the state of the existing 

The Scholiast, in this same passage, speaks of Meleager's 
collection as an s-iypa;x;v.aTOJv gtsoxvo;, and obviously it con- 
sisted in the main of epigrams according to the ordinary 
definition. But it is curious that Meleager himself nowhere 
uses the word ; and from some phrases in the proem it is 
difficult to avoid the inference that he included other kinds of 
minor poetry as well. Too much stress need not be laid on 
the words O'avoc and aoi§7\ which in one form or another are 
repeatedly used by him ; though it is difficult to suppose that 
' the hymns of Melanippides ', who is known to have been a 
dithyrambic poet, can mean not hymns but epigrams. 2 But 
where Anacreon is mentioned, his [Lekia^a. and his elegiac 
pieces are unmistakably distinguished from each other, and are 
said to be both included ; and this ytskiGpa. must mean lyric 
poetry of some kind, probably the very hemiambics under the 
name of Anacreon which are extant as an appendix to the 
Palatine MS. Meleager's Anthology also pretty certainly in- 
cluded his own Song of Spring, 3 which is a hexameter poem, 
though but for the form of verse it might just come within a 
loose definition of an epigram. Whether it included idyllic 
poems like the Amor Fugitivus of Moschus 4 it is not possible 
to determine. 

Besides his great Anthology, another, of the same class of 
contents as that subsequently made by Strati >, is often ascribed 
to Meleager, an epigram in Strato's Anthology 5 being regarded 
as the proem to this supposed collection. But there is no 
external authority whatever for this hypothesis ; nor is it 

1 See infra, p. 20. 

'-' Melanippides, however, also wrote epigrams according to Suidas, s.v. , 
and tlie phrase of Meleager may mean ' the epigrams of this poet who was 
celebrated as a hymn-writer : . 

;; Avlh. Pal. ix. 363. 4 Ibid. ix. 440. 5 Ibid. xii. 2J6. 


necessary to regard that epigram as anything more than a 
poem commemorating the boys mentioned in it. Eros, not 
Meleager, is in this case the weaver of the garland. 

The next compiler of an Anthology, more than a centur} r 
after Meleager, was Philippus of Thessalonica. Of this also 
the proem is preserved. 1 It purports to be a collection of the 
epigrammatists since Meleager, and is dedicated to the Roman 
patron of the author, one Camillus. The proem runs thus : 

" Having plucked for thee Heliconian flowers, and cut the 
tirst-blown blossoms of famous-forested Pieria, and reaped the 
ears from modern pages, I wove a rival garland, to be like 
those of Meleager ; but do thou, noble Camillus, who knowest 
the fame of the older poets, know likewise the short pieces of 
the younger. Antipater's corn-ear shall grace our garland, 
and Crinagoras like an ivy-cluster ; Antiphilus shall glow like 
a grape-bunch, Tullius like melilote, Philodemus like marjoram : 
and Parmenio myrtle-berries : Antiphanes as a rose : Auto- 
medon ivy, Zonas lilies, Bianor oak, Antigonus olive, and 
Diodorus violet. Liken thou Euenus to laurel, and the 
multitude woven in with these to what fresh-blown flowers 
thou wilt." 

One sees here the decline of the art from its first exquisite- 
ness. There is no selection or appropriateness in the names of 
the flowers chosen, and the verse is managed baldly and 
clumsily. Philippus' own epigrams, of which over seventy 
are extant, are generally rather dull, chiefly school exercises, 
and, in the phrase of Jacobs, imitatione magis quam inventione 
conspicua. But we owe to him the preservation of a large 
mass of work belonging to the Roman period. The date of 
Philippus cannot be fixed very precisely. His own epigrams 
contain no certain allusion to any date later than the reign of 
Augustus. Of the poets named in his proem, Antiphanes, 
Euenus, Parmenio, and Tullius have no date determinable 
from internal evidence. Antigonus has been sometimes iden- 
tified with Antigonus of Carystus, the author of the napaSo£tov 
SovayojyTJ, who lived in the third century B.C. under Ptolemy 
Philadelphia or Ptolemy Euergetes ; but as this Anthology 
distinctly professes to be of poets since Meleager, he must be 

1 A,Uh. Pal. iv. 2. 



another author of the same name. Antipater of Thessalonica, 
Bianor, and Diodorus are of the Augustan period ; Philodemus, 
Zonas, and probably Automedon, of the period immediately 
preceding it. The latest certain allusion in the poems of 
Antiphilus is to the enfranchisement of Rhodes by Nero in 
a.d. 53. 1 One of the epigrams under the name of Automedon 
in the Anthology 2 is on the rhetorician Nicetas, the teacher 
of the younger Pliny. But there are at least two poets of the 
name, Automedon of Aetolia and Automedon of Cyzicus, and 
the former, who is pre- Roman, may be the one included by 
Philippus. If so, we need not, with Jacobs, date this collec- 
tion in the reign of Trajan, at the beginning of the second 
century, but may place it with greater probability half a cen- 
tury earlier, under Nero. 

In the reign of Hadrian the grammarian Diogenianus of 
Heraclea edited an Anthology of epigrams, 3 but nothing is 
known of it beyond the name. The Anthology contains a 
good deal of work which may be referred to this period. 

The first of the appendices to the Palatine Anthology is the 
nauW.yj Moucra of Strato of Sardis. The compiler apologises 
in a prefatory note for including it, excusing himself with the 
line of Euripides, 4 vj ys crwcppcov ou Sta^fl-apTjcsTat. It was ;i 
new Anthology of epigrams dealing with this special subject 
from the earliest period downwards. As we possess it, Strato's 
collection includes thirteen of the poets named in the Garland 
of Meleager (including Meleager himself), two of those named 
in the Garland of Philippus, and ten other poets, none of them 
of much mark, and most of unknown date ; the most interesting- 
being Alpheus of Mitylene, who from the style and contents of 
his epigrams seems to have lived about the time of Hadrian, 
but may possibly be an Augustan poet. Strato is mentioned 
by Diogenes Laertius, 5 who wrote at the beginning of the third 
century ; and his own epigram on the physician Artemidorus 
Capito, 6 who was a contemporary of Hadrian, fixes his approxi- 
mate date. 

How far we possess Strato's collection in its original form 

1 A nth. Pal ix. 178. '" Ibid. x. 23. 

:; Suidas 8.V. Atoycviocvo:. * Bacch. 318. 

5 v. 61. 6 Anth. Pal. xi. 117. 


it is impossible to decide. Jacobs says he cannot attempt to 
determine whether Cephalas took it in a lump or made a 
selection from it, or whether he kept the order of the epigrams. 
As they stand they have no ascertainable principle of arrange- 
ment, alphabetical or of author or of subject. The collection 
consists of two hundred and fifty-nine epigrams, of which 
ninety-four are by Strato himself, and sixty by Meleager. It 
has either been carelessly formed, or suffered from interpolation 
afterwards. Some of the epigrams are foreign to the subject 
of the collection. Six are on women ; l and four of these are 
on women whose names end in the diminutive form, Phanion, 
Callistion, etc., which suggests the inference that they were 
inserted at a late date and by an ignorant transcriber who 
confused these with masculine forms. For all the epigrams of 
Strato's collection the Anthology is the only source. 

In the three hundred years between Strato and Agathias no 
new Anthology is known to have been made. 

The celebrated Byzantine poet and historian Agathias, son 
of Mamnonius of Myrina, came to Constantinople as a young- 
man to study law in the year 554. In the preface to his 
History he tells us that he formed a new collection of recent and 
contemporary epigrams previously unpublished, 2 in seven books, 
entitled Ku/.lo;. His proem to the Cyclus is extant. 3 It con- 
sists of forty-six iambics followed by eighty-seven hexameters, 
and describes the collection under the symbolism no longer of 
a flower-garden, but of a feast to which different persons bring 
contributions (ou axiyawoq odCkv. cuvayojyTJ), a metaphor which is 
followed out with unrelenting tediousness. The piece is not 
worth transcription here. He says he includes his own epi- 
grams. After a panegyric on the greatness of the empire of 
Justinian, and the foreign and domestic peace of his reign, he 
ends by describing the contents of the collection. Book I. 
contains dedications in the ancient manner, to; Trporspoic j/.a/.x- 
pecraiv avst|/iva : for Agathias was himself a Christian, and in- 
deed the old religion had completely died out even before 
Justinian closed the schools of Athens. Book n. contains 

1 Anth. Pal. xvi. 53, 82, 114, 131, 147, 173. 

2 Agathias, Hist. i. 1 : twv E-iypa^-jJ-axtov ~a apT'.yivr; -/.a\ vsoi—pa oiaAav- 
{hxvovxi i'~i xal yuorjv outuxji — ap' ivfot? u?:o'ii!)-uptwO[jL?.va. Cf. also Suidas, 
s.v. 'AyatKas. " Anth. Pal. iv. 3. 


epigrams on statues, pictures, and other works uf art ; Book ill., 
sepulchral epigrams ; Book iv., epigrams " on the manifold paths 
of life, and the unstable scales of fortune," corresponding to 
the section of EEpoTpswuxa in the Palatine Anthology ; Book v., 
irrisory epigrams; Book vi. amatory epigrams; and Book vn., 
convivial epigrams. Agathias, so far as we know, was the first 
who made this sort of arrangement under subjects, which, with 
modifications, lias generally been followed afterwards. His 
Anthology is lost ; and probably perished soon after that of 
Cephalas was made. 

Constantinus Cephalas, a grammarian unknown except from 
the Palatine MS., began again from the bep-innintj'. The 
scholiast to the Garland of Meleager in that MS., after saying 
that Meleager's Anthology was arranged in alphabetical order, 
goes on as follows: — 'but Constantinus, called Cephalas, 
broke it up, and distributed it under different heads, viz., the 
love-poems separately, and the dedications and epitaphs, and 
epideictic pieces, as they are now arranged below in this book.' x 
We must assume that with this rearranged Anthology he in- 
corporated those of Philippus and Agathias, unless, which is 
not probable, we suppose that the Palatine Anthology is one 
enlarged from that of Cephalas by some one else completely 

As to the date of Cephalas there is no certain indication. 
.Suidas apparently quotes from his Anthology ; but even were 
we certain that these quotations are not made from original 
sources, his lexicon contains entries made at different times 
over a space of several centuries. A scholium to one of the 
epigrams 2 of Alcaeus of Messene speaks of a discussion on it by 
Cephalas which took place in the School of the New Church at 
Constantinople. This New Church was built by the Emperor 
Basil I. (reigned 8G7-876). Probably Cephalas lived in the 
reign of Constantine vn. Porphyrogenitus (911-959), who had 
a passion for art and literature, and is known to have ordered 
the compilation of books of excerpts. Gibbon gives an account 
of the revival of learning which took place under his influence, 
and of the relations of his Court with that of the Western 
Empire of Otto the Great. 

1 Schol. on Anth. Pal. iv. I. - Anth. Pal. vii. 4'_>«t. 


The arrangement in the Anthology of Cephalas is founded 
on that of Agathias. But alongside of the arrangement under 
subjects we frequently find strings of epigrams by the same 
author with no particular connection in subject, which arc 
obviously transcribed directly from a collected edition of his 

Maximus Planudes, theologian, grammarian, and rhetorician, 
lived in the early part of the fourteenth century; in 1327 he 
was appointed ambassador to the Venetian Republic by 
Andronicus n. Among his works were translations into Greek 
of Augustine's City of God and Caesar's Gallic War. The 
restored Greek Empire of the Palaeologi was then fast dropping 
to pieces. The Genoese colony of Pera usurped the trade of 
Constantinople and acted as an independent state; and it 
brings us very near the modern world to remember that while 
Planudes was the contemporary of Petrarch and Doria, 
Andronicus in., the grandson and successor of Andronicus n., 
was married, as a suitable match, to Agnes of Brunswick, and 
again after her death to Anne of Savoy. 

Planudes made a new Anthology in seven books, founded on 
that of Cephalas, but with many alterations and omissions. 
Each book is divided into chapters which are arranged 
alphabetically by subject, with the exception of the seventh 
book, consisting of amatory epigrams, which is not subdivided. 
In a prefatory note to this book he says he has omitted all 
indecent or unseemly epigrams, r.oKkv. £v tcS avn.ypa<pco 6v~y.. 
This avTiypacpov was the Anthology of Cephalas. The contents 
of the different books are as follows : 

Book I. — 'E::uW.Ti-/.a, in ninety-one chapters ; from the 
'Ero&sutTuca of Cephalas, with additions from his 'Ava&7jaaTt.z.a 
and ripoTpe-Ti/.a, and twelve new epigrams on statues. 

Book II. — SxwTTTi/.a, in fifty- three chapters ; from the Suf/.- 
7TOTUca y.yX S>co>7cnxa and the Mouaa SrpaTo^o; of Cephalas, 
with six new epigrams. 

Book III. — 'E-i-rJa^a, in thirty-two chapters ; from the 'E-'.- 
-r-jy.fiix of Cephalas, which are often transcribed in the original 
order, with thirteen new epigrams. 

Book IV. — Epigrams on monuments, statues, animals, and 
places, in thirty-three chapters ; some from the ''EmSsvx.Tvx.d. of 
Cephalas, but for the greater part new. 


Book V. — Christ odorus' description of the statues in the 
gymnasium called Zeuxippus, and a collection of epigrams in 
the Hippodrome at Constantinople ; from appendices to the 
Anthology of Cephalas. 

Book VI. — 'Ava-JbjfiaTuta, in twenty-seven chapters ; from 
the 'Avaf>7jaaTt,x.!/. of Cephalas, with four new epigrams. 

Book VII. — 'Ep<.mxa ; from the 'Epamxa of Cephalas, with 
twenty-six new epigrams. 

Obviously then the Anthology of Planudes was almost 
wholly taken from that of Cephalas, with the exception of 
epigrams on works of art, which are conspicuously absent from 
the earlier collection as we possess it. As to these there is only 
one conclusion. It is impossible to account for Cephalas having 
deliberately omitted this class of epigrams ; it is impossible to 
account for their re-appearance in Planudes, except on the sup- 
position that we have lost a section of the earlier Anthology 
which included them. The Planudean Anthology contains 
in all three hundred and ninety-seven epigrams, which are not 
in the Palatine MS. of Cephalas. It is in these that its principal 
value lies. The vitiated taste of the period selected later and 
worse in preference to earlier and better epigrams ; the com- 
pilation was made carelessly and, it would seem, hurriedly, the 
earlier part of the sections of Cephalas being largely transcribed 
and the latter part much less fully, as though the editor had 
been pressed for time or lost interest in the work as he went 
on. Not only so, but he mutilated the text freely, and made 
sweeping conjectural restorations where it was imperfect. The 
discrepancies too in the authorship assigned to epigrams are so 
frequent and so striking that they can only be explained by 
great carelessness in transcription ; especially as internal 
evidence where it can be applied almost uniformly supports the 
headings of the Palatine Anthology. 

Such as it was, however, the Anthology of Planudes displaced 
that of Cephalas almost at once, and remained the only MS. 
source of the Anthology until the seventeenth century. The 
other entirely disappeared, unless a copy of it was the manu- 
script belonging to Angelo Colloti, seen and mentioned by the 
Roman scholar and antiquarian Fulvio Orsini (b. 1529, d. 1600) 
about the middle of the sixteenth century, and then again lost 
to view. The Planudean Anthology was first printed at 


Florence in 1484 by the Greek scholar, Janus Lascaris, from a 
good MS. It continued to be reprinted from time to time, the 
last edition being the five sumptuous quarto volumes issued 
from the press of Wild and Altheer at Utrecht, 1795-1822. 

In the winter of 1606-7, Salmasius, then a boy of eighteen 
but already an accomplished scholar, discovered a manuscript 
of the Anthology of Cephalas in the library of the Counts 
Palatine at Heidelberg. He copied from it the epigrams 
hitherto unknown, and these began to be circulated in manu- 
script under the name of the Anthologia Inedita. The intention 
he repeatedly expressed of editing the whole work was never 
carried into effect. In 1623, on the capture of Heidelberg by 
the Archduke Maximilian of Bavaria in the Thirty Years' War, 
tli is with many other mss. and books was sent by him to Rome 
as a present to Pope Gregory xv., and was placed in the 
Vatican Library. It remained there till it was taken to Paris 
by order of the French Directory in 1797, and was restored to 
the Palatine Library after the end of the war. 

The description of this celebrated manuscript, the Codex 
Palatinus or Vaticanus, as it has been named from the different 
places of its abode, is as follows : it is a long quarto, on parch- 
ment, of 710 pages, together with a page of contents and three 
other pages glued on at the beginning. There are three hands 
in it. The table of contents and pages 1-452 and 645-704 in 
the body of the MS. are in a hand of the eleventh century ; the 
middle of the MS., pages 453-644, is in a later hand; and a 
third, later than both, has written the last six pages and the 
three odd pages at the beginning, has added a few epigrams in 
blank spaces, and has made corrections throughout the MS. 

The index, which is of great importance towards the history 
not only of the MS. but of the Anthology generally, runs as 
follows : — 

Taos £v£«7tiv ev -r/jfts T/j fiiliSAto tojv £— typau.y.aTcov 

A. Novvou TTotvjTou navo— oAitou Escppacic tou jcara 'Itoavvijv ayiou 


B. Ha'jXo'j 7ronjTOu csAavriapiou (sic) uiou Kupou sV.©pac;i; si,; ttjv 

[/.syafajv iA/Jk-^aixy yjrs tvjv ayiav £o<piav. 
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mopat sv oi; ra ' Aps&ou Jcal ' AvacTaciou ' lyvaTiou 

jtal KtovGTavTivou ©socpavou? xsivrai smypa^aaTa. 

This index must have been transcribed from the index of an 
earlier MS. It differs from the actual contents of the MS. in 
the following respects : — 

The hexameter paraphrase of S. John's Gospel by Nonnus 
is not in the MS., having perhaps been torn off from the begin- 
ning of it. 

After the description of S. Sophia by Paulus Silentiarius, 
follow in the MS. select poems of S. Gregorius. 


After the description by Christodorus of the statues in the 
gymnasium of Zeuxippus follows a collection of nineteen 
epigrams inscribed below carved reliefs in the temple of 
Apollonis, mother of Attains and Eumenes kings of Pergamus, 
at (Jyzicus. 

After the proem to the Anthology of Agathias follows 
another epigram of his, apparently the colophon to his col- 

The book of Christian epigrams and that of poems by 
Christodorus of Thebes are wanting in the MS. 

Between the Sepulcralia and Epiddctica is inserted a collec- 
tion of 25-i epigrams by S. Gregorius. 

John of Gaza's description of the Mappa Mundi in the 
winter baths is wanting in the MS. 

After the miscellaneous Byzantine epigrams, which form the 
last entry in the index, is a collection of epigrams in the 
Hippodrome at Constantinople. 

The Palatine MS. then is a copy from another lost Ms. And 
the lost MS. itself was not the archetype of Cephalas. From a 
prefatory note to the Dedicatoria, taken in connection with the 
three iambic lines- prefixed to the Amatoria, it is obvious that 
the Amatoria formed the first section of the Anthology of 
Cephalas, preceded, no doubt, by the three proems of Meleager, 
Philippus, and Agathias as prefatory matter. The first four 
headings in the index, therefore, represent matter subsequently 
added. Whether all the small appendices at the end of the 
MS. were added to the Anthology by Cephalas or by a later 
hand it is not possible to determine. With or without these 
appendices, the work of Cephalas consisted of the six sections 
of 'Eortmxa, ' Avaftv^aTixa, 'ETUTUjy.fjia, ' E7r1rJs1x.Tr/.a, IIpoTpsT:- 
T-./.y. and 2uy.7TOTixa /.al Xxwrmxa, with the Mouffa STpaTtovo?, 
and probably, as we have already seen, a lost section con- 
taining epigrams on works of art. At the beginning of the 
sepulchral epigrams there is a marginal note in the MS., in the 
corrector's hand, speaking of Cephalas as then dead. 1 Another 
note, added by the same hand on the margin of vii. 432, says 
that our Ms. had been collated with another belonging to one 

1 Koivoravfivo? o kecf-aXa; 6 ua/ap'.o; xat asi{J.V7]aro; v.yr -y-.'j^r^oz av- 



Michael Magister, which was copied by him with his own 
hand from the book of Cephalas. 

The extracts made by Salmasius remained for long the only 
source accessible to scholars for the contents of the Palatine 
Anthology. Jacobs, when re-editing Brunck's Analecta, ob- 
tained a copy of the MS., then in the Vatican library, from 
Uhden, the Prussian ambassador at Rome ; and from another 
copy, afterwards made at his instance by Spaletti, he at lasl 
edited the Anthology in its complete form. 


When any selection of minor poetry is made, the principle 
of arrangement is one of the first difficulties. In dealing with 
the Greek epigram, the matter before us, as has been said 
already, consists of between five and six thousand pieces, all in 
the same metre, and varying in length from two to twenty- 
eight lines, 1 but rarely exceeding twelve. No principle of 
arrangement can therefore be based on the form of the poems. 
There are three other plans possible ; a simply arbitrary order, 
an arrangement by authorship, or an arrangement by subject. 
The first, if we believe the note in the Palatine MS. already 
quoted, 2 was adopted by Meleager in the alphabetical arrange- 
ment of his Garland ; but beyond the uncommon variety it 
must give to the reader, it seems to have little to recommend 
it. The Anthologies of Cephalas and Planudes are both 
arranged by subject, but with considerable differences. The 
former, if we omit the unimportant sections and the Christian 
epigrams, consists of seven large sections in the following 
order : 

(1) 'Epomjca, amatory pieces. This heading requires no 

(2) 'Ava&ijfjuxToia, dedicatory pieces, consisting of votive 
prayers and of dedications proper. 

(3) 'E7WTUf/.j3ia, sepulchral pieces: consisting partly of epitaphs 
real or imaginary, partly of epigrams on death or on dead per- 

: Single lines are excluded by the definition ; Anth. Pal. ix. 482 appears to 
lie the longest piece in the Anthology which can properly be called an epigram. 
Supra, p. 15. 


sons in a larger scope. Thus it includes the epigram on the 
Lacedaemonian mother who killed her son for returning alive 
from an unsuccessful battle; 1 that celebrating the magnificence 
of the tomb of Semiramis ; 8 that questioning the story as to 
the leap of Empedocles into Etna ; 3 and a large number which 
might equally well come under the next head, being eulogies 
on celebrated authors and artists. 

(4) 'EmSeucTixa, epigrams written as st:iSsi<;sic, poetical exer- 
cises or show-pieces. This section is naturally the longest and 
much the most miscellaneous. There is indeed hardly any 
epigram which could not be included in it. Remarkable 
objects in nature or art, striking events, actual or imaginary, 
of present and past times, moral sentences, and criticisms on 
particular persons and things or on life generally ; descriptive 
pieces ; stories told in verse ; imaginary speeches of celebrated 
persons on different occasions, with such titles as ' what Philo- 
mela would say to Procne,' ' what Ulysses would say when he 
landed in Ithaca ' ; inscriptions for houses, baths, gardens, 
temples, pictures, statues, gems, clocks, cups : such are among 
the contents, though not exhausting them. 

(5) npoTps-Ti/.a, hortatory pieces ; the ' criticism of life ' in 
the direct sense. 

(6) S-jy-o-i/.i *al SxwFnxa, convivial and humorous epi- 

(7) The MoGca rauSuM] STpaTWvo? already spoken of. Along 
with these, as we have seen, there was in all probability an 
eighth section now lost, containing epigrams on works of art. 

Within each of these sections, the principle of arrangement, 
where it exists at all, is very loose ; and either the compilation 
was carelessly made at first, or it has been considerably dis- 
ordered in transcription. Sometimes a number of epigrams by 
the same author succeed one another, as though copied directly 
from a collection where each author's work was placed separ- 
ately ; sometimes, on the other hand, a number on the same 
subject by authors of different periods come together. 4 Epi- 
grams occasionally are put under wrong headings. For example, 
a dedication by Leonidas of Alexandria is followed in the 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 433. - Ibid. vii. 74S. ; [bid. vii. 124. 

4 Cf. especially Anth. Pal. vi. 179-187 ; ix. 713-742. 


Dedicatoria by another epigram of his on Oedipus; 1 an ima- 
ginary epitaph on Hesiod in the Sepulcralia, by one on the 
legendary contest between Hesiod and Homer ; a and the lovely 
fragment of pastoral on Love keeping Thyrsis' sheep 3 comes 
oddly in among epitaphs. The epideictic section contains a 
number of epigrams which would be more properly placed in 
one or another of all the rest of the sections ; and the Musa 
Stratonis has several 4 which happily in no way belong to it. 
There is no doubt a certain charm in the very confusion of the 
order, which gives great variety and unexpectedness ; but for 
practical purposes a more accurate classification is desirable. 

The Anthology of Planudes attempts, in a somewhat crude 
form, to supply this. Each of the six books, with the exception 
of the 'EpwTtxa, which remain as in the Palatine Anthology, is 
subdivided into chapters according to subject, the chapters 
being arranged alphabetically by headings. Thus the list of 
chapters in Book I. begins, si; avcSva?, si; y'a-sAov, si.; yvyAVr^.y-y., 
si; ava-r]pou;, and ends sic ©povv^iv, si; opovTi^y.:, si; ycovov, si; 

On the other hand, Brunck, in his Amdccta, the arrange- 
ment of which is followed by Jacobs in the earlier of his two 
great works, recast the whole scheme, placing all epigrams by 
the same author together, with those of unknown authorship 
at the end. This method presents definite advantages when 
the matter in hand is a complete collection of the works of the 
epigrammatists. With these smaller, as with the more im- 
portant works of literature, it is still true that a poet is his 
own best commentator, and that by a complete single view of 
all his pieces we are able to understand each one of them 
better. A counter-argument is the large mass of yMn-^zy. 
thus left in a heap at the end. In Jacobs there are upwards 
of 750 of these, most of them not assignable to any certain 
date ; and they have to be arranged roughly by subject. An- 
other is the fact that a diiliculty still remains as to the arrange- 
ment of the authors. Of many of the minor epigrammatists 
we know absolutely nothing from external sources; and it is 
often impossible to determine from internal evidence the period. 

1 - 1 nth. Pal. vi. 322, 323. - Ibid. vii. 52, 53. 

; Ibid. vii. 703. < Cf. supra, p. 19. 


even within several centuries, at which an epigram was written, 
so little did the style and diction alter between the early Alex- 
andrian and the late Byzantine period. Still the advantages 
are too great to be outweighed by these considerations. 

But in a selection, an Anthology of the Anthology, the 
reasons for such an arrangement no longer exist, and some sort 
of arrangement by subject is plainly demanded. It would be 
possible to follow the old divisions of the Palatine Anthology 
with little change but for the epideictic section. This is not a 
natural division, and is not satisfactory in its results. It did 
not therefore seem worth while to adhere in other respects to 
the old classification except where it was convenient ; and by 
a new and somewhat more detailed division, it has been at- 
tempted to give a closer unity to each section, and to make the 
whole of them illustrate progressively the aspect of the ancient 
world. Sections I., II., and VL of the Palatine arrangement 
just given are retained, under the headings of Love, Prayers 
and Dedications, and the Human Comedy. It proved con- 
venient to break up Section in., that of sepulchral epigrams, 
which would otherwise have been much the largest of the 
divisions, into two sections, one of epitaphs proper, the other 
dealing with death more generally. A limited selection from 
Section vn. has been retained under a separate heading, Beauty. 
Section v., with additions from many other sources, was the 
basis of a division dealing with the Criticism of Life ; while 
Section iv., together with what was not already classed, fell 
conveniently under five heads : Nature, and in antithesis to it, 
Art and Literature ; Family Life ; and the ethical view of things 
under the double aspect of Religion on the one hand, and on 
the other, the blind and vast forces of Fate and Change. 


The literary treatment of the passion of love is one of the 
matters in which the ancient stands furthest apart from the 
modern world. Perhaps the result of love in human lives differs 
but little from one age to another ; but the form in which it is 
expressed (which is all that literature has to do with) was 
altered in Western Europe in the middle ages, and ever since 
then we have spoken a different language. And the subject is 


one in which the feeling is so inextricably mixed up with the 
expression that a new language practically means a new actual 
world of things. Of nothing is it so true that emotion is 
created by expression. The enormous volume of expression 
developed in modern times by a few great poets and a count- 
less number of prose writers has reacted upon men and women: 
so certain is it that thought follows language, and life copies 
art. And so here more than elsewhere, though the rule applies 
to the whole sphere of human thought and action, we have to 
expect in Greek literature to find much latent and implicit 
which since then has become patent and prominent; much 
intricate psychology not yet evolved ; much — as is the truth of 
everything Greek — stated so simply and directly, that we, 
accustomed as we are to more complex and highly organised 
methods of expression, cannot without some difficulty connect 
it with actual life, or see its permanent truth. Vet to do so is 
just the value of studying Greek ; for the more simple the 
forms or ideas of life are, the better are we able to put them in 
relation with one another, and so to unify life. And this 
unity is the end which all human thought pursues. 

Greek literature itself however may in this matter be his- 
torically subdivided. In its course we can fix landmarks, and 
trace the entrance and working of one and another fresh 
element. The Homeric world, the noblest and the simplest 
ever conceived on earth ; the period of the great lyric poets ; 
that of the dramatists, philosophers and historians, which may 
be called the Athenian period ; the hardly less extraordinary 
ages that followed, when Greek life and language overspread 
and absorbed the whole Mediterranean world, mingling with 
East and West alike, making a common meeting-place for the 
Jew and the Celt, the Arab and the Roman ; these four periods, 
though they have a unity in the fact that they all are Greek, 
are yet separated in other ways by intervals as great as those 
which divide Virgil from Dante, or Chaucer from Milton. 

In the Iliad and Odyssey little is said about love directly; and 
yet it is not to be forgotten that the moving force of the Trojan 
war was the beauty of Helen, and the central interest of the 
return of Odysseus is the passionate fidelity of Penelope. 1 Yet 

1 Cf. IK Hi. 156; A nth. Pal. ix. IOC. 


more thaii this; when the poet has to speak of the matter, he 
never fails to rise to the occasion in a way that even now we 
can see to be unsurpassable. The Achilles of the Iliad may 
speak scornfully of Briseis, as insufficient cause to quarrel on ; ] 
the silver-footed goddess, set above all human longings, re- 
gards the love of men and women from her icy heights with a 
light passionless contempt. 2 But in the very culminating point 
of the death-struggle between Achilles and Hector, it is from the 
whispered talk of lovers that the poet fetches the utmost touch 
of beauty and terror ; 3 and it is in speaking to the sweetest 
and noblest of all the women of poetry that Odysseus says the 
final word that has yet been said of married happiness. 

In this heroic period love is only spoken of incidentally 
and allusively. The direct poetry of passion belongs to the 
next period, only known to us now by scanty fragments, ' the 
spring-time of song,' 5 the period of the great lyric poets of the 
sixth and seventh centuries B.C. There human passion and 
emotion had direct expression, and that, we can judge from 
what is left to us, the fullest and most delicate possible. Greek 
life then must have been more beautiful than at any other 
time ; and the Greek language, much as it afterwards gained 
in depth and capacity of expressing abstract thought, has never 
again the same freshness, as though steeped in dew and morn- 
ing sunlight. Sappho alone, that unique instance in literature 
where from a few hundred fragmentary lines we know certainly 
that we are in face of one of the great poets of the world, ex- 
pressed the passion of love in a way which makes the language 
of all other poets grow pallid : ad quod cum iungerent purpuras 
suets, cineris specie decolor ari videbantur cetcrae divlni com- 
paratione fulgoris. 6 . 

! Hoa[j.av (j.£v eyio ae'&ev, "AtO-i, -aXai zoxa — 7 

such simple words that have all sadness in their lingering 
cadencps : 

Oiov to yAu/.u[j.aAov spcuO'STai — 
* Ho' 6X1 ~ap9'£v{a? iizifidXko[ ; 
Ou yap fjV axi'pa Jcat?, to yajj.Ppi, TO'.a'jxa — s 

the poetry of pure passion has never reached further than this. 

1 II. i. 298. - IL xxiv. 130. 3 II. xxii. 126-8. 4 Od. vi. 185. 

5 gap u'fjLviov, Anth. Pal. vii. 12. c Vopisc. AureL c. 29. 

7 Frag. 33 Bergk. s Fragg. 93, 102, 106 Bergk. 


Bui with the vast development of Greek thought and art 
in the fifth century B.C., there seems to have come somehow a 
stiffening of Greek life; the one overwhelming interest of the 
City absorbing individual passion and emotion, as the interest 
of Logic and metaphysics absorbed history and poetry. The 
age of Thucydides and Antipho is not one in which the emotions 
have a chance; and at Athens especially — of other cities we 
can only speak from exceedingly imperfect knowledge, but just 
at this period Athens means Greece — the relations between 
men and women are even under Pericles beginning to be vul- 
garised. In the great dramatic poets love enters either as a 
subsidiary motive somewhat severely and conventionally 
treated, as in the Antigone of Sophocles, or, as in the Phaedra 
and Medea of Euripides, as part of a general study of psy- 
chology. It would be foolish to attempt to defend the address 
of the chorus in the Antigone to Eros, 1 if regarded as the 
language of passion; and even if regarded as the language of 
criticism, it is undeniably frigid. Contrasted with the great 
chorus in the same play, 2 where Sophocles is dealing with 
a subject that he really cares about, it sounds almost arti- 
ficial. And in Euripides, psychology occupies the whole of 
the interest that is not already preoccupied by logic and 
rhetoric; these were the arts of life, and with these serious 
writing dealt; with the heroism of Macaria, even with the 
devotion of Alcestis, personal passion has but little to do. 

With the immense expansion of the Greek world that 
followed the political extinction of Greece Proper, there came 
a relaxation of this tension. Feeling grew humaner ; social 
and family life reassumed their real importance ; and gradually 
there grew up a thing till then unknown in the world, and one 
the history of which yet remains to be written, the romantic 
spirit. Pastoral poetry, with its passionate sense of beauty 
in nature, reacted on the sense of beauty in simple human life. 
The Idyls of Theocritus are full of a new freshness of feeling : 
£~ti vl £<Jopyjs toc; TTocpiUvo; oia ysXavTi 3 — this is as alien from 
the Athenian spirit as it approaches the feeling of a medieval 
romance-writer : and in the Pharmaceutriae pure passion, but 
passion softened into exquisite forms, is once more predomi- 

1 //. 7S1, foil. - 11. 332, foil. » Theocr. i. U5. 


nant. 1 It is in this age then that we naturally find the 
most perfect examples of the epigram of love. In the lyric 
period the epigram was still mainly confined to its stricter 
sphere, that of inscriptions for tombs and dedicated offerings : 
in the great Athenian age the direct treatment of love was 
almost in abeyance. Just on the edge of this last period, as is 
usual in a time of transition, there are exquisite premonitions 
of the new art. The lovely hexameter fragment 2 preserved in 
the Anthology under the name of Plato, and not unworthy of 
so great a parentage, anticipates the manner and the cadences 
of Theocritus ; and one or two of the amatory epigrams that 
are probably Plato's might be Meleager's, but for the severe 
perfection of language that died with Greek freedom. But 
it is in the Alexandrian period that the epigram of love 
flowers out ; and it is at the end of that period, where the 
( Jreek spirit was touched by Oriental passion, that it culmi- 
nates in Meleager. 

We possess about a hundred amatory epigrams by this poet. 
Inferior perhaps in clearness of outline and depth of insight to 
those of the Alexandrian poet Asclepiades, they are unequalled 
in the width of range, the profusion of imagination, the sub- 
tlety of emotion with which they sound the whole lyre of 
passion. Meleager was born in a Syrian town and educated 
at Tyre in the last age of the Seleucid empire ; and though he 
writes Greek with a perfect mastery, it becomes in his hands 
almost a new language, full of dreams, at once more languid 
and more passionate. It was the fashion among Alexandrian 
poets to experiment in language ; and Callimachus had in this 
way brought the epigram to the most elaborate jewel-finish ; 
but in the work of Callimachus and his contemporaries the pure 
Greek tradition still survives. In Meleager, the touch of 
Asiatic blood creates a new type, delicate, exotic, fantastic. 
Art is no longer restrained and severe. The exquisite 
austerity of Greek poetry did not outlive the greatness 
of Athens ; its perfect clearness of outline still survived in 
Theocritus; here both are gone. The atmosphere is loaded 

1 11. 105-110 of this poem set beside Sappho, Fr. ii. II. 9-16, Bergk, are a 
perfect example of the pastoral in contrast with the lyrical treatment. 

2 App. Plan, 210. 


with a steam of perfumes, and with still unimpaired ease and 
perfection of hand there has come in a strain of the quality 
which of all qualities is the most remote from the Greek spirit, 
mysticism. Some of Meleager's epigrams are direct and simple, 
even to coarseness ; but in all the best and most characteristic 
there is this vital difference from purely Greek art, that love 
has become a religion ; the spirit of the East has touched them. 
It is this that makes Meleager so curiously akin to the 
medieval poets. Many of his turns of thought, many even of 
his actual expressions, have the closest parallel in poets of the 
fourteenth century who had never read a line of his work nor 
heard of his name. As in them, the religion of love is reduced 
to a theology ; no subtlety, no fluctuation of fancy or passion is 
left unregistered, alike in their lighter and their Graver moods. 
Sometimes the feeling is buried in masses of conceits, sometimes 
it is eagerly passionate, but even then always with an imagina- 
tive and florid passion, never directly as Sappho or Catullus. is 
direct. Love appears in a hundred shapes amidst a shower of 
fantastic titles and attributes. Out of all the epithets that 
Meleager coins for him, one, set in a line of hauntingly liquid 
and languid rhythm, ' delicate-sandalled,' l gives the key-note 
to the rest. Or again, he often calls him y^u/COTrr/.po;, ' bitter- 
sweet ' ; 2 at first he is like wine mingled with honey for 
sweetness, but as he grows and becomes more tyrannous, his 
honey scorches and stings ; and the lover, ' set on the fire and 
drenched to swooning with his ointments,' drinks from a deeper 
cup and mingles his wine with burning tears. 3 Love the 
Reveller goes masking with the lover through stormy winter 
nights; 4 Love the Ball-player tosses hearts for balls in his 
hands ; 5 Love the Runaway lies hidden in a lady's eyes ; 6 Love 
the Healer soothes with a touch the wound that his own dart 
has made; 7 Love the Artist sets his signature beneath the 
soul which he has created; 8 Love the Helmsman steers the 
soul, like a winged boat, over the perilous seas of desire; 9 
Love the Child, playing idly with his dice at sundawn, throws 

1 Anth. Pal. xii. 158, cro( [j.e, 6eoxXei$, aPpora8iXo$ "Epuj yujivov uneoropsaev. 
'-' Ibid. xii. 109; cf. v. 163, 172; xii. 154. ' :f Ibid. xii. 132, 164. 

4 Ibid. xii. 167. 5 Ibid. v. 214. 

6 Ibid. v. 177. ~ Ibid. v. 225. 

8 Ibid. v. 155. ! > Ibid. xii. 157. 


lightly for human lives. 1 Now he is a winged boy with childish 
bow and quiver, swift of laughter and speech and tears ; 2 now 
a fierce god with flaming arrows, before whom life wastes away 
like wax in the fire, Love the terrible, Love the slayer of men. :$ 
The air all round him is heavy with the scent of flowers and 
ointments ; violets and myrtle, narcissus and lilies, are woven 
into his garlands, and the rose, ' lover-loving ' as Meleager 
repeatedly calls it in one of his curious new compound epithets, 4 
is perpetually about him, and rains its petals over the banquet- 
ing-table and the myrrh-drenched doorway. 6 For a moment 
Meleager can be piercingly simple ; and then the fantastic mood 
comes over him again, and emotion dissolves in a mist of meta- 
phors. But even when he is most fantastic the unfailing 
beauty of his rhythms and grace of his language remind us that 
we are still in the presence of a real art. 

The pattern set by Meleager was followed by later poets ; 
and little more would remain to say were it not necessary to 
notice the brief renascence of amatory poetry in the sixth 
century. The poets of that period take a high place in the 
second rank; and one, Paulus Silentiarius, has a special interest 
among them as being at once the most antique in his work- 
manship and the most modern in his sentiment. One of his 
epigrams is like an early poem of Shakespeare's ; 6 another has 
in a singular degree the manner and movement of a sonnet by 
Eossetti. 7 This group of epigrammatists brought back a phantom 
of freshness into the old forms; once more the epigram becomes 
full of pretty rhythms and fancies, but they are now more 
artificial ; set beside work of the best period they come out 
clumsy and heavy. Language is no longer vivid and natural ; 
the colour is a little dimmed, the tone a little forced. As the 
painter's art had disappeared into that of the worker in mosaic, 
so the language of poetry was no longer a living stream, but a 
treasury of glittering words. Verse- writers studied it carefully 
and used it cleverly, but never could make up for the want of 
free movement of hand by any laborious minuteness of tessella- 
tion. Yet if removed from the side of their great models they 

1 Antk. Pal. xii. 47. J Ibid. v. 177. 

8 Ibid. v. 176, 180; xii. 72. 4 Ibid. v. 136, 147. 

Ibid. v. 147, 198. 

Ibid. v. 241; cf. Passionate Pilgrim, xiv., xv. 7 App. flan. 278. 


are graceful enough, with a prettiness that recalls and probably 
in many cases is copied from the novelists of the fourth century ; 
and sometimes it is only a touch of the diffuseness inseparable 
from all Byzantine writing that separates their work in quality 
from that of an earlier period. 

After Justinian the art practically died out. The pedantic- 
rigour of Byzantine scholarship was little favourable to the 
poetry of emotion, and the spoken language had now fallen so 
far apart from the literaiy idiom that only scholars were 
capable of writing in the old classical forms. The popular 
love-poetry, if it existed, has perished and left no traces ; hence- 
forth, for the five centuries that elapsed till the birth of 
Provencal and Italian poetry, love lay voiceless, as though 
entranced and entombed. 


Closely connected with the passion of love as conceived by 
Greek writers is a subject which continually meets us in Greek 
literature, and which fills so large a part of the Anthology that 
it can hardly be passed over without notice. The few epigrams 
selected from the Anthology of Strato and included in this 
collection under the heading of Beauty are not of course a 
representative selection. Of the great mass of those epigrams 
no selection is possible or desirable. They belong to that side 
of Greek life which is akin to the Oriental world, and remote 
and even revolting to the western mind. And on this subject 
the common moral sense of civilised mankind has pronounced 
a judgment which requires no justification as it allows of no 

But indeed the whole conception of Eros the boy, familiar as 
it sounds to us from the long continued convention of literature, 
is, if we think of its origin or meaning, quite alien from our own 
habit of life and thought. Even in the middle ages it cohered 
but ill with the literary view of the relations between men and 
women in poetry and romance ; hardly, except where it is raised 
into a higher sphere by the associations of religion, as in the 
friezes of Donatello, is it quite natural, and now, apart from 
what remains of these same associations, the natural basis of 
the conception is wholly obsolete. Since the fashion of squires 


and pages, inherited from the feudal system, ceased with the 
decay of the Renaissance, there has been nothing in modern 
life which even remotely suggests it. We still — such is the 
strength of tradition in art — speak of Love under the old types, 
and represent him under the image of a winged boy ; but the 
whole condition of society in which this type grew up has 
disappeared and left the symbolism all but meaningless to the 
ordinary mind. In Greece it was otherwise. Side by side with 
the unchanging passions and affections of all mankind there was 
then a feeling, half conventional, and yet none the less of vital 
importance to thought and conduct, which elevated the mere 
physical charm of human youth into an object of almost divine 
worship. Beauty was the special gift of the gods, perhaps their 
choicest one ; and not only so, but it was a passport to their 
favour. Common life in the open air, and above all the 
importance of the gymnasia, developed great perfection of 
bodily form and kept it constantly before all men's eyes. Art 
lavished all it knew on the reproduction of the forms of 
youthful beauty. Apart from the real feeling, the worship of 
this beauty became an overpowering fashion. To all this 
there must be added a fact of no less importance in historical 
Greece, the seclusion of women. Not that this ever existed in 
the Oriental sense ; but, with much freedom and simplicity of 
relations inside the family, the share which women had in the 
public and external life of the city, at a time when the city 
meant so much, was comparatively slight. The greater freedom 
of women in Homer makes the world of the Iliad and Odyssey 
really more modern, more akin to our own, than that of the 
later poets. The girl in Theocritus, ' with spring in her eyes, 1 ' 
comes upon us as we read the Idyls almost like a modernism. 
It is in the fair shepherd boy, Daphnis or Thyrsis, that Greek 
pastoral finds its most obvious, one might almost say its most 
natural inspiration. 

Much of what is most perplexing in the difference in this 
respect between Greek and western art has light thrown on 
it, if we think of the importance which angels have in medi- 
eval painting. Their invention, if one may call it so, was one 
of the very highest moment in art. Those lovely creations, 

Eap opotaaa N'j/aa, Theocr. xiii. 42. 


so precisely drawn up to a certain point, so elusive beyond it, 
raised the feeling for pure beauty into a wholly ideal plane. 
The deepest longings of men were satisfied by the contempla- 
tion of a paradise in which we should be even as they. In 
that mystical portraiture of the invisible world an answer — 
perhaps the only answer — was found to the demand for an 
ideal of beauty. • That remarkable saying preserved by S. 
Clement, of a kingdom in which ' the two shall be one, and 
the male with the female neither male nor female,' * might 
form the text for a chapter of no small importance in human 
history. The Greek lucidity, which made all mysticism im- 
possible in their art as it was alien from their life, did not do 
away with this imperious demand; and their cult of beauty 
was the issue of their attempt, imperfect indeed at best and at 
worst disastrous, to reunite the fragments of the human ideal. - 
In much of this poetry too we are in the conventional world 
of pastoral ; and pastoral, it must be repeated, does not concern 
itself with real life. The amount of latitude in literary ex- 
pression varies no doubt with the prevalent popular morality 
of the period. But it would lead to infinite confusion to think 
of the poetry as a translation of conduct. A truer picture of 
Greek life is happily given us in those epigrams which deal 
with the material that history passes over and ideal poetry, 
at least in Greek literature, barely touches upon, the life of 
simple human relations from day to day within the circle of 
the family. 


Scattered over the sections of the Anthology are a number of 
epigrams touching on this life, which are the more valuable 
to us, because it is just this side of the ancient world of which 
the mass of Greek literature affords a very imperfect view. 
In Homer indeed this is not the case ; but in the Athenian 
period the dramatists and historians give little information, 

1 Clem. Rom. u. 12: i-zpurzrft£i.$ auto; 6 Kupto? \ir.6 tivo; note rfeu ocutou rj 
[iaatXeta, efttev, otocv iaxat xa ouo iv xai to e;w w$ to law xal x6 apasv usxa t^; 
JhjXEta; ouxe apaev outs {HjAu. It is also quoted in almost the same words by 
Clem. Alex., Strom, xiii. 92, as from " the Gospel according to the Egyptians." 

- Cf. Plato, Sympos. 191, 192. 


if we except the highly idealised burlesque of the Aristophanic 
Comedy. Of the New Comedy too little is preserved to be of 
much use, and even in it the whole atmosphere was very 
conventional. The Greek novel did not come into existence 
till too late ; and, when it came, it took the form of romance, 
concerning itself more with the elaboration of sentiment and 
the excitement of adventure than with the portraiture of real 
manners and actual surroundings. For any detailed picture 
of common life, like that which would be given of our own 
day to future periods by the domestic novel, we look to ancient 
literature in vain. Thus, when we are admitted by a fortunate 
chance into the intimacy of private life, as we are by some of 
the works of Xenophon and Plutarch or by the letters of the 
younger Pliny, the charm of the picture is all the greater: 
and so it is with the epigrams that record birthdays and bridals, 
the toys of children, the concord of quiet homes. We see the 
house of the good man, 1 an abiding rest from the labours of a 
busy life, bountiful to all, masters and servants, who dwell 
under its shelter, and extending a large hospitality to the 
friend and the stranger. One generation after another grows up 
in it under all good and gracious influences ; a special pro- 
vidence, under the symbolic forms of Cypris Urania or Artemis 
the Giver of Light, holds the house in keeping, and each new 
year brings increased blessing from the gods of the household 
in recompence of piety and duty. 2 Many dedications bring- 
vividly before us the humbler life of the country cottager, no 
man's servant or master, happy in the daily labour over his 
little plot of land, his corn-field and vineyard and coppice; 
of the fowler with his boys in the woods, the forester and the 
beekeeper, and the fisherman in his thatched hut on the 
beach. 3 And in these contrasted pictures the ' wealth that 
makes men kind ' seems not to jar with the ' poverty that 
lives with freedom.' 4 Modern poetry dwells with more 
elaboration, but not with a truer or more delicate feeling than 
those ancient epigrams, on the pretty ways of children, the 
freshness of school-days, the infinite beauty of the girl as she 

1 Anth. Pal, ix. 649. - Ibid. vi. 267. 280, 340. 

* Ibid. vi. 226, vii. 156. 

4 Auvaxat to -XouteIv /.at cpiXavDpto-ou; -oistv, Menancl., ' AXisi; fr. 7 ; Anth. 
Pal. ix. 172. 


passes into the woman ; or even such slight things as the 
school-prize for the best copy-book, and the child's doll in the 
well. 1 A shadow passes over the picture in the complaint of a 
girl sitting indoors, full of dim thoughts, while the boys go out 
to their games and enjoy unhindered the colour and movement 
of the streets. 2 But this is the melancholy of youth, the 
shadow of the brightness that passes before the maiden's eyes 
as she sits, sunk in day-dreams, over her loom ; 3 it passes away 
again in the portrait of the girl growing up with the sweet 
eyes of her mother, the budding rose that will soon unfold its 
heart of flame; 4 and once more the bride renders thanks for 
perfect felicity to the gods who have given her ' a stainless 
youth and the lover whom she desired.' 5 Many of the most 
beautiful of the dedicatory epigrams are thanksgivings after the 
birth of children ; in one a wife says that she is satisfied with 
the harmonious life that she and her husband live together, 
and asks no further good. 6 Even death coming at the end 
of such a life is disarmed of terror. In one of the most 
graceful epitaphs of the Eoman period 7 the dead man sums 
up the happiness of his long life by saying that he never had 
to weep for any of his children, and that their tears over him 
had no bitterness. The inscription placed by Androtion over 
the yet empty tomb, which he has built for himself and his 
wife and children, expresses that placid acceptance which finds 
no cause of complaint with life. 8 Family affection in an 
unbroken home ; long and happy life of the individual, and 
still longer, that of the race which remains ; the calm acqui- 
escence in the law of life which is also the law of death, and 
the desire that life and death alike may have their ordinary 
place and period, not breaking use and wont ; all this is implied 
here rather than expressed, in words so simple and straight- 
forward that they seem to have fallen by accident, as it were, 
into verse. Thus too in another epigram the dying wife's 
last words are praise to the gods of marriage that she has had 
even such a husband, and to the gods of death that he and 

1 Anth. Pal. vi. 308, ix. 326. 2 Ibid. v. 297. 

» Ibid. vi. 266. 4 Ibid. vi. 353, v. 124. 

■• Ibid. vi. 59. G Mid. vi. 209. 

7 Ibid. vii. 260. * Ibid. vii. 228. 


their children survive her. 1 Or again, where there is a cry 
of pain over severance, it is the sweetness of the past life that 
makes parting so bitter; 'what is there but sorrow,' says 
Marathonis over the tomb of Nicopolis, 2 'for a man alone 
upon earth when his wife is gone ? ' 


' Even this stranger, I suppose, prays to the immortals ', says 
Nestor in the Odyssey, 3 ' since all men have need of gods.' 
When the Homeric poems were written the Greek temper had 
already formed and ripened ; and so long as it survived, this 
recognition of religious duty remained part of it. The deeper 
and more violent forms of religious feeling were indeed always 
alien, and even to a certain degree repugnant, to the Greek 
peoples. Mysticism, as has been already observed, had no place 
with them ; demons and monsters were rejected from their 
humane and rationalised mythology, and no superstitious 
terrors forced them into elaboration of ritual. There was no 
priestly caste ; each city and each citizen approached the gods 
directly at any time and place. The religious life, as a life 
distinct from that of the ordinary citizen, was unknown in 
Greece. Even at Rome the perpetual maidenhood of the 
Vestals was a unique observance ; and they were the keepers 
of the hearth-fire of the city, not the intermediaries between it 
and its gods. But the Vestals have no parallel in Greek life. 
Asiatic rites and devotions, it is true, from an early period 
obtained a foothold among the populace ; but they were either 
discountenanced, or by being made part of the civic ritual 
were disarmed of their mystic or monastic elements. An 
epitaph in the Anthology commemorates two aged priestesses 
as having been happy in their love for their husbands and 
children ; 4 nothing could be further from the Eastern or the 
medieval sentiment of a consecrated life. Thus, if Greek 
religion did not strike deep, it spread wide ; and any one, as 
he thought fit, might treat his whole life, or any part of it, as 
a religious act. And there was a strong feeling that the 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 555. " Ibid. vii. 340. :: Od. iii. 47. 

4 Anth. Pal. vii. 733 ; cf, also v. 14 in this selection. 


observance of such duties in a reasonable manner was proper 
in itself, besides being probably useful in its results ; no 
gentleman, if we may so translate the idea into modern terms, 
would fail in due courtesy to the gods. That piety sometimes 
met with strange returns was an undoubted fact, but that it 
should be so was inexplicable and indeed shocking even to the 
least superstitious and most dispassionate minds. 1 

With the diffusion of a popularised philosophy religious 
feeling became fainter among the educated classes, and cor- 
respondingly more uncontrolled in the lower orders. The 
immense mass of dedicatory epigrams written in the Alex- 
andrian and Roman periods are in the main literary exercises, 
though they were also the supply of a real and living demand. 
The fashion outlived the belief ; even after the suppression of 
pagan worship scholars continued to turn out imitations of 
the old models. One book of the Anthology of Agathias' 2 
consisted entirely of contemporary epigrams of this sort, ' as 
though dedicated to the former gods '. But of epigrams deal- 
ing with religion in its more intimate sense there are, as one 
would expect, very few in the Anthology until we come to 
collections of Christian poetry. This light form of verse was 
not suited to the treatment of the deepest subjects. For 
the religious poetry of Greece one must go to Pindar and 

But the small selection given here throws some interesting 
light on Greek thought with regard to sacred matters. Each 
business of life, each change of circumstance, calls for worship 
and offering. The sailor, putting to sea with spring, is to pay 
his sacrifice to the harbour-god, a simple offering of cakes or 
fish. 3 The seafarer should not pass near a great shrine without 
turning aside to pay it reverence. 4 The traveller, as he crosses 
a hill-pass or rests by the wayside fountain, is to give the 
accustomed honour to the god of the ground, Pan or Hermes, 
or whoever holds the spot in special protection. 5 Each shaded 
well in the forest, each jut of cliff on the shore, has its tutelar 
deity, if only under the form of the rudely-carved stake set in 

1 Cf. Thuc. vii. 86. 

- Anth. /'<if. iv. 3, 11. 113-11G. ; Ibid. vi. 105 ; x. 14. 

4 Ibid. vi. 251 ; cf. v. 3 in this selection. 

5 App. Plan. 227; Anth. Pat. x. 12. 

I N T K D U C T I X 43 

a little garden or on a lonely beach where the sea-gulls hover ; 
and with their more sumptuous worship the houses of great 
gods, all marble and gold, stand overlooking the broad valley 
or the shining spaces of sea. 1 Even the wild thicket has its 
rustic Pan, to whom the hunter and fowler pray for success in 
their day's work, and the image of Demeter stands by the 
farmer's threshing-floor. 2 And yet close as the gods come in 
their daily dealings with men, scorning no offering, however 
small, that is made with clean hands, finding no occasion too 
trifling for their aid, there is a yet more homely worship of 
'little gods' 3 who take the most insignificant matters in their 
charge. These are not mere abstractions, like the lesser deities 
of the Latin religion, Bonus Eventus, Tutilina, Iterduca and 
Domiduca, but they occupy much the same place in worship. 
By their side are the heroes, the saints of the ancient world, 
who from their graves have some power of hearing and 
answering. Like the saints, they belong to all times, from 
the most remote to the most recent. The mythical Philo- 
pregmon, a shadowy being dating back to times of primitive 
worship, gives luck from his monument on the roadside by the 
gate of Potidaea. 4 But the traveller who had prayed to him 
in the morning as he left the town might pay the same duty 
next evening by the tomb of Brasidas in the market-place of 
Amphipolis. 5 

But alongside of the traditional worship of these multi- 
tudinous and multiform deities, a grave and deep religious 
sense laid stress on the single quality of goodness as being 
essentially akin to divinity, and spoke with aversion of com- 
plicated ritual and extravagant sacrifice. A little water purifies 
the good man ; the whole ocean is not sufficient to wash away 
the guilt of the sinner. 6 ' Holiness is a pure mind ', said the 
inscription over the doorway of a great Greek temple. 7 The 
sanctions of religion were not indeed independent of rewards 
and punishments, in this or in a future state. But the highest 
( Ireek teaching never laid great stress on these ; and even 
where they are adduced as a motive for good living, they are 

1 App. Plan. 291 ; Anth. Pol. vi. 22, 119, ix. 144, x. 8, 10. 

- Anth. Pal. x. 11, vi. 98. '■'■ Ibid. ix. 334. 

4 Ibid. vii. 694. 5 Thuc. v. 11 ; Arist. Kth. v. 7. 

K Anth. Pal. xiv. 71. 7 v. 15 in this selection. 


always made secondary to the excellence of piety here and 
in itself. Through the whole course of Greek thought the 
belief in a future state runs in an undercurrent. A striking 
fragment of Sophocles l speaks of the initiated alone as being 
happy, since their state after death is secure. Plato, while he 
reprobates the teaching which would make men good in view 
of the other world, and insists on the natural excellence of 
goodness for its own sake, himself falls back on the life after 
death, as affected for good or evil by our acts here, in the 
visions, ' no fairy-tales ', 2 which seem to collect and reinforce 
the arguments of the Phaedo and the Republic. But the 
ordinary thought and practice ignored what might happen 
after death. Life was what concerned men and absorbed 
them ; it seemed sufficient for them to think about what 
they knew of. 3 The revolution which Christianity brought 
into men's way of thinking as regards life and death was that 
it made them know more certainly, or so it seemed, about the 
latter than about the former. Who knows, Euripides had long 
ago asked, if life be not death, and death life ? and the new 
religion answered his question with an emphatic affirmation 
that it was so ; that this life was momentary and shadowy, was 
but a death, in comparison of the life unchangeable and eternal. 
The dedicatory epigram was one of the earliest forms of 
Greek poetry. Herodotus quotes verses inscribed on offerings 
at Thebes, written in ' Cadmean letters ', and dating back to a 
mythical antiquity ; 4 and actual dedications are extant which 
are at least as early as 600 B.C. 5 In this earlier period the 
verses generally contained nothing more than a bare record of 
the act. Even at a later date, the anathematic epigrams of 
Simonides are for the most part rather stiff and formal when 
set beside his epitaphs. His nephew Bacchylides brought the 
art to perfection, if it is safe to judge from a single flawless 
specimen. But it is hardly till the Alexandrian period that 

1 Fr. anon. 719. 

- oo ij.c'vtoi aoi 'aX/.'vou y- a-dXoyov ioiZ, Plato, Rep. G14 B. 
To £7jv yap ' tou d'aveiv o aneipia 
Ila; ti; <po(j£iTai ewe Xhc^iv too' f ( Xtou. 

Eurip. Phoenix, fr. 9. 
4 Hdt. v. 60, 61. 
See Kaibel, Epigr. dr. 73S-742. « Anth. Pal. vi. 53. 


the dedication has elaborate pains bestowed upon it simply for 
the feeling and expression as a form of poetry ; and it is to 
this period that the mass of the best prayers and dedications 

Ranging as they do over the whole variety of human action, 
these epigrams show us the ancient world in its simplest and 
most pleasant aspect. Family life has its offerings for the 
birth of a child, for return from travel, for recovery from sick- 
ness. The eager and curious spirit of youth, and old age to 
which nothing but rest seems good, each offer prayer to the 
guardians of the traveller or of the home. 1 The most numerous 
and the most beautiful are those where, towards the end of life, 
dedications are made with thanksgiving for the past and prayer 
for what remains. The Mediterranean merchantman retires to 
his native town and offers prayer to the protector of the city 
to grant him a quiet age there, or dedicates his ship, to dance 
no more ' like a feather on the sea ', now that its master has 
set his weary feet on land. 2 The fisherman, ceasing his labours, 
hangs up his fish- spear to Poseidon, saying, ' Thou knowest I 
am tired.' The old hunter, whose hand has lost its suppleness, 
dedicates his nets to the Nymphs, as all that he has to give. 
The market-gardener, when he has saved a competence, lays 
iiis worn tools before Priapus the Garden- Keeper. Heracles 
and Artemis receive the aged soldier's shield into their temples, 
that it may grow old there amid the sound of hymns and the 
dances of maidens. 3 Quiet peace, as of the greyness of a 
summer evening, is the desired end. 

The diffusion of Greece under Alexander and his successors, 
as at a later period the diffusion of Eome under the Empire, 
brought with the decay of civic spirit a great increase of 
humanity. The dedication written by Theocritus for his friend 
Nicias of Miletus 4 gives a vivid picture of the gracious at- 
mosphere of a rich and cultured Greek home, of the happy 
union of science and art with harmonious family life and 
kindly helpfulness and hospitality. Care for others was a 
more controlling motive in life than before. The feeling grew 
that we all are one family, and owe each other the service and 

1 Anth. Pal. x. 6, vi. 70. - Ibid. ix. 7, vi. 70. 

3 Ibid. vi. 30, 25, 21, 178, 127. 4 Ibid. vi. 337 ; cf. Theocr. Idyl xxii. 


thoughtfulness due to kinsfolk, till Menandei could say that 
true life was living for others. 1 In this spirit the sailor, come 
safe ashore, offers prayer to Poseidon that others who cross the 
sea may be as fortunate; so too, from the other side of the 
matter, Pan of the sea-cliff promises a favourable wind to all 
strangers who sail by him, in remembrance of the pious fisher- 
men who set his statue there, as guardian of their trawling- 
iiets and eel-baskets. 2 

In revulsion from the immense accumulation of material 
wealth in this period, a certain refined simplicity was then the 
ideal of the best minds, as it was afterwards in the early 
Roman Empire, as it is in our own day. The charm of the 
country was, perhaps for the first time, fully realised ; the life 
of gardens became a passion, and hardly less so the life of the 
opener air, of the hill and meadow, of the shepherd and hunter, 
the farmer and fisherman. The rules of art, like the demands 
of heaven, were best satisfied with small and simple offerings. 
' The least of a little ' 3 was sufficient to lay before gods who 
had no need of riches ; and as the art of the epigrammatist 
grew more refined, the poet took pride in working with the 
slightest materials. The husbandman lays a handful of corn- 
ears before Demeter, the gardener a basket of ripe fruit at the 
feet of Priapus ; the implements of their craft are dedicated by 
the carpenter and the goldsmith ; the young girl and the aged 
woman offer their even slighter gift, the spindle and distaff, the 
reel of wool, and the rush- woven basket. 4 A staff of wild-olive 
cut in the coppice is accepted by the lord of the myriad- 
boughed forest ; the Muses are pleased with their bunch of 
roses wet with morning dew. 5 The boy Daphnis offers his 
fawnskin and scrip of apples to the great divinity of Pan ; 6 the 
young herdsman and his newly-married wife, still with the 
rose-garland on her hair, make prayer and thanksgiving with 
a cream cheese and a piece of honeycomb to the mistress of a 
hundred cities, Aphrodite with her house of gold." The hard 
and laborious life of the small farmer was touched with some- 

1 Frag, incert. 257, tout' ssti to £rj[v ouy iauTco £tjv [j.ovov. 

- Anth. Pal. x. 10, 24. 3 Ibid. vi. 9S, i/. fuxpcov oXiyiffta. 

4 Ibid. vi. 98, 102 ; 103, 92 ; 174, 247. 3 Ibid. vi. 3, 336. 

6 Ibid. vi. 177. 7 Ibid. vi. 55 ; cf. vi. It9, xii. 131. 


thing of the natural magic that saturates the Georgics ; ' rich 
with fair fleeces, and fair wine, and fair fruit of corn,' and 
blessed by the gracious Seasons whose feet pass over the fur- 
rows. 1 On the green slope Pan himself makes solitary music 
to the shepherd in the divine silence of the hills. 2 The fancy 
of three brothers, a hunter, a fowler, and a fisherman, meeting 
to make dedication of the spoils of their crafts to the country- 
god, was one which had a special charm for epigrammatists ; 
it is treated by no less than nine poets, whose dates stretch 
over as many centuries. 3 Sick of cities, the imagination turned 
to an Arcadia that thenceforth was to fill all poetry with the 
music of its names and the fresh chill of its pastoral air ; the 
lilied banks of Ladon, the Erymanthian water, the deep wood- 
land of Pholoe and the grey steep of Cyllene. 4 Nature grew 
full of a fresh and lovely divinity. A spirit dwells under the 
sea, and looks with kind eyes on the creatures that go up and 
down in its depths ; Artemis flashes by in the rustle of the 
windswept oakwood, and the sombre shade of the pines makes 
a roof for Pan ; the wild hill becomes a sanctuary, for ever 
unsown and unmown, where the Spirit of Nature, remote 
and invisible, feeds his immortal flock and fulfils his desire. 5 


Though the section of the Palatine Anthology dealing with 
works of art, if it ever existed, is now completely lost, we have 
still left a considerable number of epigrams which come under 
this head. Many are preserved in the Planudean Anthology. 
Many more, on account of the cross-division of subjects that 
cannot be avoided in arranging any collection of poetry, are 
found in other sections of the Palatine Anthology. It was a 
favourite device, for example, to cast a criticism or eulogy of 
an author or artist into the form of an imaginary epitaph ; and 

1 Anth. Pal. vi. 31, 98. 2 App. Plan, 17 ; cf. Lucret. v. 1387. 

3 Anth. Pal. vi. 11-16, and 179-187. The poets are Leonidas of Tarentnm, 
Alcaeus of Messene, Antipater of Sidon, Alexander, Julius Diocles, Satyrus, 
Archias, Zosimus and Julianus Aegyptius. 

4 Anth. Pal. vi. Ill, App. Plan. 1SS : compare Song iii. in Milton's 
A rcades. 

5 Anth. Pal. x. 8 ; vi. 253, 268 ; vi. 79. 


this was often actually inscribed on a monument, or beneath 
a bust, in the galleries or gardens of a wealthy virtuoso. Thus 
the sepulchral epigrams include inscriptions of this sort on 
many of the most distinguished names of Greek literature. 
They are mainly on poets and philosophers ; Homer and Hesiod, 
the great tragedians and comedians, the long roll of the lyric 
poets, most frequently among them Sappho, Alcman, Erinna, 
Archilochus, Pindar, and the whole line of philosophers from 
Thales and Anaxagoras down to the latest teachers in the 
schools of Athens. Often in those epigrams some vivid epithet 
or fine touch of criticism gives a real value to them even now ; 
the ' frowning towers ' of the Aeschylean tragedy, the trumpet- 
note of Pindar, the wealth of lovely flower and leaf, crisp 
Acharnian ivy, rose and vine, that clusters round the tomb of 
Sophocles. 1 Those on the philosophers are, as one would 
expect, generally of inferior quality. 

Many again are to be found among the miscellaneous section 
of epideictic epigrams. Instances which deal with literature 
directly are the noble lines of Alpheus on Homer, the interesting- 
epigram on the authorship of the Phacdo, the lovely couplet on 
the bucolic poets. 2 Some are inscriptions for libraries or collec- 
tions ; 3 others are on particular works of art. Among these 
last, epigrams on statues or pictures dealing with the power of 
music are specially notable; the conjunction, in this way, of 
the three arts seems to have given peculiar pleasure to the 
refined and eclectic culture of the Graeco-Poman period. 
The contest of Apollo and Marsyas, the piping of Pan to Echo, 
aud the celebrated subject of the Faun listening for the sound 
of his own flute, 4 are among the most favourite and the most 
gracefully treated of this class. Even more beautiful, however, 
than these, and worthy to take rank with the finest ' sonnets 
on pictures ' of modern poets, is the epigram ascribed to Theo- 
critus, and almost certainly written for a picture, 5 which seems 
to place the whole world of ancient pastoral before our eyes. 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 39, 34, 21, 22. '-' Ibid. ix. 97, 358, 205. 

:: Cf. iv. 1 in this selection. 

4 Anth. Pal. vii. 696, App. Plan. S, 225, 226, 244. 

5 Anth. Pal. ix. 433. On this epigram Jacobs says, Frigide hoc carmen 
interpret ant ur qui illud tabulae pictae aducriptum fuiase existimant. ]>ut the 
art of poems on pictures, which flourished to an immense decree in the 


The grouping of the figures is like that in the famous Venetian 
Pastoral of Giorgione ; in both alike are the shadowed grass, 
the slim pipes, the hand trailing upon the viol-string. But 
the execution has the matchless simplicity, the incredible 
purity of outline, that distinguishes Greek work from that of 
all other races. 

A different view of art and literature, and one which adds 
considerably to our knowledge of the ancient feeling about 
them, is given by another class of pieces, the irrisory epigrams 
of the Anthology. Then, as now, people were amused by bad 
and bored by successful artists, and delighted to laugh at both ; 
then, as now, the life of the scholar or the artist had its meaner 
side, and lent itself easily to ridicule from without, to jealousy 
and discontent from within. The air rang with jeers at the 
portrait-painter who never got a likeness, the too facile com- 
poser whose body was to be burned on a pile of five-and-twenty 
chests all filled with his own scores, the bad grammar of the 
grammarian, the supersubtle logic and the cumbrous technical 
language of the metaphysician, the disastrous fertility of the 
authors of machine-made epics. 1 The poor scholar had become 
proverbial ; living in a garret where the very mice were starved, 
teaching the children of the middle classes for an uncertain 
pittance, glad to buy a dinner with a dedication, and gradually 
petrifying in the monotony of a thousand repetitions of stock 
passages and lectures to empty benches. 2 Land and sea 
swarmed with penniless grammarians. 3 The epigrams of 
Palladas of Alexandria bring before us vividly the miseries 
of a schoolmaster. Those of Callimachus shew with as painful 
clearness how the hatred of what was bad in literature might end 
in embittering the vvhole nature. 4 Many epigrams are extant 
which indicate that much of a scholar's life, even when he had 
not to earn bitter bread on the stairs of patrons, was wasted in 
laborious pedantry or in personal jealousies and recriminations. 6 

Alexandrian and later periods, had not then heen revived. One can fancy 
the same note being made hundreds of years hence on some of Rossetti's 

1 Anth. Pal. xi. 215, 133, 143, 354, 136. 

2 Ibid. vi. 303, ix. 174, vi. 310 ; cf. also x. 35 in this selection. 

3 Ibid. xi. 400. 4 Compare Anth. Pal. xii. 43 with ix. 565. 
5 Ibid. xi. 140, 142, 275. 



Of epigrams on individual works of art it is not necessary 
to say much. Their numbers must have been enormous. The 
painted halls and colonnades, common in all Greek towns, had 
their stories told in verse below ; there was hardly a statue or 
picture of any note that was not the subject of a short poem. 
A collected series of works of art had its corresponding series 
of epigrams. The Anthology includes, among other lists, a 
description of nineteen subjects carved in relief on the pedestals 
of the columns in a temple at Cyzicus, and another of seventy- 
three bronze statues which stood in the great hall of a gym- 
nasium at Constantinople. 1 Any celebrated work like the 
Niobe of Praxiteles, or the bronze heifer of Myron, was the 
practising-ground for every tried or untried poet, seeking new 
praise for some cleverer conceit or neater turn of language than 
had yet been invented. Especially was this so with the trifling 
art of the decadence and its perpetual round of childish Loves : 
Love ploughing, Love holding a fish and a flower as symbols of 
his sovereignty over sea and land, Love asleep on a pepper- 
castor, Love blowing a torch, Love grasping or breaking the 
thunderbolt, Love with a helmet, a shield, a quiver, a trident, 
a club, a drum. 2 Enough of this class of epigrams are extant 
to be perfectly wearisome, were it not that, like the engraved 
gems from which their subjects are principally taken, they 
are all, however trite in subject or commonplace in workman- 
ship, wrought in the same beautiful material, in that language 
which is to all other languages as a gem to an ordinary pebble. 

From these sources we are able to collect a body of epigrams 
which in a way cover the field of ancient art and literature. 
Sometimes they preserve fragments of direct criticism, verbal or 
real. We have epigrams on fashions in prose style, on con- 
ventional graces of rhetoric, on the final disappearance of ancient 
music in the sixth century. 3 Of art-criticism in the modern 
sense there is but little. The striking epigram of Parrhasius, 
on the perfection attainable in painting, 4 is almost a solitary 
instance. Pictures and statues are generally praised for their 
actual or imagined realism. Silly stories like those of the 
birds pecking at the grapes of Zeuxis, or the calf who went up 

1 Anth. Pal. ii., iii. - Ajip. Plan. 200, 207, 20S, 209, 214, 215, 250 

3 Anth. Pal. xi. 141, 142, 144, 157 ; vii. 571. 


to suck the bronze cow of Myron, represent the general level 
of the critical faculty. Even Aristotle, it must be remem- 
bered, who represents the most finished Greek criticism, places 
the pleasure given by works of art in the recognition by the 
spectator of things which he has already seen. ' The reason 
why people enjoy seeing pictures is that the spectators learn 
and infer what each object is ; this, they say, is so and so ; 
while if one has not seen the thing before, the pleasure is pro- 
duced not by the imitation,' — or by the art, for he uses the two 
terms convertibly — ' but by the execution, the colour, or some 
such cause.' l And Plato (though on this subject one can 
never be quite sure that Plato is serious) talks of the graphic 
arts as three times removed from realities, being only employed 
to make copies or semblances of the external objects which are 
themselves the copies or shadows of the ideal truth of things. 2 
So far does Greek thought seem to have been from the concep- 
tion of an ideal art which is nearer truth than nature is, which 
nature itself indeed tries with perpetual striving, and ever in- 
complete success, to copy, which, as Aristotle does in one often 
quoted passage admit with regard to poetry, has a higher truth 
and a deeper seriousness than that of actual things. 

But this must not be pressed too far. The critical faculty, 
even where fully present, may be overpowered by the rhetorical 
impulse ; and of all forms of poetry the epigram has the 
greatest right to be fanciful. ' This is the Satyr of Diodorus ; 
if you touch it, it will awake ; the silver is asleep,' 3 — obviously 
this play of fancy has nothing to do with serious criticism. 
And of a really serious feeling about art there is sufficient 
evidence, as in the pathos of the sculptured Ariadne, happy in 
sleeping and being stone, and even more strongly in the lines 
on the picture of the Faun, which have the very tone and spirit 
of the Ode on a Grecian Urn* 

Two epigrams above all deserve special notice ; one almost 
universally known, that written by Callimachus on his dead 
friend, the poet Heraclitus of Halicarnassus ; the other, no less 
noble, though it has not the piercing tenderness of the first, by 
Claudius Ptolemaeus, the great astronomer, upon his own 

1 Poet. 1448 b. 15-20. - Republic, x. 597. 

3 App. Plan. 248. -> A pp. Plan. 146, 244. 


science, a science then not yet divorced from art and letters. 
The picture touched b} r Callimachus of that ancient and 
brilliant life, where two friends, each an accomplished scholar, 
each a poet, saw the summer sun set in their eager talk, and 
listened through the dusk to the singing nightingales, is a 
more exquisite tribute than all other ancient writings have 
given to the imperishable delight of literature, the mingled 
charm of youth and friendship, and the first stirring of the 
blood by poetry, and the first lifting of the soul by philosophy. 1 
And on yet a further height, above the nightingales, under the 
solitary stars alone, Ptolemy as he traces the celestial orbits is 
lifted above the touch of earth, and recognises in man's mortal 
and ephemeral substance a kinship with the eternal. Man 
did eat angels' food : he opened the doors of heaven. 2 


That the feeling for Nature is one of the new developments 
of the modern spirit, is one of those commonplaces of criticism 
which express vaguely and loosely a general impression 
gathered from the comparison of ancient with modern poetry. 
Like most of such generalisations it is not of much value 
unless defined more closely ; and as the definition of the rule 
becomes more accurate, the exceptions and limitations to be 
made grow correspondingly numerous. The section which is 
here placed under this heading is obviously different from any 
collection which could be made of modern poems, professing to 
deal with Nature and not imitated from the Greek. But 
when we try to analyse the difference, we find that the word 
Nature is one of the most ambiguous possible. Man's relation 
to Nature is variable not only from age to age, and from race 
to race, but from individual to individual, and from moment to 
moment. And the feeling for Nature, as expressed in literature, 
varies not only with all these variations but with other factors 
as well, notably with the prevalent mode of poetical expression, 
and with the condition of the other arts. The outer world lies 
before us all alike, with its visible facts, its demonstrable laws, 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 80. Cf. In Memoriam, xxiii. 

2 Anth. Pal. ix. 577 ; notice especially 8-eiTjs rci[j.7cXafiai afippoatvjs. 


Natura daedala rerum ; but with each of us the species ratioque 
naturae, the picture presented by the outer world and the 
meaning that underlies it, are created in our own minds, the 
one by the apprehensions of our senses (and the eye sees what 
it brings the power to see), the other by our emotions, our 
imagination, our intellectual and moral qualities, as all these 
are affected by the pageant of things, and affect it in turn. 
And in no case can we express in words the total impression 
made upon us, but only that amount of it for which we possess 
a language of sufficient range and power and flexibility. For 
an impression has permanence and value — indeed one may go 
further and say has reality — only in so far as it is fixed and 
recorded in language, whether in the language of words or that 
of colours, forms, and sounds. 

First in the natural order comes that simply sensuous view 
of the outer world, where combination and selection have as yet 
little or no part. Objects are distinct from one another, each 
creates a single impression, and the effect of each is summed up 
in a single phrase. The ' constant epithet ' of early poetry is a 
survival of this stage of thought; nature is a series of things, 
every one of which has its special note ; ' green grass,' ' wet 
water.' Here the feeling for Nature likewise is simple and 
sensuous ; the pleasure of shade and cool water in summer, of 
soft grass to lie on, of the flowers and warm sunshine of spring. 

Then out of this infancy of feeling rises the curiosity of 
childhood ; no longer content with noting and recording the 
obvious aspects of Nature, man observes and inquires and pays 
attention. The more attention is paid, the more is seen : and 
an immense growth follows in the language of poetry. To ex- 
press the feeling for nature description becomes necessary, and 
this again involves, in order that the work may not be endless, 
selection and composition. 

Again, upon this comes the sentimental feeling for Nature, 
a sort of sympathy created by interest and imagination. Among 
early races this, like other feelings, expresses itself in the forms 
of mythology, and half personifies the outer world, giving the 
tree her Dryad and the fountain her Nymph, making Pan and 
Echo meet in the forest glade. When the mythological instinct 
has ceased to be active, it results in sentimental description, 
sometimes realistic in detail, sometimes largely or even wholly 


conventional. It has always in it something of a reaction, 
real or affected, from crowds and the life of cities, an attempt 
to regain simplicity by isolation from the complex fabric of 

Once more, the feeling for Nature may go deeper than the 
senses and the imagination, and become moral. The outer 
world is then no more a spectacle only, but the symbol of 
a meaning, the embodiment of a soul. Earth, the mother and 
fostress, receives our sympathy and gives us her own. The 
human spirit turns away from itself to seek sustenance from 
the mountains and the stars. The whole outer universe 
becomes the visible and sensible language of an ideal essence ; 
and dawn or sunset, winter or summer, is of the nature of 
a sacrament. 

There is over and above all these another sense in which we 
may speak of the feeling for Nature ; and in regard to poetry it 
is perhaps the most important of all. But it no longer follows, 
like the rest, a sort of law of development in human nature gener- 
ally ; it is confined to art, and among the arts is eminent in 
poetry beyond the rest. This is the romantic or magical note. 
It cannot be analysed, perhaps it cannot be defined ; the in- 
sufficiency of all attempted definitions of poetry is in great 
part due to the impossibility of their including this final quality, 
which, like some volatile essence, escapes the moment the phial 
is touched. In the poetry of all ages, even in the periods 
where it has been most intellectual and least imaginative, 
come sudden lines like the Cdte obscure clarU qui tombe des itoiles 
of Corneille, like the Placed far amid the melancholy main of 
Thomson, where the feeling for Nature cannot be called moral, 
and yet stirs us like the deepest moral criticism upon life, 
rising as far beyond the mere idealism of sentiment as it does 
beyond the utmost refinement of realistic art. 

In all these different forms the feeling for Nature may be 
illustrated from Greek poetry ; but the broad fact remains 
that Nature on the whole has a smaller part than it has with 
modern poets. Descriptive pieces are executed in a slighter 
manner, and on the whole with a more conventional treatment. 
Landscapes, for example, are always a background, never 
(or hardly ever) the picture itself. The influence of mytho- 
logy on art was so overwhelming that, down to tl e last, it 


determined the treatment of many subjects where we should 
now go more directly to the things themselves. Especially is 
this so with what has been described as the moral feeling for 
nature. Among 'the unenlightened swains of Pagan Greece,' 
as Wordsworth says, the deep effect of natural beauty on the 
mind was expressed under the forms of a concrete symbolism, 
a language to which literature had grown so accustomed that 
they had neither the power nor the wish to break free from 
it. The appeal indeed from man to Nature, and especially the 
appeal to Nature as knowing more about man's destiny than he 
knows himself, was unknown to the Greek poets. But this 
feeling is sentimental, not moral ; and with them too ' some- 
thing far more deeply interfused ' stirred the deepest sources of 
emotion. The music of Pan, at which the rustle of the oak- 
wood ceases and the waterfall from the cliff is silent and the 
faint bleating of the sheep dies away, 1 is the expression in an 
ancient language of the spirit of Nature, fixed and embodied 
by the enchanting touch of art. 

Of the epigrams which deal primarily with the sensuous 
feeling for Nature, the most common are those on the delight 
of summer, rustling breezes and cold springs and rest under 
the shadow of trees. In the ardours of midday the traveller is 
guided from the road over a grassy brow to an ice-cold spring 
that gushes out of the rock under a pine ; or lying idly on the 
soft meadow in the cool shade of the plane, is lulled by the 
whispering west wind through the branches, the monotone of 
the cicalas, the faint sound of a far-off shepherd's pipe floating 
down from the hills ; or looking up into the heart of the oak, 
sees the dim green roof, layer upon layer, mount and spread 
and shut out the sky. 2 Or the citizen, leaving the glare of 
town, spends a country holiday on strewn willow-boughs with 
wine and music, 3 as in that most perfect example of the poetry 
of a summer day, the Thalysia of Theocritus. Down to a late 
Byzantine period this form of poetry, the nearest approach to 
pure description of nature in the old world, remained alive ; 
as in the picture drawn by Arabius of the view from a villa 
on the shore of the Propontis, with its gardens set between 

1 Anth. Pal. ix. 823. - App. Plan. 230, 227 ; Anth. Pal ix. 71. 

8 vi. 28 in this selection. 



wood and sea, where the warbling of birds mingled with the 
distant songs of the ferrymen. 1 Other landscape poems, as 
they may be called, remarkable for their clear and vivid 
portraiture, are that of Mnasalcas, 2 the low shore with its bright 
surf, and the temple with its poplars round which the sea-fowl 
hover and cry, and that of Auyte, 3 the windy orchard-close 
near the grey colourless coast, with the well and the Hermes 
standing over it at the crossways. But such epigrams always 
stop short of the description of natural objects for their own 
sake, for the mere delight in observing and speaking about 
them. Perhaps the nearest approach that Greek poetry makes 
to this is in a remarkable fragment of Sophocles, 4 describing 
the shiver that runs through the leaves of a poplar when all 
the other trees stand silent and motionless. 

The descriptions of Nature too are, as a rule, not only slightly 
sketched, but kept subordinate to a human relation. The 
brilliance and loveliness of spring is the background for the 
picture of the sailor again putting to sea, or the husbandman 
setting his plough at work in the furrow ; the summer woods 
are a resting-place for the hot and thirsty traveller; the 
golden leaves of autumn thinning in the frosty night, making 
haste to be gone before the storms of rough November, are 
a frame for the boy beneath them. 5 The life of earth is rarely 
thought of as distinct from the life of man. It is so in a few 
late epigrams. The complaint of the cicala, torn away by 
shepherds from its harmless green life of song and dew among 
the leaves, and the poem bidding the blackbird leave the 
dangerous oak, where, with its breast against a spray, it pours 
out its clear music, 6 are probably of Eoman date ; another of 
uncertain period but of great beauty, an epitaph on an old 
bee-keeper who lived alone on the hills with the high woods 
and pastures for his only neighbours, contrasts with a strangely 
modern feeling the perpetuity of nature and the return of the 
works of spring with the brief life of man that ends once for 
all on a cold winter night, 7 

Between the simply sensuous and the deep moral feeling 

1 Anth. Pal ix. G67. " Ibid. ix. 333. 3 Hid. ix. 314. 

4 Aeyetts, fr. 24 ; cf. the celebrated simile in Hyperion, beginning, As 
ichen upon a tranced summer night. 
6 Anth. Pal. xii. 138. '■ Ibid. ix. 373. ST. 7 Ibid. vii. 717. 


for nature lies the broad field of pastoral. This is not the 
place to enter into the discussion of pastoral poetry ; but it 
must be noted in passing that it does not imply of necessity 
any deep love, and still less any close observation, of nature. 
It looks on nature, as it looks on human life, through a medium 
of art and sentiment ; and its treatment of nature depends less 
on the actual world around it than on the prevalent art of the 
time. Greek art concentrated its efforts on the representation 
of the human figure, and even there preferred the abstract 
form and the rigid limitations of sculpture ; and the poetry that 
saw, as it were, through the eyes of art sought above all things 
simplicity of composition and clearness of outline. The scanty 
vocabulary of colour in Greek poetry, so often noticed, is a 
special and patent example of this difference in the spirit with 
which Nature was regarded. As the poetry of Chaucer cor- 
responds, in its wealth and intricacy of decoration, to the 
illuminations and tapestries of the middle ages, so the epigrams 
given under this section constantly recall the sculptured reliefs 
and the engraved gems of Greek art. 

But any such general rules must be taken with their excep- 
tions. As there is a risk of reading modern sentiment into 
ancient work, and even of fixing on the startling modernisms 
that occur in Greek poetry, 1 and dwelling on them till they 
assume an exaggerated importance, so there is a risk perhaps 
as great of slurring over the inmost quality, the poetry of the 
poetry, where it has that touch of romance or magic that sets 
it beyond all our generalisations. The magical charm is just 
what cannot be brought under any rules ; it is the result less 
of art than of instinct, and is almost independent of time 
and place. The lament of the swallow in an Alexandrian 
poet 2 touches the same note of beauty and longing that Keats 
drew from the song of the nightingale ; the couplet of Satyrus, 
where echo repeats the lonely cry of the birds, 3 is, however 
different in tone, as purely romantic as the opening lines of 

1 A curious instance is in an epigram by Mnasalcas (Anth. Pal. vii. 194), 
where he speaks of the evening hymn (^avi'i-soov 2|j.vov) of the grasshopper. 
This, it must be remembered, was written in the third century B.C. 

- Pamphilus in Anih. Pal. ix. 57. ; -I/'/'- Plan. 153. 



Though fate and death make a dark background against 
which the brilliant colouring of Greek life glitters out with 
heightened magnificence, the comedy of men and manners 
occupies an important part of their literature, and Aristophanes 
and Menander are as intimately Greek as Sophocles. It is 
needless to speak of what we gain in our knowledge of Greece 
from the preserved comedies of Aristophanes ; and if we follow 
the best ancient criticism, we must conclude that in Menander 
we have lost a treasury of Greek life that cannot be replaced. 
Quintilian, speaking at a distance from any national or con- 
temporary prejudice, uses terms of him such as we should not 
think unworthy of Shakespeare. 1 These Attic comedians were 
the field out of which epigrammatists, from that time down to 
the final decay of literature, drew some of their graver and 
very many of their lighter epigrams. Of the convivial epi- 
grams in the Anthology a number are imitated from extant 
fragments of the New Comedy ; one at least 2 transfers a line of 
Menander's unaltered ; and short fragments of both Menander 
and Diphilus are included in the Anthology as though not 
materially differing from epigrams themselves. 3 

Part of this section might be classed with the criticism of 
life from the Epicurean point of view. Some of the convivial 
epigrams are purely unreflective ; they speak only of the 
pleasure of the moment, the frank joy in songs and wine and 
roses, at a vintage-revel, or in the chartered licence of a public 
festival, or simply without any excuse but the fire in the blood, 
and without any conclusion but the emptied jar. 4 Some bring- 
in a flash of more vivid colour where Eros mingles with 
Bromius, and, on a bright spring day, Eose-flower crosses the 
path, carrying her fresh-blown roses. 5 Others, through their 
light surface, show a deeper feeling, a claim half jestingly but 
half seriously made for dances and lyres and garlands as 
things deeply ordained in the system of nature, a call on the 
disconsolate lover to be up and drink, and rear his drooping 

1 Omnem vitae imaginem expressU . . . omnibus rebus, personis, adfectibus 
accommodatus : see the whole passage, Inst, liliet. x. i. 69-72. 

2 Anth. Pal. xi. 286. s Ibid. xi. 438, 431). 

4 Ibid. v. 134, 135 ; xi. 1. B Ibid. v. 81 ; xi. 64. 


head, and not lie down in the dust while he is yet alive. 1 
Some in complete seriousness put the argument for happiness 
with the full force of logic and sarcasm. ' All the ways of life 
are pleasant', cries Julianus in reply to the weariness ex- 
pressed by an earlier poet ; 2 'in country or town, alone or 
among fellow-men, dowered with the graciousness of wife and 
children, or living on in the free and careless life of youth ; all 
is well, live ! ' And the answer to melancholy has never been 
put in a concrete form with finer and more penetrating wit 
than in the couplet of Lucian on the man who must needs be 
sober when all were drinking, and so appeared in respect of his 
company to be the one drunk man there. 3 

It is here that the epigrams of comedy reach their high- 
water mark ; in contrast to them is another class in which the 
lightness is a little forced and the humour touches cynicism. 
In these the natural brutality of the Eoman mind makes the 
Latin epigram heavier and keener-pointed ; the greater number 
indeed of the Greek epigrams of this complexion are of the 
Eoman period ; and many of them appear to be directly imitated 
from Martial and Juvenal, though possibly in some cases it is 
the Latin poet who is the copyist. 

Though they are not actually kept separate — nor indeed 
would a complete separation be possible — the heading of this 
section of the Palatine Anthology distinguishes the Gu;x7roTtx.a, the 
epigrams of youth and pleasure, from the Gxxo-Tix.a, the witty 
or humorous verses which have accidentally in modern English 
come almost to absorb the full signification of the word epi- 
gram. The latter come principally under two heads : one, where 
the point of the epigram depends on an unexpected verbal 
turn, the other, where the humour lies in some gross exaggera- 
tion of statement. Or these may be combined ; in some of the 
best there is an accumulation of wit, a second and a third 
point coming suddenly on the top of the first. 4 

Perhaps the saying, so often repeated, that ancient humour 
was simpler than modern, rests on a more sufficient basis than 
most similar generalisations ; and indeed there is no single 
criterion of the difference between one age and another more 

1 Anth. Pal. ix. 270 ; xii. 50. - Ibid. ix. 446. 

3 Ibid. xi. 429. 4 Cf. ibid. xi. 85, 143. 



easy and certain of application, where the materials for apply- 
ing it exist, than to compare the things that seem amusing to 
them. A certain foundation of humour seems to be the com- 
mon inheritance of mankind, but on it different periods build 
differently. The structure of a Greek joke is generally very 
simple; more obvious and less highly elliptical in thought 
than the modern type, but, on the other hand, considerably 
more subtle than the wit of the middle ages. There was a 
store of traditional jests on the learned professions, law, astro- 
logy, medicine — the last especially ; and the schools of rhetoric 
and philosophy were, from their first beginning, the subject of 
much pleasantry. Any popular reputation, in painting, music, 
literature, gave material for facetious attack ; and so did any 
bodily defect, even those, it must be added, which we think of 
now as exciting pity or as to be passed over in silence. 1 Many 
of these jokes, which even then may have been of immemorial 
anticmity, are still current. The serpent that bit a Cappadocian 
and died of it, the fashionable lady whose hair is all her own, 
and paid for, 2 are instances of this simple form of humour that 
has no beginning nor end. Some Greek jests have an Irish 
inconsequence, some the grave and logical monstrosity of 
American humour. 

Naive, crude, often vulgar ; such is the general impression 
produced by the mass of these lighter epigrams. The bulk 
of them are of late date ; and the culture of the ancient world 
was running low when its vers de socUt6 reached no higher 
level than this. Of course they can only be called poetry by 
a large stretch of courtesy. In a few instances the work is 
raised to the level of art by a curious Dutch fidelity and min- 
ute detail. In one given in this selection, 3 a great poet has 
bent to this light and trivial style. The high note of Simon- 
ides is as clear and certain here as in his lines on the Spartans 
at Thermopylae or in the cry of grief over the young man dead 
in the snow-clogged surf of the Saronic sea. With such ex- 
ceptions, the only touch of poetry is where a graver note 
underlies their light insolence. ' Drink with me,' runs the 
Greek song, ' be young with me ; love with me, wear garlands 
with me ; be mad with me in my madness ; I will be serious 

1 Cf. Anth. Pal. xi. 342, 404. 

- Ibid. xi. 68, 237. 

3 Infra, x. 5. 


with you in your seriousness.' 1 And so behind the flutes and 
flowers change comes and the shadow of fate stands waiting, 
and through the tinkling of the rose-hung river is heard in 
undertone the grave murmur of the sea. 


For over all Greek life there lay a shadow. Man, a weak 
and pitiable creature, lay exposed to the shafts of a grim 
and ironic power that went its own way careless of him, or 
only interfered to avenge its own slighted majesty. ' God is 
always jealous and troublesome ' ; such is the reflection which 
Herodotus, the pious historian of a pious age, puts in the 
mouth of the wisest of the Greeks. 2 Punishment will sooner 
or later follow sin ; that is certain ; but it is by no means so 
certain that the innocent will not be involved with the guilty, 
or that offence will not be taken where none was meant. The 
law of laesa majestas was executed by the ruling powers of the 
universe with unrelenting and undiscriminating severity. Fate 
seemed to take a sardonic pleasure in confounding expectation, 
making destruction spring out of apparent safety, and filling 
life with dramatic and memorable reversals of fortune. 

And besides the bolts launched by fate, life was as surely 
if more slowly weighed down by the silent and ceaseless tide 
of change against which nothing stood fixed or permanent, and 
which swept the finest and most beautiful tilings away the 
soonest. The garland that blooms at night withers by morn- 
ing ; and the strength of man and the beauty of woman are no 
longer-lived than the frail anemone, the lily and violet that 
flower and fall. 3 Sweetness is changed to bitterness ; where 
the rose has spread her cup, one goes by and the brief beauty 
passes ; returning, the seeker finds no rose, but a thorn. Swifter 
than the flight of a bird through the air the light-footed Hours 
pass by, leaving nothing but scattered petals and the remem- 
brance of youth and spring. 4 The exhortation to use the brief 

1 Athenaeus, C95, d. 

2 to fi-fiav ~av oO-ovspdv ts xccl raoa/cTos;, Hdt. i. 32. 

3 Anth. Pal. v. 74,11S. 4 Ibid. xi. 53 ; xii. 32, 234. 


space of life, to realise and, so far as that may be, to perpetuate 
in action the whole of the overwhelming possibilities crowded 
into a minute's space 1 comes with a passion like that of 
Shakespeare's sonnets. ' On this short day of frost and sun to 
sleep before evening' is the one intolerable misuse of life. 2 
Sometimes the feeling is expressed with the vivid passion of a 
lyric : — ' To what profit ? for thou wilt not find a lover among 
the dead, girl'; 3 sometimes with the curiously impersonal 
and incomparably direct touch that is peculiar to Greek, as in 
the verses by Antipater of Sidon, 4 that by some delicate magic 
crowd into a few words the fugitive splendour of the waning 
year, the warm lingering days and sharp nights of autumn, and 
the brooding pause before the rigours of winter, and make the 
whole masque of the seasons a pageant and metaphor of the 
lapse of life itself. Or a later art finds in the harsh moralis- 
ation of ancient legends the substance of sermons on the 
emptiness of pleasure and the fragility of loveliness ; and the 
bitter laugh over the empty casket of Pandora 5 comes from a 
heart wrung with the sorrow that beauty is less strong than 
time. Nor is the burden of these poems only that pleasant 
things decay ; rather that in nothing good or bad, rich or mean, 
is there permanence or certitude, but everywhere and without 
selection Time feeds oblivion with decay of things. All things 
flow and nothing abides; shape and name, nature and fortune 
yield to the dissolving touch of time. 6 

Even then the world was old. The lamentations over de- 
cayed towns and perished empires remind us that the distance 
which separates the age of the Caesars from our own is in relation 
to human history merely a chapter somewhere in the middle 
of a great volume. Then, no less than now, men trod daily over 
the ruins of old civilisations and the monuments of lost races. 
One of the most striking groups of poems in the Anthology is 
the long roll of the burdens of dead cities ; Troy, Delos, My- 
cenae, Argos, Amphipolis, Corinth, Sparta. 7 The depopulation 
of Greece brought with it a foreshadowing of the wreck of the 
whole ancient world. With the very framework of human life 

» An/h. Pa!, vii. 472. 2 Ibid. xi. 25; xii. 50. 

:: /hid. v. 85. •* Ibid. xi. 37. 

5 I hid. x. 71. ,; Ibid. ix. 51. 

7 Ibid. vii. 705, 723 ; ix. 2S, 101-4, 151-6, 40S. 



giving way daily before their eyes, men grew apt to give up 
the game. The very instability of all things, once established 
as a law, brought a sort of rest and permanence with it ; ' there 
is nothing strictly immutable', they might have said, 'but 
mutability.' Thus the law of change became a permanent 
thread in mortal affairs, and, with the knowledge that all the 
old round would be gone over again by others, grew the 
sense that in the acceptance of this law of nature there 
was involved a conquest of nature, an overcoming of the 

For the strength of Fate was not otherwise to be contended 
with, and its grim irony went deeper than human reach. 
Nemesis was merciless ; an error was punished like a crime, 
and the more confident you had been that you were right, the 
more severe was the probable penalty. But it was part of 
Fate's malignity that, though the offender was punished, though 
Justice took care that her own interests were not neglected nor 
her own majesty slighted, even where a humane judge would 
have shrunk from inflicting a disproportionate penalty, 1 yet 
for the wronged one himself she provided no remedy; he 
suffered at his own risk. For falseness in friendship, for scorn 
of poverty, for wanton cruelty and torture, the wheel of for- 
tune brought round some form of retribution, but the suf- 
ferers were like pieces swept off the board, once and for all. 

And Fate seemed to take a positive pleasure in eluding 
anticipation and constructing dramatic surprises. Through 
all Greek literature this feeling shows itself; and later epi- 
grams are full of incidents of this sort, recounted and moralised 
over with the wearisomeness of a tract, stories sometimes ob- 
viously invented with an eye to the moral, sometimes merely 
silly, sometimes, though rarely, becoming imaginative. The 
contrast of a youth without means to indulge its appetites and 
an age without appetites to exhaust its means ; the story of 
the poor man who found treasure and the rich man who hanged 
himself; the fable of the vine's revenge upon the goat, are 
typical instances of the prosaic epigram. 2 The noble lines in- 
scribed upon the statue of Memnon at Thebes 3 are an example 
of the vivid imaginative touch lighting up a sufficiently obvious 

1 Anth. Pal. ix. 269. 2 Ibid. ix. 138, 44, 75. ;t ix. 19 in this selection. 



theine for the rhetorician. Under the walls of Troy, long ages 
past, the son of the Dawn had fallen under Achilles' terrible 
spear ; yet now morning by morning the goddess salutes her son 
and he makes answer, while Thetis is childless in her sea-halls, 
and the dust of Achilles moulders silently in the Trojan plain. 
The Horatian maxim of nulli satis cautum recurs in the story 
of the ship, that had survived its sea-perils, burnt at last as it 
lay on shore near its native forest, and finding the ocean less 
faithless than the land. 1 In a different vein is the sarcastic 
praise of Fortune for her exaltation of a worthless man to high 
honour, ' that she might shew her omnipotence '. 2 At the 
root of all there is the sense, born of considering the flux of 
things and the tyranny of time, that man plays a losing game, 
and that his only success is in refusing to play. For the busy 
and idle, for the fortunate and unhappy alike, the sun rises one 
morning for the last time ; 3 he only is to be congratulated who 
is done with hope and fear ; 4 how short-lived soever he be in 
comparison with the world through which he passes, yet no 
less through time Fate dries up the holy springs, and the 
mighty cities of old days are undecipherable under the green 
turf ; 5 it is the only wisdom to acquiesce in the forces, however 
ignorant or malign in their working, that listen to no protest 
and admit no appeal, that no force can affect, no subtlety elude, 
no calculation predetermine. 


Of these prodigious natural forces the strongest and the 
most imposing is Death. Here, if anywhere, the Greek genius 
had its fullest scope and most decisive triumph ; and here it 
is that we come upon the epigram in its inmost essence and 
utmost perfection. ' Waiting to see the end ' as it always did, 
the Greek spirit pronounced upon the end when it came with 
a swiftness, a tact, a certitude that leave all other language 
behind. For although Latin and not Greek is pre-eminently 
and without rival the proper and, one might almost say,' the 
native language of monumental inscription, yet the little differ- 

1 Anth. Pal. ix. 106. 
4 Ibid. ix. 17-2; xi. 282. 

- Ibid. ix. 530. 

5 Ibid. ix. 101, 257. 

« Ibid. ix. S. 


ence that fills inscriptions with imagination and beauty, and 
will not be content short of poetry, is in the Greek temper 
alone. The Eoman sarcophagus, square hewn of rock, and 
bearing on it, incised for immortality, the haughty lines of 
rolling Eepublican names, represents to us with unequalled 
power the abstract majesty of human States and the glory of 
law and government ; and the momentary pause in the steady 
current of the life of Eome, when one citizen dropped out of 
rank and another succeeded him, brings home to us with 
crushing effect, like some great sentence of Tacitus, the brief 
and transitory worth of a single life. Qui apicem gessisti, mors 
perfecit tua id cssent omnia brevia, lionosfama virtusquc, gloria 
atque ingenium 1 — words like these have a melancholy majesty 
that no other human speech has known ; nor can any greater 
depth of pathos be reached than is in the two simple words 
Bene mercnti on a hundred Eoman tombs. But the Greek 
mind here as elsewhere came more directly than any other 
face to face with the truth of things, and the Greek genius 
kindled before the vision of life and death into a clearer flame. 
The sepulchral reliefs show us many aspects of death ; in all of 
the best period there is a common note, mingled of a grave 
tenderness, simplicity, and reserve. The quiet figures there 
take leave of one another with the same grace that their life 
had shown. There is none of the horror of darkness, none of 
the ugliness of dying ; with calm faces and undisordered rai- 
ment they rise from their seats and take the last farewell. But 
the sepulchral verses show us more clearly how deep the grief 
was that lay beneath the quiet lines of the marble and the 
smooth cadence of the couplets. They cover and fill the whole 
range of emotion : household grief, and pain for the dead baby 
or the drowned lover, and the bitter parting of wife and hus- 
band, and the chill of distance and the doubt of the unknown 
nether world ; and the thoughts of the bright and brief space 
of life, and the merciless continuity of nature, and the resolution 
of body and soul into the elements from which they came ; and 
the uselessness of Death's impatience, and the bitter cry of a 
life gone like spilt water ; and again, comfort out of the grave, 

1 From the inscription on the tomb of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, 
Augur and Flamen Dialis, son of the conqueror of Hannibal. 



perpetual placidity, 'holy sleep', and earth's gratitude to her 
children, and beyond all, dimly and lightly drawn, the flowery 
meadows of Fersephone, the great simplicity and rest of the 
other world, and far away a shadowy and beautiful country to 
which later men were to give the name of Heaven. 

The famous sepulchral epigrams of Simonides deserve a word 
to themselves ; for in them, among the most finished achieve- 
ments of the greatest period of Greece, the art not only touches 
its highest recorded point, but a point beyond which it seems 
inconceivable that art should go. They stand with the odes of 
Pindar and the tragedies of Sophocles as the symbols of per- 
fection in literature ; not only from the faultlessness of their 
form, but from their greatness of spirit, the noble and simple 
thought that had then newly found itself so perfect a language 
to commemorate the great deeds which it inspired. Foremost 
among them are those on the men whose fame they can hardly 
exalt beyond the place given them by history ; on the three 
hundred of Thermopylae, the Athenian dead at Marathon, the 
Athenian and Lacedaemonian dead at Plataea. 1 ' stranger, 
tell the Lacedaemonians that we lie here obeying their orders ' 
— the words have grown so famous that it is only by sudden 
flashes we can appreciate their greatness. No less noble are 
others somewhat less widely known : on the monument erected 
by the city of Corinth to the men who, when all Greece stood 
as near destruction as a knife's edge, helped to win her freedom 
at Salamis ; on the Athenians, slain under the skirts of the 
Euboean hills, who lavished their young and beautiful lives for 
Athens ; on the soldiers who fell, in the full tide of Greek- 
glory, at the great victory on the Eurymedon. 2 In all the 
epitaphs of this class the thought of the city swallows up 
individual feeling ; for the city's sake, that she may be free 
and great, men offer their death as freely as their life ; and the 
noblest end for a life spent in her service is to die in the 
moment of her victory. The funeral speech of Pericles dwells 
with all the amplitude of rhetoric on the glory of such a death ; 
' having died they are not dead ' are the simpler words of 
Simonides. 3 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 249, 251, 253; Aridities, ii. .".II. 

- Aristides, ii. 512 ; App. Plan. 26 ; Anth. Pal. vii. 25S. 

3 Anth. Pal. vii. •_'.")! : Time. ii. 41-43. 


Not less striking than these in their high simplicity are 
his epitaphs on private persons : that which preserves the 
fame of the great lady who was not lifted up to pride, Arche- 
dice daughter of Hippias; that on Theognis of Sinope, so 
piercing and yet so consoling in its quiet pathos, or that on 
Brotachus of Gortyn, the trader who came after merchandise 
and found death; the dying words of Timomachus and the 
eternal memory left to ' his father day by day of the goodness 
and w r isdom of his dead child ; the noble apostrophe to mount 
Geraneia, where the drowned and nameless sailor met his 
doom, the first and one of the most magnificent of the long 
roll of poems on seafarers lost at sea. 1 In all of them the 
foremost quality is their simplicity of statement. There are 
no superlatives. The emotion is kept strictly in the back- 
ground, neither expressed nor denied. Great minds of later 
ages sought a justification of the ways of death in denying 
that it brought any reasonable grief. To the cold and pro- 
found thought of Marcus Aurelius death is ' a natural thins, 
like roses in spring or harvest in autumn'. 2 But these are 
the words of a strange language. The feeling of Simonides 
is not, like theirs, abstract and remote ; he offers no justifica- 
tion, because none is felt to be needed where the pain of death 
is absorbed in the ardour of life. 

That great period passed away ; and in those which follow 
it, the sepulchral inscription, while it retains the old simplicity, 
descends from those heights into more common feelings, lets 
loose emotion, even dallies with the ornaments of grief. The 
sorrow of death is spoken of freely ; nor is there any poetry 
more pathetic than those epitaphs which, lovely in their 
sadness, commemorate the lost child, the sundered lovers, the 
disunited life. Among the most beautiful are those on children : 
on the baby that just lived, and, liking it not, went away 
again before it had known good or evil ; 3 on the children of 
a house all struck down in one day and buried in one grave ; 4 
on the boy whom his parents could not keep, though they held 
both his little hands in theirs, led downward by the Angel of 
Death to the unsmiling land. 5 Then follows the keener sad- 

1 Thuc. vi. 59 ; Anth. Pal. vii. 509, 254, 513, 496. - Marc. Aur. iv. 44. 
3 Kaibel, 576. 4 Anth. Pal. vii. 474. 5 iii. 33 in this selection. 


ness of the young life, spared till it opened into flower only to 
be cut down before noon ; the girl who, sickening for her baby- 
brother, lost care for her playmates, and found no peace till 
she went to rejoin him ; 1 the boy of twelve, with whom his 
father, adding no words of lamentation, lays his whole hope in 
the grave ; 2 the cry of the mourning mother over her son, 
Bianor or Anticles, an only child laid on the funeral pyre 
before an only parent's eyes, leaving dawn thenceforth dis- 
adorned of her sweetness, and no comfort in the sun. 3 More 
piercing still in their sad sweetness are the epitaphs on young 
wives : on Anastasia, dead at sixteen, in the first year of her 
marriage, over whom the ferryman of the dead must needs 
mingle his own with her father's and her husband's tears ; on 
Atthis of Cnidos, the wife who had never left her husband 
till this the first and last sundering came ; on Paulina of 
Ravenna, holy of life and blameless, the young bride of the 
physician whose skill could not save her, but whose last 
testimony to her virtues has survived the wreck of the centuries 
that have made the city crumble and the very sea retire. 4 
The tender feeling for children mingles with the bitter grief 
at their loss, a touch of fancy, as though they were flowers 
plucked by Persephone to be worn by her and light up the 
greyness of the underworld. Cleodicus, dead before the 
festival of his third birthday, when the child's hair was cut 
and he became a boy, lies in his little coffin ; but somewhere 
by unknown Acheron a shadow of him grows fair and strong 
in youth, though he never may return to earth again. 5 

With the grief for loss comes the piercing cry over crushed 
beauty. One of the early epitaphs, written before the period 
of the Persian wars, is nothing but this cry : ' pity him who 
was so beautiful and is dead.' 6 In the same spirit is the 
fruitless appeal so often made over the haste of Death ; mais 
que te nuysoit elle en vie, mort ? Was he not thine, even had 
he died an old man ? says the mourner over Attalus. 7 A 
subject whose strange fascination drew artist after artist to 
repeat it, and covered the dreariness of death as with a glimmer 
of white blossoms, was Death the Bridegroom, the maiden 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 662. 2 Ibid. vii. 453. 

3 Ibid. vii. 261, 466. 4 Ibid. vii. 600 ; Kaibel, 204 B, 596. 

"' Anth. Pal. vii. 482, 4S:{. « Kaibel, 1 A. 7 Anth. Pel. vii. 671. 



taken away from life just as it was about to be made complete. 
Again and again the motive is treated with delicate profusion 
of detail, and lingering fancy draws out the sad likeness 
between the two torches that should hold such a space of 
lovely life between them, 1 now crushed violently together and 
mingling their fires. Already the bride-bed was spread with 
saffron in the gilded chamber; already the flutes were shrill 
by the doorway and the bridal torches were lit, when Death 
entered, masked as a reveller, and the hymeneal song suddenly 
changed into the death-dirge; and while the kinsfolk were 
busy about another fire, Persephone lighted her own torch out 
of their hands ; with hardly an outward change — as in a pro- 
cessional relief on a sarcophagus — the bridal train turns and 
moves to the grave with funeral lights flaring through the 
darkness and sobbing voices and wailing flutes. 2 

As tender in their fancy and with a higher note of sincerity 
in their grief are the epitaphs on young mothers, dead in child- 
birth : Athenais of Lesbos, the swift-fated, whose cry Artemis 
was too busy with her woodland hounds to hear; Polyxena, 
wife of Archelaus, not a year's wife nor a month's mother, so 
short was all her time ; Prexo, wife of Theocritus, who takes 
her baby with her, content with this, and gives blessings from 
her grave to all who will pray with her that the boy she leaves 
on earth may live into a great old age. 3 Here tenderness out- 
weighs sorrow ; in others a bitterer grief is uttered, the grief 
of one left alone, forsaken and cast off by all that had made 
life sweet ; where the mother left childless among women has 
but the one prayer left, that she too may quickly go whence 
she came, or where the morbid imagination of a mourner over 
many deaths invents new self-torture in the idea that her 
very touch is mortal to those whom she loves, and that fate 
has made her the instrument of its cruelty ; or where Theano, 
dying alone in Phocaea, sends a last cry over the great gulfs of 
sea that divide her from her husband, and goes down into the 
night with the one passionate wish that she might have but 
died with her hand clasped in his hand. 4 

Into darkness, into silence : the magnificent brilliance of 

1 Propertius, iv. xii. 46. Anih. Pal. vii. 182, is.",, 711, 712. 

3 Ibid. vi. 348, vii. 167, 103. 4 Ibid. vii. 466, ix. 254, vii. 735. 


that ancient world, its fulness of speech and action, its 
copiousness of life, made the contrast more sudden and ap- 
palling ; and it seems to be only at a later period, when the 
brightness was a little dimmed and the tide of life did not run 
so full, that the feeling grew up which regarded death as the 
giver of rest. With a last word of greeting to the bright earth 
the dying man departs, as into a mist. 1 In the cold shadows 
underground the ghost will not be comforted by ointments and 
garlands lavished on the tomb ; though the clay covering be 
drenched with wine, the dead man will not drink. 2 On an 
island of the Aegean, set like a gem in the splendid sea, the 
boy lying under earth, far away from the sweet sun, asks a 
word of pity from those who go up and down, busy in the 
daylight, past his grave. Paula of Tarentum, the brief-fated, 
cries out passionately of the stone chambers of her night, the 
night that has hidden her. Samian girls set up a monument 
over their playfellow Crethis, the chatterer, the story-teller, 
whose lips will never open in speech again. Musa, the singing- 
girl, blue-eyed and sweet-voiced, suddenly lies voiceless, like a 
stone. 3 With a jarring shock, as of closed gates, the grave 
closes over sound and colour ; moved round in Earth's diurnal 
course with rocks, and stones, and trees. 

Even thus there is some little comfort in lying under known 
earth ; and the strangeness of a foreign grave adds a last touch 
to the pathos of exile. The Eretrians, captured by the Persian 
general Datis, and sent from their island home by endless 
marches into the heart of Asia, pine in the hot Cissian plains, 
and with their last voice from the tomb send out a greeting to 
the dear and distant sea. 4 The Athenian laid in earth by the 
far reaches of Nile, and the Egyptian whose tomb stands by a 
village of Crete, though from all places the descent to the 
house of Hades is one, yet grieve and fret at their strange 
resting-places. 5 No bitterer pang can be added to death than 
for the white bones of the dead to lie far away, washed by 
chill rains, or mouldering on a strange beach with the scream- 
ing seagulls above them.'' 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 566. 2 Ibid. xi. S. 

3 Kaibel, 190; Anth. Pal. vii. 700, 459; C. I. G., 6261. 

4 Anth. Pal. vii. 256, 259. " Ibid. vii. 477, x. 3. 
G Ibid. vii. 225, 2S5. 


This last aspect of death was the one upon which the art of 
the epigrammatist lavished its utmost resources. From first to 
last the Greeks were a seafaring people, and death at sea was 
always present to them as a common occurrence. The Medi- 
terranean was the great highway of the world's journeying and 
traffic. All winter through, travel almost ceased on it except 
for those who could not avoid it, and whom desire of gain or 
urgence of business drove forth across stormy and perilous 
waters ; with spring there came, year by year, a sort of 
breaking-up of the frost, and the seas were all at once covered 
with a swarm of shipping. From Egypt and Syria fleets bore 
the produce of the East westward ; from the pillars of Hercules 
galleys came laden with the precious ores of Spain and Britain ; 
through the Propontis streamed the long convoys of corn-ships 
from the Euxine with their loads of wheat. Across the Aegean 
from island to island, along its shores from port to port, ran 
continually the tide of local commerce, the crowds of tourists 
and emigrants, the masses of people and merchandise drawn 
hither and thither in the track of armies, or bound to and from 
shows and festivals and markets. The fishing industry, at 
least in the later Greek period, employed the whole population 
of small islands and seaside towns. Among those thousands of 
vessels many must, every year, have come to harm in those 
difficult channels and treacherous seas. And death at sea had 
a great horror and anguish attached to it ; the engulfing in 
darkness, the vain struggles for life, the loss of burial rites 
and all the last offices that can be paid to death, made it none 
the less terrible that it was so common. From the Odyssey 
downward tales of sea-peril and shipwreck had the most power- 
ful fascination. Yet to that race of sailors the sea always 
remained in a manner hateful ; ' as much as a mother is 
sweeter than a stepmother ', says Antipater, 1 ' so much is earth 
dearer than the grey sea '. The fisherman tossing on the waves 
looked back with envy to the shepherd, who, though his 
life was no less hard, could sit in quiet piping to his flock on 
the green hillside ; the great merchantman who crossed the 
whole length of the Mediterranean on his traffic, or even ven- 
tured out beyond Calpe into the unknown ocean, hungered for 

1 Anth. Pal. ix. 23. 

I - 


the peace of broad lands and the lowing of herds. 1 Cedet et 
mari vector, nee nautica pimis mutaJbU merces: all dreams 
of a golden age, or of an ideal life in the actual world, included 
in them the release from this weary and faithless element. 
Even in death it would not allow its victims rest; the cry of 
the drowned man is that though kind hands have given him 
burial on the beach, even there the ceaseless thunder of the 
surce is in his ears, and the roar of the surf under the broken 
reef will not let him be quiet; 'keep back but twelve feet from 
me', is his last prayer, 'and there billow and roar as much as 
thou wilt V 2 But even the grace of a tomb was often denied. 
In the desolation of unknown distances the sailor sank into 
the gulfs or was flung on a desert beach. Erasippus, perished 
with his ship, has all the ocean for his grave ; somewhere far 
away his white bones moulder on a spot that the seagulls alone 
can tell. Thymodes rears a cenotaph to his son, who on some 
Bithynian beach or island of the Pontic lies a naked corpse on 
an inhospitable shore. Young Seleucus, wrecked in the distant 
Atlantic, has long been dead on the trackless Spanish coasts, 
while yet at home in Lesbos they praise him and look forward 
to his return. On the thirsty uplands of Dryopia the empty 
earth is heaped up that does not cover Polymedes, tossed up 
and down far from stony Trachis on the surge of the Icarian 
sea. 'Also thee, Cleanoridas ', one abruptly opens, the 
thought of all those many others whom the sea had swallowed 
down overwhelming him as he tells the fate of the drowned 
man. 3 The ocean never forgot its cruelty. Hy.ny. d-aXaroa 
8-oXaffffa, 'everywhere the sea is the sea', wails Aristagoras, 4 
past the perilous Cyclades and the foaming narrows of the 
Hellespont only to be drowned in a little Locrian harbour ; the 
very sound of the words echoes the heavy wash of blind waves 
and the hissing of eternal foam. Already in sight of home, like 
Odysseus on his voyage from Aeolia, the sailor says to himself, 
'to-morrow the long battle against contrary winds will be 
over', when the storm gathers as the words leave his lips, and 
he is swept back to death. 5 The rash mariner who trusts the 
"ales of winter draws fate on himself with his own hands ; 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 636, ix. 7 : of. Virgil, Oeorg. ii. 468-70. 
- Ibid. vii. 2S4. :: Ibid. vii. 285, 497, 376, 651, 263. 

4 Ibid. vii. 639. '' Ibid. vii. 630. 


Cleonicus, hastening home to Thasos with his merchandise 
from Hollow Syria at the setting of the Pleiad, sinks with the 
sinking star. 1 But even in the days of the halcyons, when the 
sea should stand like a sheet of molten glass, the terrible 
straits swallow Aristomenes, with ship and crew ; and Nico- 
phemus perishes, not in wintry waves, but of thirst in a calm 
on the smooth and merciless Libyan sea. 2 By harbours and 
headlands stood the graves of drowned men with pathetic 
words of warning or counsel. 'I am the tomb of one ship- 
wrecked ' ; in these words again and again the verses begin. 
What follows is sometimes an appeal to others to take ex- 
ample : ' let him have only his own hardihood to blame, who 
looses moorings from my grave ' ; sometimes it is a call to 
courage : ' I perished ; yet even then other ships sailed safely 
on '. Another, in words incomparable for their perfect pathos 
and utter simplicity, neither counsels nor warns : ' mariners, 
well be with you at sea and on land ; but know that you pass 
the tomb of a shipwrecked man.' And in the same spirit 
another sends a blessing out of his nameless tomb : ' sailor, 
ask not whose grave I am, but be thine own fortune a kinder 
sea.' 3 

Beyond this simplicity and pathos cannot reach. But there 
is a group of three epigrams yet unmentioned i which, in their 
union of these qualities with the most severe magnificence of 
language and with the poignant and vivid emotion of a tragical 
Border ballad, reach an even more amazing height : that where 
Ariston of Cyrene, lying dead by the Icarian rocks, cries out in 
passionate urgency on mariners who go sailing by to tell Meno 
how his son perished; that where the tomb of Biton in the 
morning sun, under the walls of Torone, sends a like message 
by the traveller to the childless father, Nicagoras of Amphi- 
polis ; and most piercing of all in their sorrow and most 
splendid in their cadences, the stately lines that tell the passer- 
by of Polyanthus, sunk off Sciathus in the stormy Aegean, and 
laid in his grave by the young wife to whom only a dead body 
was brought home by the fishermen as they sailed into harbour 
under a flaring and windy dawn. 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 263, 534. - Ibid. ix. 271, vii. 298. 

Ibid. vii. 264, 282, 675 ; 2G0, 350. 4 Ibid. vii. 499, 502, 739. 


Less numerous than these poems of sea-sorrow, but with the 
same trouble of darkness, the same haunting chill, are others 
where death comes through the gloom of wet nights, in the 
snowstorm or the thunderstorm or the autumn rains that 
drown the meadow and swell the ford. The contrast of long- 
golden summer days may perhaps make the tidings of death 
more pathetic, and wake a more delicate pity ; but the physical 
horror, as in the sea-pieces, is keener at the thought of lonely 
darkness, and storm in the night. Few pictures can be more 
vivid than that of the oxen coming unherded down the hill 
through the heavy snow at dusk, while high on the mountain 
side their master lies dead, struck by lightning ; or of Ion, who 
slipped overboard, unnoticed in the darkness, while the sailors 
drank late into night at their anchorage ; or of the strayed 
revellers, Orthon and Polyxenus, who, bewildered in the rainy 
night, with the lights of the banquet still flaring in their eyes, 
stumbled on the slippery hill-path and lay dead at the foot of 
the cliff. 1 

Charidas, what is there beneath ? cries a passer-by over the 
grave of one who had in life nursed his hopes on the doctrine 
of Pythagoras ; and out of the grave comes the sombre answer, 
Great darkness. 2 It is in this feeling that the brooding over death 
in later Greek literature issues ; under the Eoman empire we 
feel that we have left the ancient world and are on the brink 
of the Middle Ages with their half hysterical feeling about 
death, the piteous and ineffectual revolt against it, and the 
malign fascination with which it preys on men's minds and 
paralyses their action. To the sombre imagination of an ex- 
hausted race the generations of mankind were like bands of 
victims dragged one after another to the slaughter-house; in 
Palladas and his contemporaries the medieval dance of death 
is begun. 3 The great and simple view of death is wholly 
broken up, with the usual loss and gain that comes of analysis. 
On the one hand is developed this tremulous and cowardly 
shrinking from the law of nature. But on the other there 
arises in compensation the view of death as final peace, the 
release from trouble, the end of wandering, the resolution of 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 173, ix. 82, vii. .398, 660. 

- Ibid. vii. 524.  Cf. Ibid. x. 78, 85, 88, xi 300. 


the feverous life of man into the placid and continuous life of 
nature. With a great loss of strength and directness conies an 
increased measure of gentleness and humanity. Poetry loves 
to linger over the thought of peaceful graves. The dead boy's 
resting-place by the spring under the poplars bids the weary 
wayfarer turn aside and drink in the shade, and remember the 
quiet place when he is far away. 1 The aged gardener lies at 
peace under the land that he had laboured for many a year, 
and in recompence of his fruitful toil over vine and olive, corn- 
field and orchard-plot, grateful earth lies lightly over his grey 
temples, and the earliest flowers of spring blossom above his 
dust. 2 The lovely lines of Leonidas, 3 in which Clitagoras asks 
that when he is dead the sheep may bleat above him, and the 
shepherd pipe from the rock as they graze softly along the 
valley, and that the countryman in spring may pluck a posy of 
meadow flowers and lay it on his grave, have all the tender- 
ness of an English pastoral in a land of soft outlines and 
silvery tones. An intenser feeling for nature and a more 
consoling peace is in the nameless poem that bids the hill- 
brooks and the cool upland pastures tell the bees, when they 
go forth anew on their flowery way, that their old keeper fell 
asleep on a winter night, and will not come back with spring. 4 
The lines call to mind that magnificent passage of the Adonais 
where the thought of earth's annual resurrection calms by its 
glory and beauty the very sorrow which it rekindles ; as those 
others, where, since the Malian fowler is gone, the sweet plane 
again offers her branches ' for the holy bird to rest his swift 
wing', 5 are echoed in the famous Ode where the note of the 
immortal bird sets the listener in the darkness at peace with 
Death. The dying man leaves earth with a last kind word. 
At rest from long wanderings, the woman, whose early memory 
went back to the storming of Athens by Roman legionaries, 
and whose later life had passed from Italy to Asia, unites the 
lands of her birth and adoption and decease in her farewell/ 1 
For all ranks and ages — the baby gone to be a flower in 
Persephone's crowned hair, the young scholar, dear to men and 

1 Anth. Pa!,, ix. 315. 2 Ibid. vii. 321. 

3 Ibid. vii. 657. The spirit, and much of the language, of these epigrams 
is very like that of Gray's Elegy. 

4 Ibid. vii. 717. s Ibid, vii. 171. ,; Ibid, vii. 36S. 


dearer to the Muses, the great sage who, from the seclusion of 
his Alexandrian library, has seen three kings succeed to the 
throne 1 — the recompence of life is peace. Peace is on the 
graves of the good servant, the faithful nurse, the slave who 
does not even in the tomb forget his master's kindness or cease 
to help him at need. 2 Even the pets of the household, the dog 
or the singing-bird, or the caged cricket shouting through the 
warm day, have their reward in death, their slight memorial 
and their lasting rest. The shrill cicala, silent and no more 
looked on by the sun, finds a place on the meadows whose 
flowers the Queen of the Dead herself keeps bright with dew. 3 
The sweet-throated song-bird, the faithful watch-dog who kept 
the house from harm, the speckled partridge in the coppice, 4 
go at the appointed time upon their silent way — ipsas angusti 
terminus aevi excvpit — and come into human sympathy because 
their bright life is taken to its rest like man's own in so brief 
a term. 

Before this gentler view of death grief itself becomes soft- 
ened. ( Fare thou well even in the house of Hades ', says the 
friend over the grave of the friend : the words are the same as 
those of Achilles over Patroclus, but all the wild anguish has 
gone out of them. 5 Over the ashes of Theognis of Sinope, 
without a word of sorrow, with hardly a pang of pain, Glaucus 
sets a stone in memory of the companionship of many years. 
And in the tenderest and most placid of epitaphs on dead 
friends doubt vanishes with grief and acquiescence passes into 
hope, as the survivor of that union ' which conquers Time 
indeed, and is eternal, separate from fears ', prays Sabinus, if it 
be permitted, not even among the dead to let the severing 
water of Lethe pass his lips. 

Out of peace comes the fruit of blessing. The drowned 
sailor rests the easier in his grave that the lines written over 
it bid better fortune to others who adventure the sea. ' Go 
thou upon thy business and obtain thy desire ', 7 says the dead 
man to the passer-by, and the kind word makes the weight of 
his own darkness less to bear. Amazonia of Thessalonica from 

1 Anth. Pal. 78, 483; Diog. Laert. iv.25. 

2 Ibid. vii. 17S, 179; Kaibel, 47. s Ibid. vii. 1S9. 

4 Ibid. vii. 199, 211, 203. ■' II. xxiii. 19 ; Anth. Pal. vii. 41. 

6 Ibid. vii. 509, 346. 7 Kaibel, 190. 


her tomb bids husband and children cease their lamentations 
and be only glad while they remember her. 1 Such recompence 
is in death that the dead sailor or shepherd becomes thenceforth 
the genius of the shore or the hillside.* 2 The sacred sleep 
under earth sends forth a vague and dim effluence ; in a sort 
of trance between life and death the good still are good and do 
not wholly cease out of being. 3 

For the doctrine of immortality did not dawn upon the 
world at any single time or from any single quarter. We are 
accustomed, perhaps, to think of it as though it came like 
sunrise out of the dark, lux sedentibus in tenebris, giving a new 
sense to mankind and throwing over the whole breadth of life 
a vivid severance of light from shadow, putting colour and 
sharp form into what had till then all lain dim in the dusk, 
like Virgil's woodland path under the glimpses of a fitful 
moon. Rather it may be compared to those scattered lights 
that watchers from Mount Ida were said to discern moving 
hither and thither in the darkness, and at last slowly gathering 
and kindling into the clear pallor of dawn. 4 So it is that 
those half-formed beliefs, those hints and longings, still touch 
us with the freshness of our own experience. For the ages of 
faith, if such there be, have not yet come ; still in the myste- 
rious glimmer of a doubtful light men wait for the coming 
of the unrisen sun. During a brief and brilliant period 
the splendour of corporate life had absorbed the life of the 
citizen ; an Athenian of the age of Pericles may have, for 
the moment, found Athens all-sufficient to his needs. With 
the decay of that glory it became plain that this single life 
was insufficient, that it failed in permanence and simplicity. 
We all dwell in a single native country, the universe, said 
Meleager, 5 expressing a feeling that had become the common 
heritage of his race. But that country, as men saw it, was but 
ill governed ; and in nothing more so than in the rewards and 
punishments it gave its citizens. To regard it as the vestibule 
only of another country where life should have its intricacies 
simplified, its injustices remedied, its evanescent beauty fixed, 
and its brief joy made full, became an imperious instinct that 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 667. 2 Ibid. vii. 269, 657. :; Ibid. vii. 451. 

4 Lucr. v. 663. 5 Anth. Pal. vii. 417. 


claimed satisfaction, through definite religious teaching or the 
dreams of philosophy or the visions of poetry. And so the 
last words of Greek sepulchral poetry express, through ques- 
tions and doubts, in metaphor and allegory, the final belief in 
some blessedness beyond death. Who knows whether to live 
be not death, and to be dead life ? so the haunting hope 
begins. The Master of the Portico died young ; does he sleep 
in the quiet embrace of earth, or live in the joy of the other 
world? 1 'Even in life what makes each one of us to be what 
we are is only the soul; and when we are dead, the bodies of 
the dead are rightly said to be our shades or images ; for the 
true and immortal being of each one of us, which is called the 
soul, goes on her way to other gods, that before them she may 
give an account.' 2 These are the final words left to men by 
that superb and profound genius the dream of whose youth 
had ended in the flawless lines 3 whose music Shelley's own 
could scarcely render : 

Thou wert the Morning Star among the living 

Ere thy fair light was fled ; 
Now, having died, thou art as Hesperus, giving 

New splendour to the dead. 

And at last, not from the pen of Plato nor written in lines of 
gold, but set by a half-forgotten friend over an obscure grave, 4 
comes the certitude of that long hope. Heliodorus and Dio- 
geneia died on the same day and are buried under the same 
stone : but love admits no such bar to its continuance, and the 
tomb is as a bridal chamber for their triumphant life. 


Criticism, to be made effectively, must be made from beyond 
and outside the thing criticised. But as regards life itself, 
such an effort of abstraction is more than human. For the 
most part poetry looks on life from a point inside it, and the 
total view differs, or may even be reversed, with the position 
of the observer. The shifting of perspective makes things 

1 Infra, xi. 7. - Plato, Laws, 959. 3 Anth. Pal. vii. 670. 

4 Ibid. vii. 378, ayaXXd[j.svot /.at xa^ov wj Q-aXauov. 


appear variously both in themselves and in their proportion to 
other things. What lies behind one person is before another ; 
the less object, if nearer, may eclipse the greater ; where there 
is no fixed standard of reference, how can it be determined what 
is real and what apparent, or whether there be any absolute 
fact at all ? To some few among men it has been granted to 
look on life as it were from without, with vision unaffected 
by the limit of view and the rapid shifting of place. These, 
the poets who see life steadily and whole, in Matthew Arnold's 
celebrated phrase, are for the rest of mankind almost divine. 
We recognise them as such through a sort of instinct awakened 
by theirs and responding to it, through the inarticulate divinity 
of which we are all in some degree partakers. 

These are the great poets ; and we do not look, in any 
Anthology of slight and fugitive pieces, for so broad and 
sustained a view of life. But what we do find in the Antho- 
logy is the reflection in many epigrams of many partial 
criticisms from within ; the expression, in the most brief and 
pointed form, of the total effect that life had on one man or 
another at certain moments, whether in the heat of blood, or 
the first melancholy of youth, or the graver regard of mature 
years. In nearly all the same sad note recurs, of the shortness 
of life, of the inevitableness of death. Now death is the 
shadow at the feast, bidding men make haste to drink before 
the cup is snatched from their lips with its sweetness yet 
undrained ; again it is the bitterness within the cup itself, the 
lump of salt dissolving in the honeyed wine and spoiling the 
drink. Then comes the revolt against the cruel law of Nature 
in the crude thought of undisciplined minds. Sometimes this 
results in hard cynicism, sometimes in the relaxation of all 
effort; now and then the bitterness grows so deep that it 
almost takes the quality of a real philosophy, a nihilism, to 
use the barbarous term of our own day, that declares itself as 
a positive solution of the whole problem. ' Little is the life 
of our rejoicing ', cries Eufinus, 1 in the very words of an Eng- 
lish ballad of the fifteenth century ; ' old age comes quickly, 
and death ends all.' In many epigrams this burden is re- 

1 Anth. Pal. v. 12; cf. the beautiful lyric with the refrain Lytyll ioye iison 
done (Percy Society. 1847). 


peated. The philosophy is that of Ecclesiastee : 'Go thy way, 
eat thy bread with joy, and drink thy wine with a merry heart, 
let thy garments be always white, and let thy head lack no 
ointment; see life with the wife whom thou lovest all the days 
of the life of thy vanity ; for that is thy portion in life, and in 
thy labour which thou takest under the sun.' If the irony here 
is unintentional it is all the bitterer ; such consolation leads 
surely to a more profound gloom. With a selfish nature this 
view of life becomes degraded into cynical effrontery; under 
the Eoman empire the lowest corruption of 'good manners' 
took for its motto the famous words, repeated in an anonymous 
epigram, 1 Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. In finer 
tempers it issues in a mood strangely mingled of weakness of 
will and lucidity of intelligence, like that of Omar Khayyam. 
Many of the stanzas of the Persian poet have a close parallel, 
not only in thought but in actual turn of phrase, in verses of 
the later epigrammatists. 2 The briefness of life when first 
realised makes youth feverish and self-absorbed. ' Other men 
perhaps will be, but I shall be dead and turned into black 
earth ' — as though that were the one thing of importance. 3 Or 
again, the beauty of returning spring is felt in the blood as an 
imperious call to renew the delight in the simplest physical 
pleasures, food and scent of flowers and walks in the fresh 
country air, and to thrust away the wintry thought of dead 
friends who cannot share those delights now. 4 The earliest 
form taken by the instinct of self-preservation and the revolt 
against death can hardly be called by a milder name than 
swaggering. ' I don't care ', the young man cries, 5 with a sort 
of faltering bravado. Snatch the pleasure of the moment, such 
is the selfish instinct of man before his first imagination of life, 
and then, and then let fate do its will upon you. 6 Thereafter, 
as the first turbulence of youth passes, its first sadness succeeds, 
with the thought of all who have gone before and all who are 
to follow, and of the long night of silence under the ground. 
Touches of tenderness break in upon the reveller; thoughts 

1 Anth. Pal. xi. 56. "- Cf. Ibid. xi. 25, 43 ; xii. 50. 

3 Theognis, 877, Bergk. •» Anth. Pal. ix. 412. 

■' Ibid. xi. 23. 

r ' Archestr. ap. Athenaeum, vii. 286a: x.av a-o{>v7J<j/.siv fieXXfls, as-aiov, 

. . xaTa uaTspov rfir\ tAq/' o ii aoi -Erptouc'vov ett'v. 


of the kinship of earth, as the drinker lifts the sweet cup 
wrought of the same clay as he ; submission to the lot of 
mortality ; counsels to be generous while life lasts, ' to give 
and to share ' ; the renunciation of gross ambitions such as 
wealth and power, with some likeness or shadow in it of the 
crowning virtue of humility. 1 

It is here that the change begins. To renounce something 
for the first time wittingly and spontaneously is an action of 
supreme importance, and its consequences reach over the whole 
of life. Not only is it that he who has renounced one thing 
has shown himself implicitly capable of renouncing all things : 
he has shown much more ; reflection, choice, will. Thenceforth 
he is able to see part of life at all events from outside, the part 
which he has put away from himself; for the first time his 
criticism of life begins to be real. He has no longer a mere 
feeling with regard to the laws of nature, whether eager haste 
or sullen submission or blind revolt ; behind the feeling there 
is now thought, the power which makes and unmakes all 

And so in mature age Greek thought began to make criti- 
cisms on life ; and of these the Anthology preserves and crys- 
tallises many brilliant fragments. Perhaps there is no thought 
among them which was even then original ; certainly there is 
none which is not now more or less familiar. But the per- 
fected expression without which thought remains obscure and 
ineffectual gives some of them a value as enduring as their 
charm. A few of them are here set side by side without com- 
ment, for no comment is needed to make their sense clear, nor 
to give weight to their grave and penetrating reality. 2 

' Those who have left the sweet light I mourn no longer, but 
those who live in perpetual expectation of death.' 

' What belongs to mortals is mortal, and all things pass by 
us ; and if not, yet we pass by them.' 

'Now we flourish, as others did before, and others will 
presently, whose children we shall not see/ 

' I weep not for thee, dearest friend ; for thou knewest 
much good ; and likewise God dealt thee thy share of ill.' 

These epigrams in their clear and unimpassioned brevity are 

1 Anth. Pal. xi. 3, 43, 56. 2 Infra, xii. 19, 31, 24, 21. 



a type of the Greek temper in the age of reflection. Many 
cithers, less simple in their language, less crystalline in their 
structure, have the same quiet sadness in their tone. As it is 
said in the solemn and monumental line of Menander, sorrow 
and life are too surely akin. 1 The vanity of earthly labour ; 
the deep sorrow over the passing of youth ; the utter loss and 
annihilation of past time with all that it held of action and 
suffering ; the bitterness of the fear of death, and the weariness 
of the clutch at life ; such are among the thoughts of most 
frequent recurrence. In one view these are the commonplaces 
of literature ; yet they are none the less the expression of the 
profoundest thought of mankind. 

In Greek literature from first to last the view of life taken 
by the most serious thinkers was grave and sad. Not in one 
age or in one form of poetry alone, but in most that are of great 
import, the feeling that death was better than life is no mere 
caprice of melancholy, but a settled conviction. The terrible 
words of Zeus in the Iliad to the horses of Achilles, 2 ' for there 
is nothing more pitiable than man, of all things that breathe 
and move on earth ', represent the Greek criticism of life already 
mature and consummate. ' Best of all is it for men not to be 
born,' says Theognis in lines whose calm perfection has no 
trace of passion or resentment, 3 'and if born, to pass inside 
Hades-gates as quickly as may be.' Echoing these lines of the 
Megarian poet, Sophocles at eighty, the most fortunate in his 
long and brilliant life of all his contemporaries in an age 
the most splendid that the world has ever witnessed, utters 
with the weight of a testamentary declaration the words that 
thrill us even now by their faultless cadence and majestic 
music ; 4 ' Not to be born excels on the whole account ; and for 
him who has seen the light to go whence he came as soon as 
may be is next best by far.' And in another line, 5 whose 
rhythm is the sighing of all the world made audible, ' For 
there is no such pain,' he says, ' as length of life.' So too the 
humane and accomplished Menander, in the most striking of all 
the fragments preserved from his world of comedies, weighs 

1 Citharist. Fr. 1, ap' io~\ auyY £VE ? Tl ^~ r i / -°" (3toc ; 

 II. xvii. 443-447. ' 3 Theognis, 425-8, Bergk. 4 Oed. Col. 1225-8. 

5 Fr. Scyr. 500. 6 Hypobolimaeus, Fr. 2. 


and puts aside all the attractions that life can offer : ' Him I 
call most happy who, having gazed without grief on these 
august things, the common sun, the stars, water, clouds, fire, 
goes quickly back whence he came.' With so clear-sighted 
and so sombre a view of this life and with no certainty of 
another, it was only the inspiration of great thought and action, 
and the gladness of yet unexhausted youth, that sustained the 
ancient world so long. And this gladness of youth faded away. 
Throughout all the writing of the later classical period we feel 
one thing constantly; that life was without joy. Alike in 
history and poetry, alike in the Eastern and Western worlds, a 
settled gloom deepens into night. The one desire left is for 
rest. Life is brief, as men of old time said ; but now there is 
scarcely a wish that it should be longer. ' Little is thy life 
and afflicted,' says Leonidas, 1 ' and not even so is it sweet, but 
more bitter than loathed death.' ' Weeping I was born, and 
when I have done my weeping I die,' another poet wails, 2 ' and 
all my life is among many tears.' Aesopus is in a strait be- 
twixt two; if one might but escape from life without the 
horror of dying ! for now it is only the revolt from death that 
keeps him in the anguish of life. 3 To Palladas of Alexandria 
the world is but a slaughter-house, and death is its blind and 
irresponsible lord. 4 

From the name of Palladas is inseparable the name of the 
famous Hypatia, and the strange history of the Neo-Platonic 
school. The last glimmer of light in the ancient world was 
from the embers of their philosophy. A few late epigrams 
preserve a record of their mystical doctrines, and speak in 
half-unintelligible language of ' the one hope ' that went among 
them, a veiled and crowned phantom, under the name of 
AVisdom. But, apart from those lingering relics of a faith 
among men half dreamers and half charlatans, patience and 
silence were the only two counsels left for the dying ancient 
world ; patience, in which we imitate God himself ; silence, in 
which all our words must soon end. 5 The Eoman empire 
perished, it has been said, for want of men ; Greek literature 
perished for want of anything to say; or rather, because it 

1 Anth. Pal. vii. 472. 2 Jbid. x. 84. 3 Ibid. x. 123. 

4 Ibid. x. 85. 5 Ibid. x. 94, xi. 300. 


found nothing in the end worth saying. Its end was like that 
recorded of the noblest of the Roman emperors; 1 the last word 
uttered with its dying breath was the counsel of equanimity. 
Men had once been comforted for their own life and death in 
the thought of deathless memorials ; now they had lost hope, 
and declared that no words and no gods could give immor- 
tality. 2 Resignation 3 was the one lesson left to ancient litera- 
ture, and, this lesson once fully learned, it naturally and 
silently died. All know how the ages that followed were too 
preoccupied to think of writing its epitaph. For century after 
century Goth and Hun, Lombard and Frank, Bulgarian and 
Avar, Norman and Saracen, Catalan and Turk rolled on in a 
ceaseless storm of slaughter and rapine without; for century 
after century within raged no less fiercely the unending fury 
of the new theology. Filtered down through Byzantine epi- 
tomes, through Arabic translations, through every sort of 
strange and tortuous channel, a vague and distorted tradition 
of this great literature just survived long enough to kindle the 
imagination of the fifteenth century. The chance of history, 
fortunate perhaps for the world, swept the last Greek scholars 
away from Constantinople to the living soil of Italy, carrying 
with them the priceless relics of forgotten splendours. To 
some broken stones, and to the chance which saved a few 
hundred manuscripts from destruction, is due such knowledge 
as we have to-day of that Greek thought and life which still 
remains to us in many ways an unapproached ideal. 


That ancient world perished ; and all the while, side by side 
with it, a new world was growing up with which it had so little 
in common that hitherto it would only have been confusing 
to take the latter much into account. This review of the older 
civilisation has, so far as may be, been kept apart from all that 
is implied by the introduction of Christianity; it has even 
spoken of the decay and death of literature, though literature 
and thought in another field were never more active than in 

1 Signum Aequanimitatis dedit atque ita conversus quasi dormiret spiritual 
reddidit. Jul. Capitol., Antoninus Pius, c. xii. 

2 Anth. Pal. vii. 300, 362. :; 'H<Juyi7]v aya-av, Ibid, x 77. 


the early centuries of the Church. Of the immense gain that 
came then to the world it is not necessary to speak ; we all 
know it. For the latter half of the period of human history 
over which the Greek Anthology stretches, this new world was 
in truth the more important of the two. While to the ageing 
Greek mind life had already lost its joy, and thought begun to 
sicken, we hear the first notes of a new glory and passion ; 

Kai avaaxa eV. tiov vsxpwv 
Kai Imyauaa aoi 6 Xpia-os 1 — 

in this broken fragment of shapeless and barbaric verse, not 
in the smooth and delicate couplets of contemporary poets, 
Polyaenus or Antiphilus, lay the germ of the music which was 
to charm the centuries that followed. Even through the long 
swoon of art which is usually thought of as following the 
darkness of the third century, the truth was that art was 
transforming itself into new shapes and learning a new lan- 
guage. The last words of the Neo-Platonic philosophy with 
its mystical wisdom were barely said when the Church of the 
Holy Wisdom rose in Constantinople, the most perfect work of 
art that has yet been known in organic beauty of design and 
splendour of ornament ; and when Justinian by his closure of 
the schools of Athens marked off, as by a precise line, the end 
of the ancient world, in the Greek monasteries of Athos new 
types of beauty were being slowly wrought out which passed 
outward from land to land, transfiguring the face of the world 
as they went, kindling new life wherever they fell, miracu- 
lously transformed by the separate genius of every country 
from Norway to India, creating in Italy the whole of the great 
medieval art that stretches from Duccio and Giotto to Signo- 
relli, and leaving to us here, as our most precious inheritances, 
such mere blurred and broken fragments of their glories as the 
cathedral churches of Salisbury and Winchester. 

It is only in the growth and life of that new world that the 
decay and death of the old can be regarded with equanimity, 
or can in a certain sense be historically justified : for Greek 
civilisation was and still is so incomparable and so precious 

1 Quoted by S. Paul, Eph. v. 14. 


that its loss might otherwise fill the mind with despair, and 
seem to be the last irony cast by fate against the idea of 
human progress. But it is the law of all Nature, from her 
highest works to her lowest, that life only conies by death ; 
' she replenishes one thing out of another ', in the words of the 
Roman poet, ' and does not suffer anything to be begotten before 
she has been recruited by the death of something else.' To all 
things born she comes one day with her imperious message : 
materies opus est ut crescant postera sccla. 1 With the infinite 
patience of one who has inexhaustible time and imperishable 
material at her absolute command, slowly, vacillatingly, not 
hesitating at any waste or any cruelty, Nature works out some 
form till it approaches perfection ; then finds it flawed, finds it 
is not the thing she meant, and with the same strong, un- 
scrupulous and passionless action breaks it up and begins 
anew. As in our own lives we sometimes feel that the slow 
progress of years, the structure built up cell by cell through 
pain and patience and weariness at lavish cost seems one day, 
when some great new force enters our life, to begin to crumble 
and fall away from us, and leave us strangers in a new world, 
so it is with the greater types of life, with peoples and civilisa- 
tions ; some secret inherent flaw was in their structure ; they 
meet a trial for which they were not prepared, and fail ; once 
more they must be passed into the crucible and melted down 
to their primitive matter. Yet Nature does not repeat herself; 
in some way the experience of all past generations enters into 
those which succeed them, and of a million of her works that 
have perished not one has perished wholly without account. 
That Greece and Rome, though they passed away, still influence 
us daily is indeed obvious ; but it is as certain that the great races 
before them, of which Babylonia, Phoenicia, Egypt are only a 
few out of many, still live in the gradual evolution of the 
purpose of history. They live in us indeed as blind inherited 
forces, apart from our knowledge of them ; yet if we can at 
all realise any of them to ourselves, at all enter into their 
spirit, our gain is great ; for through time and distance they 
have become simple and almost abstract ; only what was most 
living in them survives ; and the loss of the vivid multiplicity 

1 Lucr. i. 2G3, iii. 9G7. 


and colour of a fuller knowledge makes it easier to discriminate 
what was important in them. Lapse of time has done for us 
with some portions of the past what it is so difficult or even 
impossible for us to do for ourselves with the life actually 
round us, projected them upon an ideal plane: how ideal, 
in the case of Greek history, is obvious if' we consider for a 
moment how nearly Homer and Herodotus are read alike 
by us. For Homer's world was from the first imagined, not 
actual ; yet the actual world of the fifth century B.C. has 
become for us now no less an ideal, perhaps one which is 
even more stimulating and more fascinating. How far this 
may be due to any inherent excellence of its own, how far to 
the subtle enchantment of association, does not affect this 
argument. Of histories no less than of poems it is true that 
the best are but shadows, and that, for the highest purposes 
which history serves, the idea is the fact ; the impression 
produced on us, the heightening and ennobling influence of 
a life, ideal or actual, akin to and yet different from ours, is 
the one thing which primarily matters. And so it may be 
questioned whether so far as this, the vital part of human 
culture, is concerned, modern scholarship has helped men 
beyond the point already reached by the more imperfect 
knowledge and more vivid intuitions of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries ; for if the effect produced on them, in the 
way of heightening and ennobling life, was more than the 
effect now and here produced on us, we have, so far as the 
Greek world is concerned, lost and not gained. Compensations 
indeed there are ; a vast experience has enlarged our horizon 
and deepened our emotion, and it would be absurd to say now, 
as was once truly or plausibly said, that Greek means culture. 
Yet even now we could ill do without it ; nor does there seem 
any reason beyond the clulness of our imagination and the 
imperfection of our teaching why it should not be as true and 
as living a help as ever in our lives. 

At the present day the risk is not of Greek art and literature 
being too little studied, but of their being studied in too con- 
tracted and formal a spirit. Less time is spent on the cor- 
ruptions of medieval texts, and on the imbecilities of the 
decadence ; but all the more is labour wasted and insight 
obscured by the new pedantry ; the research into unimportant 


origins which the Greeks themselves wisely left covered in a 
mist of mythology. The destruction dealt on the Athenian 
acropolis, under the name of scholarship, is a type of modern 
practice. The history of two thousand years has so far as 
possible been swept carelessly away in the futile attempt to 
lay bare an isolated picture of the age of Pericles ; now archaeo- 
logists find that they cannot stop there, and fix their interest 
on the shapeless fragments of barbaric art beneath. But the 
Greek spirit and temper is perhaps less known than it once 
was ; there appears to be a real danger that the influence upon 
men, the surprise of joy once given them by the work of 
Sophocles or Pheidias or Plato, dwindles with the accumula- 
tion of importance given to the barbarous antecedents and 
surroundings from which that great art sprang. The highest 
office of history is to preserve ideals ; and where the ideal is 
saved its substructure may well be allowed to perish, as perish 
in the main it must, in spite of all that we can recover from 
the slight and ambiguous records which it leaves. The value 
of this selection of minor poetry — if one can speak of a value 
in poetry beyond itself — is that, however imperfectly, it draws 
for us in little a picture of the Greek ideal with all its virtues 
and its failings: it may be taken as an epitome, slightly 
sketched with a facile hand, of the book of Greek life. How 
slight the material is in which this picture is drawn 
becomes plain the moment we turn from these epigrams, 
however delicate and graceful, to the great writers. Yet the 
very study of the lesser and the appreciation that comes of 
study may quicken our understanding of the greater; and 
there is something more moving and pathetic in their survival, 
as of flowers from a strange land : white violets gathered in the 
morning, to recur to Meleager's exquisite metaphor, yielding 
still a faint and fugitive fragrance here in the never-ending; 






Ks>cpo7tt iyXvz aacyuvs TroAuSpocov uctxaSa Boc/cyou, 

paiVS, SpOC7l"(sG&<0 GUU.(3()AUCn TTpOTTOCTt;' 

StYac&oi Zrjvtov 6 aocpo? /.ux.vo:, a ts KasxvSou? 
uouaa' pciXoi S' yj[/.Tv 6 YAin&uTCuipo; "Epto;. 



ex. ys'.aolvo; iSetv siapivov (ni^pavov 
"Homjtov 5' OTTOTav /.putlvj j/.ta tou; <piA£OVT3C; 
Y^Aaiva aiv/jTai Ku7rpt? ut:' ay/poTEptov. 

Jar of Athens, drip the dewy juice of wine, drip, let the feast 
to which all bring their share be wetted as with dew; be 
silenced the swan, sage Zeno, and the Muse of Cleanthes, and let 
bitter-sweet Love be our concern. 

Sweet is snow in summer for the thirsty to drink, and sweet for 
sailors after winter to see the garland of spring ; but most sweet 
when one cloak shelters two lovers, and the tale of love is told 
by both. 


92 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

love's sweetness 


' Ao\ov o'jSsv sptoTO?, a o' oX^ia, osurepa — avxa 
£ttiv a— 6 CTOp.aTOi; S' £— t'jgoc xal to uiXi' 

ToOto X£ysi Noccri; - riva §' a KuTrpi; oux £(p£Xa<JSV, 
oux. otSsv yjr^y.c, Tav&ea t:oix pooV.. 


'HcioSoU 7TOT£ ^ifjAOV £[A0a? OTTO /£0clv £At<7(7tOV 
IIuppTjV £Ca~lVV]; £10*OV £77 £pyO[.>.£V7)V 

BtpAov &£ pi6y.; ettI vfjv yspt, TaOV e^otjgx* 
spya ti (jloi :rap£/£tc, w y£pov ' Hr;ioS£ ; 

lovers' lips 


T'^v ^'jy/jv, 'Aya&tovx epiAwv, £~l veCXefftv iayov* 
*/JAx>£ yap tJ tA7]|7.ojv <6? oia(37]<ro[/iv>]. 



'E<nrspi7jv Moipi? [/.£, y.a9-' tjv uvia£vo{Jtsv topvjv, 
oux oio £it£ cacptot; sit' ovap, "^GTracaTO" 


Nothing is sweeter than love, and all delicious things are second 
to it; yes, even honey I spit out of my mouth. Thus saith 
Nossis ; but he whom the Cyprian loves not, knows not what 
roses her flowers are. 

Once when turning over the Book of llesiod in my hands, 
suddenly I saw Pyrrha coming in ; and casting the book to the 
ground from my hand, I cried out, Why bring your works to me, 
old Hesiod 1 

Kissing Agathon, I had my soul upon my lips ; for it rose, 
poor wretch, as though to cross over. 

At evening, at the hour when we say good-night, Moeiis kissed 
me, I know not whether really or in a dream ; for very clearly I 

3-8] L V E 93 

rlovj yap ra ysv aAAa [J.yA aTpsx-Sfo; EV07j5a 
yoy/.6cv. jxoi Ttpoaiyn, yi'r/.rjG s-uvOavSTO. 
Ei. o*s as seal 7cs<pCXijJts TSJC{/ si Yap aAvjDi:, 
ttw; aTTOvIsicoftsl; — Aa'Coy.' £~iy!>o'vto: ; 



BsjiAvjGxko xu(3o?' a::To" 7ropsuffo»xai' ^viSs toAjagc. 

oivopaps;, nV sys&; <ppovTir)x ; Kttaaaojxai. ; Trij 9u[as Tpsrr/j ; ti o" spom Aoyic|xd; ; 

a— ts Tsc/or. 770u fV yj ::poc»frs Aoytov [zsAsttj ; 
'Eppicpfko (jooia; 6 ttoAu; ttovo;" sv jj.ovov oioV. 

toOB-', on xai Zvjvo; Avjjji.a x.xfrsiXsv "Epcoc. 



'X2— ~po; "Epwra ~£pl GTSpvotst, Aoyiw-ov, 

ouSs [/.s vumjgsi, [7.0'jvo; stov 7Cp6? sva, 
Bvy.To; o" aOavocTco cucrr/jC70[ rv Ss (iovjO-ov 

Ba/./ov s/v], ti [v.ovo; ~p6; ou' syco ouvaf/,ai ; 

now have the rest in mind, all she said to me, and all that she asked 
me of ; but whether she kissed me too, I doubt and guess ; for 
if it is true, how, after being set in heaven, do I go to and fro 
upon earth 1 

Let the die be thrown ; light up ! I will on my way ; see, 
courage ! — Heavy with wine, what is thy purpose 1 — I will revel. 
— I will revel ? whither wanderest, O heart ? — And what is Reason 
to Love ? light up, quick ! — And where is thy old study of 
philosophy 1 — Away with the long toil of wisdom ; this one tiling 
only I know, that Love took captive even the mind of Zeus. 

I am armed against Love with a breastplate of Reason, neither 
shall he conquer me, one against one ; yes, I a mortal will contend 
with him the immortal : but if he have Bacchus to second him, 
what can I do alone against the two 1 





Nips, /y.Aa'Co'ioAsi, -oisi c/.otoc, aiOs, xspauvou, 
-y.vTa T7. — opo'jpovr' £v yj)ovl T£i£ vsovj, 

A Hv yap [J.t JtTSiVT]?, tots - r^v $£ ;/.' aov;: '(vjv, 
jcai o\a.Q-sl; to'jtwv ysipova, Jtti)(/.a<ro(xai" 
Eax.ei yap u.' 6 jcpaTwiv >cal aou &sog, to ttots TrstTO-ei?, 
Zeu, Sia yaA/.£tiov yputfo? Sou? S-aXa(/.o>v. 



EU/.1 piv ou cpiAooivo; - OTav S' eOsAy;; [j.t {/.e&uaffai 
TTctoTa g'j vsuoMiv7] 7rp6ff<psps xal osyoimci" 

EL yap sm<|/auGSis toi; yjsCXeffiv, o'jx.sti vij<peiv 
suaacsc, ouSs puystv tov yXuxuv oivo/oov 

IIop9fA£ust yap Ipnys -/jjmc 7capa cou to ou.r t 'j.7., 
scat ij-ot axayysXXst tyjv yjxpiv vjv sXa^sv. 



Aist ;v.ot o\v£i |A£v ev ouaffiv v^/o; "Ep(')TO:, 

0{Ap.a Si ctya ITo^ot? to yXu>cu oaxpu ipspei' 

Snow, hail, darken, blaze, thunder, shake forth all thy glooming 
clouds upon the earth ; for if thou slay me, then will I cease, but, 
while thou lettest me live, though thou handle me worse than this, 
I will revel. For the god draws me who is thy master too, at 
whose persuasion, Zeus, thou didst once pierce in gold to that 
brazen bridal-chamber. 


I am no wine-bibber ; but if thou wilt make me drunk, taste 
thou first and bring it me, and I take it. For if thou wilt touch 
it with thy lips, no longer is it easy to keep sober or to escape the 
sweet cup-bearer ; for the cup ferries me ever a kiss from thee, 
and tells me of the grace that it had. 

1 1 
Evermore in my ears eddies the sound of Love, and my eye 
silently carries sweet tears for the Desires; nor does night nor 

9-13] LOVE 95 

OuS' -/) vuc, ou <p£yyo; s/.oiy.tTSv, stXX' u~6 cpD.xpwv 

'H TTxavoi, [XTj xa( ttot' scpi—TXG!) at fjtiv, "Ecwts;, 
oioa.T , a— o~T"/jv7.'. o ouo ocov layyzzz. 

love's drink 


To cncuqpo? »&u ysy/]l)s, X£yst &' oti toc; cpiAspw-ro; 

Z>jvo<p£Xas i{/auei too aoXiou GTOfAaro;, 
Oa ( 8iov si-9-' utc' ey-otc vuv ^eCXefft yt'O.zx d-eiaa 
xTuveuffTt <J>u/av TOCV SV S|/.ol TOOTcfot. 




Ktjo'Jggw tov "EpcoTa tov aypiov apxt yap apri 
dp-9-ptvo? £/. xoiTa; co/st' a770~Ta;A£vo?. 

'EdTr. S' 6 :rat; vXuxuoaxpu?, dcstXaXo?, cojtu?, a9-af/.(3rc, 
m[;.x ysXwv, TCrspdei? vcSia, (papsTpocpo'po;, 

ITaTpo; S' ouxet' syto <ppa*(siv tivo;* outs yap aitbjp, 
ou yOxov <p-/)Ti TSXfiTv tov -8-pacuv, ou n&avog. 

light let me rest, but already my enchanted heart bears the well- 
known imprint. Ah winged Loves, surely you know how to fly 
towards me, but have no whit of strength to fly away. 


The cup is glad for sweetness, and says that it touches the 
sweet-voiced mouth of love's darling, Zenophile. Happy ! would 
that now, bringing up her lips to my lips, she would drink at one 
draught the very soul in me. 


I make hue and cry after wild Love ; for now, even now in the 
morning dusk, he flew away from his bed and was gone. This boy 
is full of sweet tears, ever talking, swift, fearless, sly laughing, 
winged on the back, and carries a quiver. But whose son he is 
I may not say, for Heaven denies having borne this ruffler, and 

96 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

ITzvttj yap x.7.1 Ttaaiv x-£y!>ST7.!. - ocaa' iaopSLrs 

|oj — o'j vuv tyr/yXc aXXa xOiicn Xlva. 
KaiTOi y.sivo:, Loot), Tcepl <ptoA£oV o'j ;v.£ XsX7]&a^ 

ToEoTa, Zr.vooD.a: Ofxaaax y.o'j—TO'v.svo:. 

love's sympathy 


"Eax.o; sywv 6 EeTvo; eXavOavsv <o; dcvi7jp6v 
7uve0[/.a ^lo. gttj&sojv, £io*£c, avwyocvSTO. 

To TpiTov wvlo emve, Ta Hi pooa a>oXXo(3oAsOYra 
TtovSpo; a— o crreoavtov wavr' s/sovto yy.y.y.i 

"fi-T/jTat asra &r, to" tta o*aiu.ovac oux. a—6 poouoC 

I t ill i 11 

eix.aZw, <ptop6; S' I'yyia otop jy.afrov. 



'Avspa Xu«sw7jT»]pt x.uvo? (3s(36Xmsvov 1(3 

uo*a<7t. O-TjpstTjv stxdva cparrl (3a£tc siv 
A'jtcokov Ta/a Tri/.pov "Epco: sv£—r^£v ooovra 

si; sj/i, seal [xaviaic ■Q-uj/.ov lATifcaro" 
2r^v yap sjaoi >cat xovtoc £~ rpaxov sucova ©aivet, 

xat 7TOTa(A<5v Sivai, xal ^£—a: oivoyoov. 

so Earth and so Sea. Everywhere and by all is he hated ; but 
look you to it lest haply even now he is laying more springes for 
souls. Yet — there he is, see ! about his lurking-place ; I see thee 
well, my archer, ambushed in Zenophile's eyes. 

Our friend was wounded and we knew it not ; how bitter a 
sigh, mark you 1 he drew all up his breast. Lo, he was drinking 
the third time, and shedding their petals from the fellow's garlands 
the roses all poured to the ground. He is well in the fire, surely ; 
no, by the gods, I guess not at random ; a thief myself, I know a 
thief s footprints. 


A man wounded by a rabid dog's venom sees, they say, the 
beast's image in all water. Surely mad Love has fixed his bitter 
tooth in me, and made my soul the prey of his frenzies ; for both 
the sea and the eddies of rivers and the wine-carrying cup show 
me thy image, beloved. 


14-17] LOVE 97 




'H[/.s?s f/iv 7raT£OVTS; a-sipova xapTrov 'Ia>c/ou 

dqjuuYa pa/.ysuT^v pu9j/.ov ave7cX£)C0[/£V, 
"Ho\] S' ac— stov oif^aa y.a.TEpps£v, oia 5s AS'-ipoi 

y.tccupia yAux.spcov vvj/£t>' uTTEp p'o&iwv, 
Oiaiv apuscaiAEvoi ay£o\ov ttotgv -/jvoiaev yj^V], 

-9-Epp.tov N'/j'ia^tov ou p.a.Aa Ssud(/.Evoi. 
' H Se xaA^ ttoti A7]vov u—sp-/.u7:TOu<7a ' PoSavib] 

p.ap(Aapuyyj; -/.ocaaou? va[/.a x.a.T7)yAai<7Ev, 
IlavTwv S' sV.SsSoV/jvto #oal 9GEVES, ouSe ti; yjjaemv 

yjsv o; ou Bax.yto Saavaro xal Ilaephj, 
TA'/jaovs?' ocaa' 6 i/iv eipTrs Trapal ttocIv acp&ovo; vjjalv, 

ttj? §' ap' ut^' SATTcopv] [AoOvov STrai^dt/.E&a. 


love's garland 


IIae^o) AEuxotov 7zk£c,(.o 5' aTTOA^v a [/.a [Auprot; 

vapxicGOv, 7TA£^(o jcai to ys"A(3vTa xpiva, 
IIaeqo) x.po/cov ^Suv, £7«xA£c;tt> S' uocjuv-9-ov 

TropcpupEvjv, ttae^w seal <ptXspy.<rra porta, 
'12? av £7:1 y.poTacpot? (Aupo^ocTpuyou 'HXtoStopa? 

EOT^AOxajAOv ycdrrrp av&o(3oV?j GTEfpxvo?. 

We, as we trod the infinite fruit of Iacchus, mingled and 
wound in the rhythm of the revel, and now the fathomless flood 
flowed down, and like boats our cups of ivy-wood swam on the 
sweet surges ; dipping wherewith, we drank just as it lay at our 
hand, nor missed the warm water-nymphs overmuch. But 
beautiful Ehodanthe leant over the winepress, and with the 
splendours of her beauty lit up the welling stream ; and swiftly all 
our hearts were fluttered, nor was there one of us but was overcome 
by Bacchus and the Paphian. Alas for us ! he ran plenteous 
at our feet, but for her, hope played with us, and no more. 

I will twine the white violet and I will twine the delicate 
narcissus with myrtle buds, and I will twine laughing lilies, and 
I will twine the sweet crocus, and I will twine therewithal the 
crimson hyacinth, and I will twine lovers' roses, that on balsam- 
curled Heliodora's temples my garland may shed its petals over 
the lovelocks of her hair. 


lover's fright 


"Ap-y.Gzxi' ti; to'ggov av y.lyv.y.nv.i aypio? si'/] ; 

ti? toco; avrapai xal 7rp6; "EpcoTO. [jy~/y\v j 
^At^te toc^o; Trsu/.a; - xatTOt x.tutto?" ' HXioStopa? - 

palvs xaXiv CTEpvwv svxo; ep.(5v, -/.pocSty]. 




"H&7) ^.sux.o'iov fra.AASt, 8aAASl &£ CptAO[ZppO? 

vapx.iGGog, ^ocaaei S' oupscicpoira y.piva' 
"HStj o 7] (piAspacTO?, £v av&£Gi,v copi|AOv avOo?, 

Zv]vocpiXa LT£t,i>oO; vjSu tsO-tjae pooov. 
Asi[A(5vs?, ti [/.arata x.6</.at; ha cpxt^py. yEAars ; 

a yap xai; /Cosggoov aSu;:v6o)v GT£<pavcov. 



'O^u^oat x.tovw7t£? avaiSss? ai'y.aTO? av5pc3v 
GicpcovE;, vu/.TOt; y.vtoSaXa SiTrrspuya, 


She is carried off ! What savage could do so cruel a deed 1 
Who so high as to raise battle against very Love ? Light torches, 
quick ! and yet — a footfall ; Heliodora's ; go back into my 
breast, my heart. 


Now the white violet blooms, and blooms the moist narcissus, 
and bloom the mountain-wandering lilies; and now, dear to her 
lovers, spring flower among the flowers, Zenophile, the sweet rose 
of Persuasion, has burst into bloom. Meadows, why idly laugh in 
the brightness of your tresses 1 for my girl is better than garlands 
sweet to smell. 


Shrill-crying gnats, shameless suckers of the blood of men, two- 
winged monsters of the night, for a little, I beseech you, leave 

18-22] LOVE 99 

Baiov Z-/]vo<piAav ?:ap£t>' Tjauyov uttvov 
suSslv, Taij.a S' IoVj ffapxtxpaveiiTS {/.eat}. 

KatTOi Trpo; ti [/.ottjv auSco ; seal iJvjcs; dtTevxTOi 
T£p~ovTai Toixpsptp 3fp WT>l $**tvo[*£VOi" 

'AaV £ti vov 7rpoleya>, xaxa T>ps7.v.aTX, V/jysTS toa^s, 

7} yvCOGSG'&S J£Sp(3v '('^AOTUTTtoV SuV3C[/.lV. 



'HoO; avysXe X°"? £ ^tass^ops /.xl zxypt; ea&oi? 
"Ec-spo; r,v a— xysi; AxO-pio; auO-t; aycov. 


2g)(,£0, COS. [/.EAAtoV svs— S'.V, TTXAlVOpGOV ItOTjV 

ad/ avaasipaQco >cal ttxaiv ayyt, f/ivw, 
2"^v yap £yoj Sac— atjtx Sixaraciv oix t£ rcucprv 

vuxrx JcaTawTTiffffto t^v 'AyspovTixoV 
"Hjaxti yap geo cpsyyo; opurfiav' a.AAx to piv ttou 

acp&oyyov, cu 5s f/.oi jcai to axatjux <pspst? 
Ksivo to Xetp^vcov yAuxsptoTspov, oS am roxaai 

Slew £(/."/]? ^/Tj' £A7TlO£; S/.JCpSJ/is;. 

Zeriophile to sleep a quiet sleep, and see, make your feast of flesh 
from my limbs. Yet to what end do I talk in vain 1 even relentless 
wild beasts take delight in nestling on her delicate skin. But 
once more now I proclaim it, evil brood, cease your boldness or 
you shall know the force of jealous hands. 


Farewell, Morning Star, herald of dawn, and quickly come 
again as the Evening Star, bringing secretly her whom thou takest 


' Fare thou well,' I would say to thee ; and again I check my 
voice and rein it backward, and again I stay beside thee ; for I 
shrink from the terrible separation from thee as from the bitter 
night of Acheron; for the light of thee is like the day. Yet 
that, I think, is voiceless, but thou bringest me also that mur- 
muring talk of thine, sweeter than the Sirens', whereon all my 
soul's hopes are hung. 

100 GEEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 




<£o)ff<pop£, (rq tov "Epcorx Pwc^eo, (/.-/jo's o\o*x<jy.ou 

"Aps'i yeiTovewv v/jaes; ijrop zyzw, 
Tic, Ss :rapo; KAuj/ivvj; opoov Oas&ovra {/.sXaO-ow 

oo o*po[/.ov coxu~6Syjv eiysc a~' avroAivj;, 
Outo) |/.oi 7cepl vux.Ta p.6yi? ~o9iovTt (pavsurav 

sp/so oV^uvcov, co; wapa Ki(x.[££p£oi;. 



"OpO-po? ep7], XpuaiAAa, waXou o" two; a.AsV.Twp 

x.7jpo<7cci)v cp&ovsp^v 'Hpiycvstav avst" 
'Opvi&tov eppot? cp&ovspciTa/ro?, o; [/.£ dicoxei^ 

olV.o&sv si? ttoaaou? -^'i&siov oapou?. 

r7]pOCGX.£l? Tl&WVS' Tl yap <7"^V EUVSTtV 'Hto 

outw? op&piStvjv vjXaaai; ex. As^wv ; 

dawn's haste 


"Op&ps ti [aoi SucspacTS Tayj; rcepi jcoitov stccttj; 
aprt cpiAa; Atjv.oui; ypwrl ^Aiaivo(7.sva) ; 

Morning Star, do not Love violence, neither learn, neighbour as 
thou art to Mars, to have a heart that pities not; but as once 
before, seeing Phaethon in Clymene's chamber, thou heldest not 
on thy fleet-foot course from the east, even so on the skirts of 
night, the night that so hardly has lightened on my desire, come 
lingering as though among the Cimmerians. 


Grey dawn is over, Chrysilla, and ere now the morning cock 
clarioning leads on the envious Lady of Morn. Be thou accursed, 
most envious of birds, who drivest me from my home to the 
endless chattering of the young men. Thou growest old, Tithonus ; 
else why dost thou chase Dawn thy bedfellow out of her couch 
while yet morning is so young 1 

Grey dawn, why, unloving, risest thou so swift round my 
bed, where but now I nestled close to dear Demo 1 Would God 

23-27] LOVE 101 

El'Os it£kw crps^a? Taytvov Spdp.ov "E<T7T£po; e'(,7]S, 
to yXuxu <pto> paAAtov si? £[vi —'./.coTaTOV 

v HStj yap xal rpoGOsv £—' 'Aajc^vtjv Aio; 7)X9-es 
avTio; - oux a&avj; scral TvaAivftpoaivjc. 


dawn's delay 


"Opftp£ ti vuv SucspaGTS ppaSi? Trspl y.o'cixov z>laGr^ 
aAAo; sttsI A7j;aoCi; -9-a).-s!)' uxo yAaviSt; 

'AXV gts Tav pao&vav xoatcoi; £/ov oW.? etcest^;, 
to; paAAtov £— ' £u.oi cpw; £~iya'.oEx.a/.ov. 



AtjOuvei KA£o<pavTi?" 6 Se TpiTo; apysTat, vjo'v] 

Auyvo; urox,AofCsLv yjxa u.apaivdtfcSVO£" 
A'iBs &£ seal jcpaSi'/j; ttuogo; <7uva77sa|3sTO Auyvto, 

|7.7jSs p.' U7C* dfypu7uvot; Svjpov eV.scis tcoSoi?. 

'A TZOG7. T^V Ku$£p£l3CV E7TG)(AO<7EV SCTCpO? Tj^SlV 

aXX' out' av&pto7wO)v cpsioVrai outs ■9-stov. 

thou wouldst turn thy fleet course backward and be evening, thou 
shedder of the sweet light that is so bitter to me. For once 
before, for Zeus and his Alcmena, thou wentest contrary; thou 
art not unlessoned in running backward. 


Grey dawn, why, unloving, rollest thou now so slow round 
the world, since another is shrouded and warm by Demo? but 
when I held her delicate form to my breast, swift thou wert upon 
us, shedding on me a light that seemed to rejoice in my grief. 


Cleophantis lingers long ; and the third lamp now begins to give a 
broken glimmer as it silently wastes away. And would that the 
firebrand in my heart too Were quenched with the lamp, and did 
not burn me long in wakeful desires. Ah how often she swore by 
the Cytherean that she would be here at evenfall ; but she recks 
not of either men or gods. 

102 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 



'fijAOAOY'/js' vj£stv ei; vuxtoc <j.oi vj 'tu.So'/jto?, xai g£[avvjv co'[aog£ ©s<7[/.ocpopov, 
Kouy 7jx.£i, cpuAa/,^ o*£ TzapoiyZTt/s ap' STTiopy-eTv 

7jO-£A£ ; tov Auj(yov, 7ratS£?, aTwOGpscaTS. 



Nu£, <T£ Y^p OUJC aXATJV [AOCpTUpOfJlOU, oia [/.' u(3p[£a 

ITuOta? 7] Ntx.ou? ouca tpiAEEaxaT/)?, 
Kavj&sI? oux. oatkvnoq EATJAu^a* TauTa 77afrou<ra 
col \).i[j.^ixvr eV iy.oTc, aTaca xote xpoihjpois. 



Ilacav SYto t^v vuxra Jcivupo[/.af e<jt£ 5' £toai)-7] 

6'pO-po; EAivucrai py.px j^api^o^svo?, 
'Ap/pwrEptTpu^ouat. jeaiSove?, s; Ss [as oV.x.po 

(Soaaolkjiv ykir/.zp6v x.t5p.a 7raptoffa[/.svai, 
"O^p-axa S' ou p.'JOVTa (puAacasTai, tj Si ' Po^scvtb]? 

aO&i; £;aoi? ctsovoi? cppovTic avacrps'^STai. 


Nico the renowned consented to come to me at nightfall and 
swore by the holy Lady of Laws ; and she is not come, and the 
watch is gone by ; did she mean to forswear herself? Servants, 
put out the lamp. 


Night, thee and none other I take to witness, how Nico's 
Pythias flouts me, traitress as she is ; asked, not unasked am I come ; 
may she yet blame thee in the selfsame plight standing by my doors! 

All night long I sob ; and when grey dawn rises and grants me 
a little grace of rest, the swallows cry around and about me, and 
bring me back to tears, thrusting sweet slumber away : and my 

28-32] LOVE 10:1 

'XI <p9ovspal TcaucacDs AOAttToloeg, ou yap Svcove 
t'^v <3E>iao|A7]Asi7]v yAcocrcrav a~s&pica[7//]V 

'Aaa' "Ituaov JcXafotTS fcccr' oO'psa, *ai yoaoire 
si? sttotto; x.pava^v auXiv £<ps!,6[./.svat, 

Baiov tva x.vcoccroi.[j.£V I'gio; o£ tic, -/j^st, ovstpo? 
o; (/.s 'PooV.vftsioi? irrf/ZGiv ajACpipaAot. 




'Poucpivo; T/j *pj Y^'jxeptOTy.TT) 'EAriSt. t:oaa<x 

^atpsiv, si yz'ipzw XT^P 1 ? S|aoC> ^uvaraf 
Ou/.STt py.GTa^oj, |/.a ra a' o^xaxa, Tqv <piAsp7]fj.ov 

xal t^v [./.ouvoAsyTJ <jsio Sta^uyiTjv, 
'Aaa' atsl oa/.p'J0K7t. ~s<pupp.£vo<; *^ 'm Kopvjacov 

sp^O[/.ai ^ (/.syaAvj; vyjov £? 'ApTspSo?* 
Aupiov aAAa 7raTpv] [as SsSsEsxat, iq &s gov o[/j/,x 

7iT>j<yo|/.ai, epptocS-ou [/.upia er' su^o'[/,evo?. 



^y/j\ [J.oi wpoAsysi cpsuyscv uo&ov ' EDaoSwpa?, 
oaxpua jcal '(tjXous tou? rcplv S7aGTa[Asv>}' 

unclosing eyes keep vigil, and the thought of Ehodanthe returns 
again in my bosom. O envious chatterers, be still ; it was not I 
who shore away Philomela's tongue ; but weep for Itylus on the 
mountains, and sit Availing by the hoopoe's court, that we may 
sleep a little ; and perchance a dream will come and clasp me 
round with Ehodanthe's arms. 

Rufinus to Elpis, my most sweet : well and very well be with 
her, if she can be well away from me. No longer can I bear, no, 
by thine eyes, my solitary and unmated severance from thee, but 
evermore blotted with tears I go to Coressus or to the temple of 
the great Artemis ; but tomorrow my home shall receive me, and 
I will fly to thy face and bid thee a thousand greetings. 

3 2 
My soul forewarns me to flee the desire of Heliodora, knowing 
well the tears and jealousies of old. She talks ; but I have no 

104 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

$>i]at f/iv, dtXXa (puyeiv ou [aoi c^evoc, vj yap avaiS^? 
auTVj xal — poA£y£t, xal ::poA£yo'j<7a ©iXet. 



"AyyaAov tocSs, Aop/ia; 1 Loou waXi o*£uar£pov ocj-tj 
xal TpiTov ayyeiXov, Aopx.a.c, awavra" Tpzy? 

MvjxsTt (jl£Xa6" ttstou. (3pa^u p.oi (ipa/jj, Aop/.ac, sttit/;: - 
Aopx,a;, 7roT cnreuoet? xpiv ere toc 7cavra [/.ad-etv ; 

IIp6<7$ss S' 01? stpyj/.a TOCAat — [azaaov S' Sn Avjpio" 
[/.■yjosv OAto? el'~/j; — oaa' era — Travra Asye* 

M^ cpsiSou enj to. 7:avTa Acystv. x.xitoi ti cs, Aoo/.scc, 

£/C7T£|A77(0, <7'JV GOt X.7.'JTOC, iSou, TTpOayWV J 



'O^&aXf/.oC, tso [As/pi; ao'jTGSTS vs/.Tap 'Epto-rcov 

jtaAAeo? obtpTjTou '((opo—orat. •S-pads? ; 
Ttjae SiaSps^cojASv oV/j cOivoc, sv Ss yaX-/]V7] 

vvjcpotAia c— stTto Kuwptoi MsiAtyivj. 
Et S' apa tcou Jtai >cstO t. y.v.'zy.GyzToc, £a<7o;Aat, oicrp^ 

yivEsfre xpuEpoT? Sy'/ipucL p.'jo*aA£oi, 

strength to flee, for, shameless that she is, she forewarns, and 
while she forewarns, she loves. 

Take this message, Dorcas ; lo again a second and a third time, 
Dorcas, take her all my message; run; delay no longer; fly. 
Wait a little, Dorcas, prithee a little ; Dorcas, whither so fast 
before learning all I would say 1 And add to what 1 have just 
said — but no, I go on like a fool ; say nothing at all — only that — 
say everything ; spare not to say everything. Yet why do I send 
thee out, Dorcas, when myself, see, I go forth with thee 1 


Eyes, how long are you draining the nectar of the Loves, rash 
drinkers of the strong unmixed wine of beauty 1 let us run far 
away, as far as we have strength to go, and in calm I will pour 
sober offerings to Cypris the Placable. But if haply there likewise 
I be caught by the sting, be you wet with chill tears and doomed 

33-36] LOVE 105 

"EvSixov otavjcfovtss aei tcovov* £<; uyiiov yap, 
<psu, 7wpo? e? toc7<7V]v 7ja9-o{/.sv epyacivjv. 




'H pa ys Jtal cu, ^lAivva, <p£pet? xo'&ov, vj pa auryj 

/.aavsi; auxXsoi; ou.y.aci tv]x»o(/.svv] ; 
"*H go [t.kv uttvov s^ei? yAir/.sptoTaTOv, metlpra Se 

cppovriSo; outs Xoyo; ytvsxat out' apiO-jAO? ; 
E-jp'/jTSi; ra 6'aoia, ts'^v 5', ayiyapxs, 7capstrv 

a&prjsto ftafuvot? Saxpuffi Teyyof/ivyjv 
KOxpi!; yap xa fjtiv ccKkv. —aAiy/.OTo;, sv o*s ti jcaXov 

SAAa^sv, eyfraipsiv ra? ffo(3apeuof/ivas. 




AwcAioa? apL^STivaqsv saoi; TaXaTSta TCpocioTuot? 

cWepo?, uppwrrqv [au&ov l7csu^aj/.£v7]. 
"Tppi; spwra? sXugs - [/.octtjv oo*s pjfrog aAaraf 

uppt; ey.^v dps-9-si [AaXXov sptop.aviTjv 
w fitv,o<7a yap Aux,aj3avTa pivsiv dCTCavsu-9-sv sV.sivvk, 

to tcottoi, aXX' bc&rng xptoto? suS-u? sj37jv. 

for ever to bear deserved pain ; since from you, alas ! it was that 
we fell into all this labour of fire. 


Dost thou then also, Philinna, carry longing in thee, dost thou 
thyself also sicken and waste away with tearless eyes 1 or is thy 
sleep most sweet to thee, while of our care thou makest neither 
count nor reckoning 1 Thou wilt find thy fate likewise, and thy 
haughty cheek I shall see wetted with fast-falling tears. For the 
Cyprian in all else is malign, but one virtue is in her lot, hatred of 
proud beauties. 


At evening Galatea slammed-to the doors in my face, hinging at 
me a speech of scorn. 'Scorn breaks love'; idly wanders this 
proverb; her scorn inflames my love-madness the more. For I 
swore I would stay a year away from her ; out and alas ! but with 
break of day I went to make supplication. 





riaou.evi: oux spy to* to p.ev oovofxa xaXov ax.o'jca; 

cowaaviv gu §£ [aoi Trix.poTEpvj %-ayy.TOM' 
Kal <peuyst; (pilsovra ou <piA£ovra; 

6'<ppa — aAiv /(.sTvov xal (piASOvxa 9'jyflS- 


time's revenge 

OuTCO? U7TVOJ(7ai?, KcOVCOTT IOV, tO? S|A£ ZOlEl? 

xoi[Aacr&at J/u^pot? toigo*s 7capa 7rpoB-upot?' 
Outw? uTTVtocrat;, a&uttOTaTyj, to? tov spacTTjv 
xot[Ai^si;' sasou S' O'jS' 6'vap ^VTiacra; - 

r£lTOV£? oiXTSipOUffi, GU S' OuS' OVOtp' 7] 770A17] $S 

auTtx.' ava[/.v^G£i TauTa ge uavxa xo[/.v). 



Mrv/j ^puffoxepw? Sepx.7) raos xal 7wpiXa|/.7cs'&g 

aGTSpS? OU? /COA7TOI? 'ilx.Sav6? Ss^ETOa, 


Constantia, nay verily ! I heard the name and thought it 
beautiful, but thou art to me more bitter than death. And thou 
fliest him who loves thee, and him who loves thee not thou 
pursuest, that he may love thee and thou mayest fly him once 


So mayest thou slumber, Conopion, as thou makest me sleep 
here in the chill doorway ; so mayest thou slumber, most cruel, as 
thou lullest thy lover asleep ; but not even in a dream hast thou 
known compassion. The neighbours pity me, but thou not even 
in a dream ; but the silver hair will remind thee of all this by 
and by. 


Golden-horned Moon, thou seest this, and you fiery-shining Stars 
whom Ocean takes into his breast, how perfume-breathing Ariste 

37-42] LOVE 107 

"Qq [J.z [xovov 7:poAi7rau<7a. (xupoTrvoo? w/st' 'AptTr/j, 
sx.Tai7]v S' eupsiv ti^v (/.ayov o'j SuvatAai/ 

'AXa' £;x7r/]<; aur/jv £/)tt]go(/.£V r^ p' sm7i£p.<j/to 
KuTCpt^o? lyytMTOuc, apyup£Ou<; cjjcuAaxa?. 


Nux-TSpiv/j, St/.spto?, (piAoxavvu/E <patv£ 2eX>jVY], 
cpaiv£, St' £UTp7]Tcov (3aAAO[A£V7] #upio*cov 

Auya'^s youcrs7]v KaAAicmov e<; to <pt.AE'JvT(ov 
Ipya 3caT07CTSUStv ou cp&dvo; a^-avaryj. 

'Oa{3i£si? xal ttJvSs Y.cfX ^(/ia?, otoV., SsX'/jvyj, 
seal yap <rnv 4" J X^ V S9^ £ Y £V 'Evouf/.itov. 



'A<7T£pa<; eica&peT? 'Acnqp S[/.oV si&s yevoi^yjv 
oupavd?, w; ttoaao?; 0(/.(/.a<riv ei? as (3as7Wj>. 



E'l&e ooSov y£vd|X7]v u7iro7rdp<pupov, ocppa p.e /spew 
apcaj/iv/j yaptafl ct^eci yiovsoi;. 

has gone and left me alone, and this is the sixth day I cannot find 
the witch. But we will seek her notwithstanding ; surely I will 
send the silver sleuth-hounds of the Cyprian on her track. 


Lady of Night, twy-horned, lover of nightlong revels, shine, 
Moon, shine, darting through the latticed windows ; shed thy 
splendour on golden Callistion ; thine immortality may look down 
unchidden on the deeds of lovers ; thou dost bless both her and 
me, I know, Moon ; for thy soul too was fired by Endymion. 

On the stars thou gazest, my Star ; would I were heaven, that I 
might look on thee with many eyes. 


Would I were a pink rose, that fastening me with thine hands 
thou mightest grant me grace of thy snowy breast. 




E'iQe xpivov ysvojAYjv apyevvaov, o<ppa p.s /spa-.v] (/.aXXov cr/j? ypotv/j; /.opEir,:. 




EuSei; Zvjvo<pfta, rpu^spov Sa7.o;' sl'&' e~1 co\ vjv 

aTTTspo; etGTJsiv uttvo; £—1 fj7,£O7.p0',C, 
'fi; £7:1 (rot f/.TjS' o'jto;, 6 y„al Ato; o[w.xtz ftilywv, 

<potT?ffai, x.y.T£/ov &' auTO? eyo> as |7.o vo;. 



"E7./C0; E^O) TOV EptOTa, pSSl $£ (7.01 SA/.SO? l/(-)p 

oV./.puov oiT£t7.7J; outcots TSpffOf/ivigs' 
Ei[xl yap iv, JtaxOT>]TO? ayz/jyavo;, O'jSe Mayatov 

titox fAot TraTcrsi ipapfxaxa Seuoiaevco. 
T'/pvEfpo; eipcc, x,6p7], cu &s yivso maro? 'AjpiXXeu?' 

KaXXei gc3 TOxuorov tov t;o9-ov ojc e.So&ec. 


Would I were a white lily, that fastening me with thine hands 
thou mightest satisfy me with the nearness of thy body. 


Thon sleepest, Zenophile, dainty girl ; would that I had come to 
thee now, a wingless sleep, upon thine eyelids, that not even he, 
even he who charms the eyes of Zeus, might come nigh thee, but 
myself had held thee, I thee alone. 


I have a wound of love, and from my wound flows ichor of tears, 
and the gash is never stanched ; for I am at my wits' end for 
misery, and no Machaon sprinkles soothing drugs on me in my 
need. I am Telephus, O maiden, but be thou my true Achilles ; 
with thy beauty allay the longing as thou didst kindle it. 

43-48] LOVE 109 




MaTpo? sV sv xoattowiv 6 v/j— to? dpfrpiva —aiQtov 
acTpayxAOt? TOU|i.dv to/sou,' £V.u(3e'jgsv "Epo>;. 



Ku[7.a TO 771/CpOV "EpcOTO? aJCOl[/.7jTOL TS 7TV£0VTSi; 

ZvjXot 3tal x(0[/.b>v jrEir/ipwv TCEAayo?, 
IToi <pspo[/.ai 5 TravTV] os (ppsvcSv otaxs? a<pstvTaf 
rj xaAi ttjV Tpucpsp^v SxuAAav ETto^dfAEO-a ; 



"*Pvy?l (WSaV.puTS, Tl GOl TO TTSTravSiv "EpWTO? 

TpaG|/.a Sia axAay^vcov au&i<; avaipAEyETai ; 
Mr, (/.'^ mo? as Aid?, p.^ too? Aide, w <pt,Aa(3ouA£, 

•/.WtpTfi TECpp"/] TTUp U770Aap.7:dfA£VOV 

AuTi/.a yap, ArjS-apys jcaxcov, toaiv si' ce cpuyoucav 
atJ^st' "Epcoc, E'jpwv Spa— stcv aucfasTat. 


Still in his mother's lap, a child playing with dice in the morn- 
ing, Love played my life away. 


Bitter wave of Love, and restless gusty Jealousies and wintry sea 
of revellings, whither am I borne ? and the rudders of my spirit 
are quite cast loose ; shall Ave sight delicate Scylla once again ? 


Soul that weepest sore, how is Love's wound that was allayed in 
thee inflaming through thy heart again ! nay, nay, for God's sake, 
nay for God's sake, infatuate, stir not the fire that flickers low 
among the ashes. For soon, oblivious of thy pains, so sure as 
Love catches thee in flight, again he will torture his found runaway. 





Scpy.ipiGTa.v tov "EptOTa TpE9co, col &', 'HXiootDpa, 
(3ocaaei Tav ev ey.ol ::aAAO|A£vav xpaotav. 

'AXX' aye au{JOTafoiTav Ss^ai ITofrov si S' a~6 gsu jae 
puj>ai;, oux. ol'cco Tav aTtaAaiGTpov u(3piv. 

love's arrows 


Ou 7TAOxa(/.ov Avj|/.o0s, ou cavSxAov ' HXioSoapa?, 

ou to [/.upoppavTOv Tiu-apiou — po&upov, 
Ou Tpucpspov [*£&ij[£a poco-iSo; 'Avti/.asix;, 
ou Tou?apTtS-aA£i; AcopoSia; ars<pavou? 

Ou/.ETl (701 <pap£Tp7] 7ClXpOU? 7PTSpOSVTa? dlCTOU? 

xpuTCTSt, v Epw;* sv S(/.ol TOcvTa yap £ ff Ti pSAK). 


love's excess 
author unknown 

'0-Al^£U, KuTCpi, TOQa, /,vX £1? CX.OTTOV vjcu/O; £A&£ 

(xaaov lyco yap £/o> Tpau»/.7.TO; ou§£ tot;ov. 

Love who feeds on me is a ball-player, and throws to thee, 
Heliodora, the heart that throbs in me. Come then, take thou Love- 
longing for his playmate ; but if thou cast me away from thee, I 
will not bear such wanton false play. 

Nay by Demo's tresses, nay by Heliodora's sandal, nay by 
Timarion's scent-dripping doorway, nay by great-eyed Anticleia's 
dainty smile, nay by Dorothea's fresh-blossomed garlands, no 
longer, Love, does thy quiver hide its bitter winged arrows, for 
thy shafts are all fixed in me. 


Arm thyself, Cypris, with thy bow, and go at thy leisure to 
some other mark ; for I have not even room left for a wound. 

49-54] LOVE 111 



cpsuEsT', "Epw;* xaumj, g/stai', s/st Tnrspuya;. 




IT(i)A£i<7&to jcai [/.aTpo; sV sv /COA^oiGt -/.a&suStov, 

xtoAsiaO-ar ti Ss p.01 to -9-paau touto rpscpstv ; 
Kal yap ctp.ov scpu xat u— oTrrspov, S' ovu^iv 
xvi^st, xat xXatov TTOAAa f/.STa£u ysly/ 


ayptov ouS' aurrj [/.TjTpt <piA7] TtS-aaov, 
ITavTa Tspas* -rotyap TCSTtpaajeTat" st Tt? oototcaous 

sjjLTropo; covstcrO-at TcatSa. #iAst 7rpociTco. 
KatTOt 'XtGcrsT i,ooi> osococpuuivo?' ou c' sti 7^coA<3• 

•8-apasf Z7)vo<piAc>: cuvTpo<po? oiSs f/ivs. 




"Eyyst Auatotxvj? jcua&ou? Ssx.a, v?j; Ss xoS-stvyj? 
EucppavTVj; s'vsc J/.01, 'XaTpt, Sio*ou x,ua&ov. 

If thou scorch so often the soul that flutters round thee, 
Love, she will flee away from thee ; she too, cruel, has wings. 

Let him be sold, even while he is yet asleep on his mother's 
bosom, let him be sold ; why should I have the rearing of this 
impudent thing 1 For it is snub-nosed and winged, and scratches 
with its nail-tips, and weeping laughs often between ; and further- 
more is unabashed, ever-talking, sharp-glancing, wild and not 
gentle even to its very own mother, every way a monster ; so it 
shall be sold ; if any outward-bound merchant will buy a boy, let 
him come hither. And yet he beseeches, see, all in tears. I sell 
thee no more ; be comforted ; stayhere and live with Zenophile. 

Pour ten cups for Lysidice, and for beloved Euphrante, slave, 
give me one cup, Thou wilt say I love Lysidice more ? No, by 

112 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

4>y]ffet; Aumobwjv [as <piAslv ttasov ou p.a t6v tj&jv 
Bax./ov, ov £v TauTT] AappoxoTco xuXou* 

'Aaaoc [j.oi Eu<ppavT7] [Aia xpo; S£*a' seal yap aTwSipou? 
acrepa; ev p-"/jv-/j? <p£yyo; uTrepriO-eTau 



"Ey^ret ia<; Ilsifrou; xal KoTrpiSo; r HlioStopa? 

*al TraAt ra? aura; aSuAoyou XapiTO?' 
Aura yap (At' £;aoI ypa<psTat, ■9-eo;, a? to uoO-eivov 

ouvo|a' £v dbcpr.TW (Tuyxepaca? 7cCo«.ai. 



Eyyet seal 77aAiv dra, xaAtv TtaXtv, ' HAwStopac, 
sitts, cuv axpvjrto to yAuxu (Aicy' ovou,a, 

Kai [aoi tov Ppe^&svTa [Aupot; jcal y&iCbv sovtk 
[[Ao'cuvov y.siva? af/^iTi&si CTSCpavov. 

Aaxpuei (piAspacTov Loou poSov, ouvr/.a xsivav 
aAAO-B-t /.ou xoattoi; vjiASTspot? £<ropa. 

sweet Bacchus, whom I drink deep in this bowl ; Euphraute for 
me, one against ten ; for the one splendour of the moon also 
outshines the innumerable stars. 


Pour for Heliodora as Persuasion, and as the Cyprian, and once 
more for her again as the sweet-speeched Grace ; for she is enrolled 
as my one goddess, whose beloved name I will mix and drink 
in unmixed wine. 


Pour, and again say, again, again, ' Heliodora '; say it and 
mingle the sweet name with the unmixed wine ; and wreathe me 
with that garland of yesterday drenched with ointments, for 
remembrance of her. Lo, the lovers' rose sheds tears to see her 
away, and not on my bosom. 

55-59] LOVE 113 


love's portraiture 


Ti? [AOt Zy^vocpiAav axaixv 7?apsdsu[sv sraiptov ; 
ti? p.iav sx. TptGcrojiv yjyays [aoi Xaptra ; 

'H 6' £TU{AO); tOV'^0 /.£yapiCT|A£VOV (XVUGSV SOyOV 

^copx o\§ou?, xaurav xav Xapiv sv yaptTi. 



'A <piAspto; yaporoi; 'A<7x.>.y]xia? ota raAvjv/j? 
6'[A[/.a(jt cu(A7rei-8-st TcavTa? £poiT07rA0£iv. 





"Iaio; tqv, jcavw jcsiv/j a(/.' £<p>.syo'(./.av, 
Ou o*si<ja? Aavawv Ssxstvj tcovov £v §' svl cplyyst 
tw tots xal Tp<os; xayw a7wCoXo{/.s8-a. 


Who of my friends has imaged me sweet-voiced Zenophile 1 
who has brought me one Grace of the three ? Surely the man 
did a gracious deed who gave this gift, and in his grace gave 
Grace herself to me. 


Fond Asclepias with her sparkling eyes as of Calm woos all to 
make the voyage of love. 

Athenion sang of that fatal horse to me ; all Troy was in fire, 
and I kindled along with it, not fearing the ten years' toil of 
Greece ; and in that single blaze Trojans and I perished together 





ASu uiAo; vol Ilava tov 'Apx.aSa tttjjctiSi (A£A-£i;, 

Zvjvo^iAa, Aiav dcSu xpsxei? ti [/.eXo;' 
II o? as cpuya) ; 7ravnj ;a£ ^epiiTSiyouaiv "Epcoxe;, 

ou S' ogov KLd7CVSuorai [iatov etocii ypovov 
*H yao [AOt p.opcpa paXXet tto'O-ov tj 7CaXi [aougo. 

•q /apt; 77 — Tt Asyw ; wavTa" xupl (pAsyotxai. 




'AvOoSwuts [A£Ai<jcra, ti [aoi /poo? 'HAtoSoipa; 

^auei; ixTcpaXiTCOUff' siaptva; Y,oCk<s/.y.c, ; 
T H cu ys [Mjvuetg oti Jtat yXu/.u xal to oucokjtov 

7TOCQOV a el KpaoC^C X,£VTpOV "EpWTO? Sjjet ; 

Nal So/.Eto, tout' £t~a;' loo ^ptAepacTe TraAiiATrou; 

GT£l/£" TWCAai T7)V <T/]V o'tO*a[/.£V ayysXfojv. 

love's messenger 


IiTaiT)? [aoi xojvwv}/ rxyyc, ayysXo?, ouaat S' aV.pot? 
Zyjvo<piAa; ^auaa? 7:po<j^tr>upi^£ tocoV 


Sweet is the tune, by Pan of Arcady, that thou playest on the 
harp, Zenophile, oversweet are the notes of the tune. Whither 
shall I fly from thee ? on all hands the Loves encompass me, and 
let me not take breath for ever so little space ; for either thy form 
shoots longing into me, or again thy music or thy graciousness, or 
—what shall I say 1 all of thee ; I kindle in the fire. 

Flower-fed bee, why touchest thou my Heliodora's skin, leaving 
outright the flower-bells of spring 1 Meanest thou that even the 
unendurable sting of Love, ever bitter to the heart, has a sweetness 
too 1 Yes, I think, this thou sayest ; ah, fond one, go back again ; 
we knew thy news long ago. 

Fly for me, gnat, a swift messenger, and touch Zenophile, 
and whisper lightly into her ears : ' one awaits thee waking ; and 

60-64] LOVE 115 

"Aypu7rvo; [jtip/st gs, cu S' oi ^.-/j&apys cpiXo'jvTtov 
suSsi;' Eta, totsu, vai cpiXoixoucrs ttstelt 

"Hcu^a Ss ©dsv^at, p.v) xal cuyx-otrov eysipa? 
xiv/jcry); sV e|/.ol "(r^OTUTrou; oouva;" 

*Hv H' ayayyj; ttjv Twct&a, Sopa cte<J/c> gs asovtos, 
xxovio^, xai o\ogo> 3(6101 cpspEiv poraxAov. 



Aicrcof/.', "Epto;, tov aypu-vov £(/.ot xo'flov ' HAioftwpa? 
x.oiaicrov aioscd-sl^ MoOcrav eiz/qv bcirtv' 

Nal yap S^ ra ca TO^a, xa [/.■q SeoV^ayi/iva (3a.AAEiv 
oDJaov, asl S' ex' s*[/.ol ttttjvoc yiovTct (Usavj, 

Ei /.ai [A£ /trsivai; A£id>w ©tov^v xpo'isvTa 

ypajAiAaT' - "Epcoxo; opa, Eslvs, [/.laupovfojv. 



Ti GTuyvvj ; ti Se toluto. x.op.vj<; socaia, <£iAaivt, 
crx.uAf/.ara, scat voxspcSv Guyjnjcrt; 6[/.|/.aTio>v ; 

Mtq TOV £pa<7T/jV £lf^E? S/OvO-' U7iTO/.6};XtOV aXXTJV ; 

eixov s(/.oV 'Xutttj? <pap|jLax' ETaGTajAE&a. 
Aaxpusi?, ou yrrp, Se* [xocttjv apvEfcS-' ExipaAATj* 
6cp&aA[/.ol yAwccvj; a^tOTUGTOTEpot. 

thou sleepest, oblivious of thy lovers.' Up, fly, yes fly, 
musical one ; but speak quietly, lest arousing her bedfellow too 
thou stir pangs of jealousy against me ; and if thou bring my 
girl, I will adorn thee with a lion-skin, gnat, and give thee a 
club to carry in thine hand. 

I beseech thee, Love, charm asleep the wakeful longing in me 
for Heliodora, pitying my suppliant verse ; for, by thy bow that 
never has learned to strike another, but alway upon me pours its 
winged shafts, even though thou slay me I will leave letters 
uttering this voice, ' Look, stranger, on Love's murdered man.' 

Why so woe-begone 1 and why, Philaenis, these reckless tearings 
of hair, and sufl'usion of showerful eyes 1 hast thou seen thy 
lover with another on his bosom 1 tell me ; we know charms for 
grief. Thou weepest and sayest no : vainly dost thou essay to 
deny ; the eyes are more trustworthy than the tongue. 

116 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 



'AxpCg, ey.wv amxTVMM ~6 frtov, Trapaaufhov (Jttvou, 

a/.pic, apoupaivj Mouaa AiyuTrxspuys, 
AuTOCpui; \w):rf).y. "Xupac, )tp£xe [aoi ti Tro^eivov, 

eVxpououcra cpiAOi; ttocgI aocaou? Trxspuyxc, 
"f2? [as TTOvtov p'uaaio TravscypuTrvoio u.ep(u.vrj?, 

a*pi, p.tT<oca[A£v/] <p9-oyyov eptoTOTuXavov 
Atopa fte cot, y/jTStov asiftaAs; opO-ptva &a><jw 

jcal Spouspa? croitaffi cyi^oj/iva? dia/.aSa;. 




'Ajpjsis tstti^ Spocspai; aTayovefffft iasO-ugS-sIc 

aypovdp.av [aeaxsi; aouffav spvjjxoAaAOv, 
"A/tpa ft' e<p2^o;Asvo; 7rsTaXot? TrpiovtorWi xcoXoi; 

aiQiom jtXatjSi? /pom [ASAicjAa Aupar 
'AXaoc <piAo; cpQsyyou ti vsov osvopcooean Nu^/pai; 

Taiyviov, aVTtooov LTavl /.psV.wv x£Xaoov, 
w O<ppa cpuycov t6v "Epwra fAeff7)(/|Jpivov O'ttvov ayps'Jcto 

sv&aS' U770 OJCtspTJ JcexXij/ivo? T&aTccvca. 

Grasshopper, beguilement of my longings, luller asleep, grass- 
hopper, muse of the cornfield, shrill-winged, natural mimic of the 
lyre, harp to me some tune of longing, striking thy vocal wings 
with thy dear feet, that so thou mayest rescue me from the all- 
wakeful trouble of my pains, grasshopper, as thou makest thy love- 
luring voice tremble on the string ; and I Avill give thee gifts at 
dawn, ever-fresh groundsel and dewy drops sprayed from the 
mouths of the watering-can. 


Voiceful cricket, drunken with drops of dew thou playest thy 
rustic music that murmurs in the solitude, and perched on the 
leaf-edges shrillest thy lyre-tune with serrated legs and swart skin. 
But my dear, utter a new song for the tree-nymphs' delight, and 
make thy harp-notes echo to Pan's, that escaping Love I may seek 
out sleep at noon here lying under the shady plane. 

65-69] LOVE 117 




Ou/. el'u.' ouS' exstov Suo xeftcoffi, xal kotcmS £o3v 
topo)T£?, ti xaxov touto ; tC [xs <p>iysT2 ; 

*Hv yap dyco ti 7;aSxo, ti 7cot^58TS ; Stjaov, "Epwxs?, 
to; to Ttapo? TvaiEsaS-' acppovs; acrpayaAoi;. 




Nu£ ispvj xal >a>/ve, cuviGTopa? outivo? aAAOu; 

op)tot?, aAA* upia? £tA6 l a£9-' a|/.<poTspoi, 
Xu uiv epi GTepcstv, x.sivov S' eyco 00 7iOT£ A£i(J/£tv 

w^dcaixsv, x,oiv/jv S' zh/ZTZ (/.apTupfojv 
Nuv §' 6 |/iv opy«ia cpyjclv £v uSart y.eiva <pspsG#ai, 

AU/VS, GO S' £V JCOATOH? aUTOV 6p7.? £T£pOJV. 




^D, vu£, oi cpiXaypuT^o? S(/.oi 7t6-9o; ' HAioSwpa?, 
)cai gx.oalcov op&pwv /cvic;j-aTa Xaxpu^apyj, 

'Apa piv£t GTOpyvj; £;xa. Astyava, xal to <piA7jf/.a 
y.v/][AOG'jvov ^/P^ S^atcst' £v sucacicf ; 

I am not two and twenty yet, and I am aweary of living ; O 
Loves, why misuse me so 1 why set me on fire ; for when I am 
gone, what will you do ? Doubtless, O Loves, as before you will 
play with your dice, unheeding. 

Holy night, and thou, lamp, you and none other we took to 
witness of our vows ; and we swore, he that he would love me, 
and I that I would never leave him, and you kept witness between 
us. And now he says that these vows are written in running 
water, lamp, and thou seest him on the bosom of another. 


night, wakeful longing in me for Heliodora, and eyes that 
sting with tears in the creeping grey of dawn, do some remnants 
of affection yet remain mine, and is her memorial kiss warm upon 

118 GEEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

'Apa y' s/£t suyxoiTa tx ococpua, y.aixov ovsipov 
^u^a-a-r/jv crepvoic au.oi[iaXo~crx q)tXsl; 

"H v£o; aXXo; Spto?, vsa Traiyvia ; [/.tjitots lu/vs 
Taux' £ci5y]c, sI'tj; o" vjc 7rap£otj>xa <pu).a£. 



Autou p.ot crricpavot rapa oV.Xig!, Tatars xpsaocrrol 
u.(u.vsts \j.')] xpo— STtoc cpu^Xx TtvxGcdfy.evot 

OG; Sa/cpiJoic x-aTE^psEa (xaTOj^Spa yap op.ixa.T' epwvTtov) - 
aXV 6t' avoiyo[jiv/j; ocutov Eohts O-upYj? 

2Ta£a&' utteo KStpaXvte sixov ustov, w; av a[/.sivov 
7) ^av9-vj ys kou.7] Ty.ij.a ttivj oV./»pua. 

love's grave 


"Hv Tt tox-9-co, KXsd(3otAs (tl yip xXsov ; sv rcupl xai^oiv 
[3a'X>.o l asvo? xsiaai Isid/avov ev crrrooY/j), 

Aiaaou&i, ax.pvjTo) [7.£9'j'70v, toiv u~6 yftova OicO-xi 
x.aX7uv, eTTtypa^a;' Atopov "Epw; 'Aiovj. 

my cold picture 1 has she tears for bedfellows, and does she clasp 
to her bosom and kiss a deluding dream of me 1 or has she some 
other new love, a new plaything 1 Never, lamp, look thou on 
that, but be guardian of her whom I gave to thy keeping. 


Stay there, my garlands, hanging by these doors, nor hastily 
scattering your petals, you whom I have wetted with tears (for 
lovers' eyes are rainy) ; but when you see him as the door opens, 
drip my rain over his head, that so at least that golden hair may 
drink my tears. 

When I am gone, Cleobulus — for what avails 1 cast among the 
fire of young loves, I lie a brand in the ashes — I pray thee make 
the burial-urn drunk with wine ere thou lay it under earth, and 
write thereon, ' Love's gift to Death.' 

70-74] LOVE 119 

love's masterdom 


Aetvo? "Epto;, SeivoV ti Si to — Tiov, tjv TraXtv slicca 
y.7.1 TraAtv, ot[xco^(ov 7C0AAa)tt, ostvoi; "Epw?; 

'H yap 6 ~aT; TOUTOtct y£Aa, x,al TCUJiva koouc&si; 
■yjSsTat, r^v 5' si'— to Aotftopa, TpscpsTaf 

©aoita Ss [xot, Trto; apa Six yAau'/.oio <pav£ica 
xu(/.aTO?, e£ uypou, Ku7:pt, cu Toip Teroxa?. 



Kstf/.af ~koi, ext(3atv£ xaV au^lvo?, aypt£ o*atj/.ov 
otSa cs, val [/.a -9-sou?, Jcal papuv ovxa <p£p£tv 

OioV. scat s[/.m>pa TO^a - (3aAiov S' e~ ' £7/^v cppEva Tfupdou? 
O'j okzizic rfrq 7caca yap scTt TEcppvj. 




Oil cot toot' IjUdtav, ^uyvj, val Kurptv, aXwcst, 
cj Suc£pcoc, iao 7U>xva TrpoctTrrat/ivv] ; 


Terrible is Love, terrible ; and what avails it if again I say and 
again, with many a moan, Terrible is Love 1 for surely the boy 
laughs at this, and is pleased with manifold reproaches ; and if 
I say bitter things, they are meat and drink to him. And I 
wonder how thou, Cyprian, who didst arise through the green 
waves, out of water hast borne a fire. 


I am down : tread with thy foot on my neck, cruel divinity ; 
I know thee, by the gods, heavy as thou art to bear : I know 
too thy fiery arrows : but hurling thy brands at my soul thou wilt 
no longer kindle it, for it is all ashes. 


Did I not cry aloud to thee, soul, ' Yes, by the Cyprian, 
thou wilt be caught, poor lover, if thou flutterest so often near the 

120 GEEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

O'j/. epocov ; sDiv G£ Tray"/]" ti j/.aV/jv evl oeauoiE; 

GTraipst: ; kut6{ "Epto; Ta 7Cr£pa cou &£fW.£v 
Kat <>' £-1 77'jp Scnjae (/.'jpoi; S' sppavs It— otcvouv 

oabce Se o\<|cogtj oaxpua ft£paa 77t£tv. 



A ^'/j] Papu(/.o^9-e, ou S' aprt [ £* 7rup6? atOv) 

apTt S' v.vy.tyjyzic, 77ve0|v.' avaAS^aj/ivTj" 
Tt x.AaiEig ; tov arsyxTOV 6V ev x.o'a~ otctv "EpwTa 

£Tp£Cp£C, OUX. rjo£l<; W? £771 <70l Tp£<p£TO ; 

Oox. 7jO£t; ; vuv yvc58 1 x,aA<5v aAAayjAa Tpo©£t(ov 

77'jp ajza x.7.1 d'j/pav os^af/.£v7] ytovy.. 
Autv] Tau9-' eiaou* O£o£ tov 770vov acta r.y.cyzic, 

civ sSpa?, 077Tto x.atoa£v/j jasaiti. 




'Evto? i\i.9fi xpaoivK tmv buaocXov ' HXtoocopav 
^u/;/jv tvj; ^u/'/j? ocuto? ewAaffffev "Eptoc. 

lime-twigs ' ? did I not cry aloud 1 and the snare has taken thee. 
Why dost thou gasp vainly in the toils 1 Love himself has bound 
thy wings and set thee on the fire, and sprinklec thee to swooning 
with perfumes, and given thee in thy thirst hot tears to drink. 


Ah suffering soul, now thou burnest in the fire, and now thou 
revivest, and fetchest breath again : why weepest thou 1 when thou 
didst feed pitiless Love in thy bosom, knewest thou not that 
he was being fed for thy woe 1 knewest thou not 1 Know now his 
repayment, a fair foster-hire ! take it, fire and cold snow together. 
Thou wouldst have it so ; bear the pain ; thou sufferest the wages 
of thy work, scorched with his burning honey. 


Within my heart Love himself has moulded Heliodon? with 
her lovely voice, the soul of my soul. 

75-77] LOVE 121 


love's immortality 



T£; S'jvxxat, yvcovat xov socop.svov si 7rapax(/.a(,et, 

TTavxa cruvtov aurtS (at]S' a7TOAei7;d[/.svos ; 
Ti; Suvax' oojc apscxi T«v <TTJf/,spov, ejr-9-s? apsc/.tov ; 

si §' apscsi, ti ttxiKov aupiov oujc apscrst ; 


Who may know if a loved one passes the prime, while ever with 
him and never left alone 1 who may not satisfy to-day who satis- 
fied yesterday % and if he satisfy, what should befall him not 
to satisfy to-morrow % 





Ei <j£u TTOAucptovo; as! iz'uj~~k'ty:w ax.oua; 

vj cpdpo; suyov.svcov 'q /apt; suc,ay.svcov, 
Zsu Syspivj; scps-wv Ispov ttsSov, aAAa y.a! rj(/ia>v 

xaG&i x.a! a^euost vsugov u~oaytniq 
"H&q p.OL ^svitj; sivai ~spa;, ev &s y.s ~v.-p-q 

v,o>siv Ttov ooAtywv Traucraasvov x,ai/.a.Tcov. 




«J>p^v Ispr jAsyaAou 'Evociyfrovo;, scgo xa! oXaoi; 

•^7717] Aiyaivjv 01 o\s~ouciv aXa" 
K*^;ao! yap ©pyji/a Stti>xo[/.svco u— ' arjxyj 

wpsca; xp'/jsic a«J7ca<y£w Atf/iva?. 

Though the terror of those who pray, and the thanks of those 
who have prayed, ever fill thine ears with myriad voice, Zeus, 
who abidest in the holy plain of Scheria, yet hearken to us also, 
and bow down with a promise that lies not, that my exile now 
may have an end, and I may live in my native land at rest from 
labour of long journeys. 


Holy Spirit of the great Shaker of Earth, be thou gracious to 
others also who ply across the Aegean brine ; since even to me, 
chased by the Thracian hurricane, thou didst open out the calm 
haven of my desire. 





'ApviXsco, XtitsvtTa, <tu yiv [xaxap t^kim aupT] 
tcIu/tcs >caTa (TTaO-epvjs olyoulvr^ oD-dv/jv 

"AyjJt? £— I TpiTtova - go fV ■qovo? ax,pa XeXoyyoi; 
t^v £7:1 IIuO-siou p'jso vauaToXr/jV 

KstOcv $', st <E>oifi<o u.e(/£X , q(Asd-a xxvte; aoiSoi, 
7cXsu<JO[/.ai £ua£i S-apcxTico; Z£^pupo). 



N'/jcov WX.1J— opwv oc, £/£i; -/.paxoc, ixrcis Saijxov, 
jcai [xlyav Eupotyj; a{/.^>ucpe|/.^ gx-qtzzKov, 

Oupiov suj£Of/ivow>t SiSou ttaoov "Ap£o; aypt? 
£; Tioltv £x Supivj? 7rsi<7(/-aTa Xuffaj/ivoi?. 




Nvja col, to tovtou (iaciXsu >cai Jtoipavs yaiyj?, 
avrii)£ Kpa.vra? [/.vixirt T£Yyo;viv7]v, 


Harbour-god, do thou, blessed one, send with a gentle breeze 
the outward-bound sail of Archelaus down smooth water even to 
the sea ; and thou who hast the point of the shore in ward, keep 
the convoy that is bound for the Pythian shrine ; and thenceforward, 
if all we singers are in Phoebus' care, I will sail cheerily on with 
a fair-flowing west wind. 


Thou who boldest sovereignty of swift-sailing ships, steed-loving 
god, and the great overhanging cliff of Euboea, give to thy wor- 
shippers a favourable voyage even to the City of Ares, who loosed 
moorings from Syria. 

This ship to thee, king of sea and sovereign of land, I 
Crantas dedicate, this ship wet no longer, a feather tossed by the 
wandering winds, whereon many a time I deemed in my terror 

124 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 

Nvja 7COAU7rAavscov avfpicov 7trepdv, & Stci <)zOJj; 

"Rofckaaus (oiTayz/jv tiazkxy.v 'At&V 
IlavTx rV a-;t-a;7.£voc, <pd[3ov, £At:ioV., ttovtov, a&Aac, 

ttictov u7rep yaCij? I'/vtov ^opa<7af/.yjv. 



'IvoO? to MsXuc^pra cu ts yXaujtr ueSsouca 

As'jx.oOsvj ttovto'j, oatuov aXs^focaxs, 
NvjpijOcov ts /opoi, seal x'Jfj.aTa, /.at ffu IIdcreto\)v 

jtal @p>ji^ av£p.cov 7rp>juTaTS Zecpups, 
iXaoi ;a£ cpspoiTS o\a 7iXaTU ouyovTa 

ctoov £-1 yXuxspav ^dva LTsipasMc. 



Ai/.tuov axpO(xdXi|3Sov 'Ap.uvTtj(o? api^pi Tpiaiv/i 
o'^c£ ysptov aAicov — ocucausvo; jcaaartov, 

'E; o*£ IloaeiSaoiva xat aXjAupov oify.a ■9-aAoc(7<7vjs 
£i7T£v a.TTOGTirlvocov 5a)tpuov ex. fiA£(paptov 

Oi<7#a, [xajcap, x&tpE.)]xa' xaxou ft' s~l yijpao? tjuTv 
a>wAUTog yutOTax^ ttevitj* 

that I drove to death ; now renouncing all, fear and hope, sea and 
storms, I have planted my foot securely upon earth. 


Melicerta son of Ino, and thou, sea-green Leucothea, mistress 
of Ocean, deity that shieldest from harm, and choirs of the 
Nereids, and waves, and thou Poseidon, and Thracian Zephyrus, 
gentlest of the winds, carry me propitiously, sped through the 
hroad wave, safe to the sweet shore of the Peiraeus. 

Old Amyntichus tied his plummeted fishing-net round his fish- 
spear, ceasing from his sea-toil, and spake towards Poseidon and 
the salt surge of the sea, letting a tear fall from his eyelids ; Thou 
knowest, blessed one, I am weary ; and in an evil old age clinging 
Poverty keeps her youth and wastes my limbs : give sustenance to 


®ps^ov In <j— xfpov to yspdvTtov, ocaa' a— 6 yaforc 
toe e8i),£i, ixso£<t>v Jtal yftovl TCsXavei. 




Asi^avov afi.q)i)tAaffTOV aXwcAavso? oxoA07u£v$pa? 

touto x.a.f' Eu^at/.a-9-ou >cs£t/.svov ^'io'vo? 
AiGGy.y.i TSTpdpyuiov, a— y.v 77S<popuy[/ivov acpow 

TTOAAa S-aAaccaiT] cavQiv u— o arciXaoi 
'Epf/.(ova^ e/.i/avsv, 6'ts ypi~/]i,'o\ Tsyv/] 

StA>cs tov £x. TTEAayou; i/->%0£VTa po'Xov, 
Euptov S' 7j£pT7j<7£ IIaAafyt.ovi toxiSi Jtai 'Ivof, 

oatixociv sivaXtoi? Sou? rspa? sivaAtov. 



TpiyXav ax' avO-pajuvji; icai cpux-ioV. crot, Aifj-Evtrt. 

"ApTStAl, OC0p£Ul/.<Xl M'/jVtS 6 <Wtu(36a0;, 

Kal £<opov >cspa<ja? ico/eiae?., jcal Tpu<po; apTOu 

auov £— t&py.ucry.c, t'^v XEviypr^v ahtafojV 
'Av&' v^; [aoi 7rX">jG , '8«VTa &o*ou itajpaiiaaiv aisv 

obtTua* col SsSoTai rravxa, [/.axoapa, Aiva. 

a poor old man while he yet draws breath, but from the land as 
he desires, ruler of both earth and sea. 


This shattered fx-agment of a sea-wandering scolopendra, lying 
on the sandy shore, twice four fathom long, all befouled with froth, 
much torn under the sea-washed rock, Hermonax chanced upon 
when he was hauling a draught of fishes out of the sea as he plied 
his fisher's craft ; and having found it, he hung it up to the boy 
Palaemon and Ino, giving the sea-marvel to the sea-deities. 

A red mullet and a hake from the embers to thee, Artemis of the 
Haven, I Menis, the caster of nets, offer, and a brimming cup of wine 
mixed strong, and a broken crust of dry bread, a poor man's 
sacrifice ; in recompence whereof give thou nets ever filled with 
prey ; to thee, blessed one, all meshes have been given. 

126 GKEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 



AiyiaAira IIpi7)-£, Gayqveurijpes £fl7jx.av 
Xwpa 7rccp' cbcTafoj; col Ta<$' e—cocpsAivj;, 

©UVVCOV SUxXtOffTOlO AlVOU fi'J(j<j(Oy.a<Tl po'iA^ov 

cppy.^avTS;; ev 7?ap6ooi€ 7reXaysus" 
3>ijyCvsov JcpTjTTJpa, Jcai auTOupyvjTOv spstx-Tj: 

paa>pov, iS' uaA£7jv otvoSd/tov jcuAooa, 
'fi; av u~' op^Tja^tov AsXuyurfiivov Syxxwtov i/voc 

apwcaufffls Pjp'^v o£i{/av eAa'jvoaevo?. 



Asuxaoog at— uv sytov vauroag tijasoxowov o^-Oov, 
^>oipe, tov 'Iovico aougjaevov rcsXaysi, 

A£<;at — Awr/jptov uxt&ng ^soicpupsx Satra 
jcai c~ ovSyjv oAiyvj xipvapivviv kuauu 

Kat ppayixpsyyiTOu Au^vou csAa? e>t (jiocpEi&oO; 

OA77 T]; 7](JM{/.&9-£l 7Ttv6|A£VOV CTOJAaTl, 

'Avfr' oSv tAvjy.otc £-1 5' taxta TiEp.^ov avjrvjv 
ouptov 'Ajct icocous cuvSpo|7.ov el; Atpivag. 


Priapus of the seashore, the trawlers lay before thee these gifts 
by the grace of thine aid from the promontory, having imprisoned a 
tunny shoal in their nets of spun hemp in the green sea-entrances : 
a beechen cup and a rude stool of heath and a glass cup holding 
wine, that thou may est rest thy foot weary and cramped with 
dancing while thou chasest away the dry thirst. 


Phoebus who holdest the sheer steep of Leucas, far seen of 
mariners and washed by the Ionian sea, receive of sailors this 
mess of hand-kneaded barley bread and a libation mingled in a 
little cup, and the gleam of a brief-shining lamp that drinks with 
half-saturate mouth from a sparing oil-fiask ; in recompence whereof 
be gracious, and send on their sails a favourable wind to run with 
them to the harbours of Actium. 




EivoSiyj, col tovSs <piA7]<; avs&TixaTO Jtdp<nj? 

7UA0V 6o*Ol7iOpta]<; CTU[7. ( 8oAOV 'AvTICpiAo;' 

'HcrO-a yap eu^wX^ci -/.aTTj/.oog, yjff&a ksa&jS-oi? 

lAao?" ou ~ oXk-q S' -/j ^.ocpic, aXV ochj. 
M'^ o£ ti? vjjASTspou y-xpvJ/7) yspl [/.apycx; oSittj? 
avd£uaTO£' cja£v ocwpaXs^ ouS' oAiya. 



^•/j'jlv 6 (7.s CTyjca? EuaivsTO? (ou yap sycoye 

yiyvo) vuok avxi [y.s t?j; i&iyjg 
'AyxefcrO-at, ^ocaxsiov aAsx.Topa TuvSapiSvjGiv 

ttigtsuw <I>aiSpou 7iat,Sl <l>l,AO^£VlSeO). 




Tov j^aXstouv TSTTtya Au/.topEi Ao/.po? avaxTE^ 
Euvoao? a&Aocruva? [xvap.a (ptAocTS^ocvou* 

Hv yap aytov cpop[/.iyyo? 6 5' avTio? i'cTaTO LTapah;' 
ocaa' 6'x.a S'^ 77Aa/.Tpco; sV.pscs /sad;, 

Thou of the Ways, to thee Antiphilus dedicates this hat from 
his own head, a voucher of his wayfaring ; for thou wast gracious 
to his prayers, wast favouring to his paths ; and his thank-oifering 
is small indeed but sacred. Let not any greedy traveller's hand 
snatch our gift ; sacrilege is not safe even in little things. 

He who set me here, Euaenetus, says (for of myself I know not) 
that I am dedicated in recompence of his single-handed victory, 
I the cock of brass, to the Twin Brethren ; I believe the son of 
Phaedrus the Philoxenid. 


Eunomus the Locrian hangs up this brazen grasshopper to the 

Lycorean god, a memorial of the contest for the crown. The strife 

was of the lyre, and Parthis stood up against me : but when the 

Locrian shell sounded under the plectrum, a lyre-string rang and 

128 GEEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 

Bpxyyov TSTpiyuta Xupa? airexopraae x,opoat' 
wplv Ss j/iAo; gx.xCs'-v S'j— 0S0; apu.ovia; 

'A[io6v dmrpu^ov /.tO-apa; u— so s*Cs~o tsttii, 

/.as tov a— ot/oy.svou cpO-oyyov urryJAfts fy.iTOu, 
Tav Ss — aoo; XaXaveuaav ev txXersaiv aypoTiv ay<o 

~0OC VOU.OV 7.'7.oT£saC TDSJ/S A'JOO/-T'J-ia:' 

Tco Ss, [jLoucap Aijtws, t£oj TSTTiyi yspaipss 
yalx.eov lopuffa^ cooov u— sp /.ifra'pa:. 



Zvjvoc xal AvjtoQ? *b]poo>cd7cs to^oti /.oup-/;, 
"Aprsp; vj Q-aXapsou? tcj? op£cov z'/.v.ys,:, 

Noucov ttjv frruysp^v au&7][/£pov ex. (3a<7iAvjo: 
SffS-AoroiTOU -sa^as? a^pi? 'Twsj^oplcov 

Sol yao u— sp pco[j.tov a.T|/.ov Xi|3avoK> <I>iAs77^05 
ceEss, /.aAAsikiTaiv /.a::pov 6psiovd;./.ov. 



T HA&e /.as 85 MiAarov 6 to-j LTar/jovoc uid? 

iyjTVJpL VGGtOV a.V^pl (7'JVOl<70[X£V05 

snapped jarringly; but ere ever the tune halted in its fair 
harmonies, a delicate-trilling grasshopper seated itself on the lyre 
and took up the note of the lost string, and turned the rustic 
sound that till then was vocal in the groves to the strain of our 
touch upon the lyre ; and therefore, blessed son of Leto, he does 
honour to thy grasshopper, seating the singer in brass upon his 

Huntress and archer, maiden daughter of Zeus and Leto, 
Artemis to whom are given the recesses of the mountains, this 
very day send away beyond the North Wind this hateful sickness 
from the best of kings ; for so above thine altars will Philippus 
oner vapour of frankincense, doing goodly sacrifice of a hill- 
pasturing boar. 


Even to Miletus came the son of the Healer to succour the 
physician of diseases Nicias, who ever day by day draws near 


Ncxia, oc, txtv iiz aj/.ap as! -9-ussggiv ucvsitou, 

xal too*' cnz suioSou; yAuJ/aT 1 ayaAj/.a xio*pou, 

'Hstuovi yapiv yAx<pupa<; /epo? aV.pov Ci7ro<7Tac 
[/.uj&oV 6 8' si? spyov rcacav afpyjjcs T£/vav. 



Nup.<pai 'Avivptaos^, — gtxjaoO x.opat, ai Tao*£ fisv^v] 
apL^pdcia p'oSeot; gtsl^sts ttoggIv asi, 

Xaipere gio^octs KA£tovu[y.ov, 6? raos xaXa 
smjx9-' uzal zitucov uuuu 9-sal £dava. 



Sol rao*£ cupwtTa ujavwtoas [j.zikiyz oa?ju.ov 
ayvs Aosxpo^dcov xoipavs Na'iaSwv 

Awpov 'Tysivo? stsuqsv, 6v apyaASTj? a— d vouaou 
auTo;, avac, uyiyj —poa—zky.Gctc,' 

Tlast yap sv t£/.££g«7lv £[aoi; ava<pavo*ov irAn-rf. 
oux. ovap, aAAa [/iaoix; vjv.aTo; a;/.<pl opd[/.ot»?. 

him with offerings, and had this image carved of fragrant cedar, 
promising high recompence to Eetion for his cunning of hand ; 
and he put all his art into the work. 


Nymphs of Anigrus, maidens of the river, who evermore tread 
with rosy feet these divine depths, hail and save Cleonymus who 
set these fair images to you, goddesses, beneath the pines. 


This for thee, pipe-player, minstrel, gracious god, holy lord of 
the Naiads who pour their urns, Hyginus made as a gift, whom 
thou, king, didst draw nigh and make whole of his hard sickness; 
for among all my children thou didst stand by me visibly, not in a 
dream of night, but about the mid-circle of the day. 


130 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 




' HcaxASE; Tpvj/ivx ttoauaaiO-ov 05 ts y.xl Olttjv (3a&uv suSsvftpou 7rptova waret? <J>oag7]<;, 

ToOto coi aypoTspv); Aiovucio; kutoq eXaiTj; 

yXtopov a.7ro opSTOXVto d-ijxs Ta|v.a^v po-aXov. 



Tx p'o'Sa tk Spoaoevxa /.at a jtaTotaujcvos exsiva 

so— uaao; xsiTai Tat; 'EXixcoviaGiv, 
Tal &£ uLsXaUiCpuAAOt o*x^>vai tiv, IIuO-is ITaiav, 

AsAcpi; £~z\ - sxpa touto toi ayAaiasv 
BtojAOv S' al{/.a^si y.spao; Tpayo; outo? 6 [aoao; 
TspjJLiv&ou Tptoytov stfyaxov ax.psjj.ova. 



Kefoat Sr ypuasav ut:o TCaara&a tocv 'AippoSiTa?, 

pOTpu, Aicovucrou ttatjO-o'jaevck; cxayovi, 

OuS' £Tt toi p.xv/p Iparov Trspl x.A^v.a paAooaa 

cpucsi uTwsp jcpaxo? vejcrapsov — STaAov. 

Heracles who goest on stony Trachis and on Oeta and the 
deep brow of tree-clad Pholoe, to thee Dionysius offers this green 
staff of wild olive, cut off by him with his billhook. 

These dewy roses and yonder close-curled wild thyme are laid 
before the maidens of Helicon, and the dark-leaved laurels before 
thee, Pythian Healer, since the Delphic rock made this thine 
ornament ; and this white-horned he-goat shall stain your altar, 
who nibbles the tip of the terebinth shoot. 

Thou liest in the golden portico of Aphrodite, O grape-cluster 
filled full of Dionysus' juice, nor ever more shall thy mother twine 
round thee her lovely tendril or above thine head put forth her 
honeved leaf. 




"A Kuxpov a re K'jibjpx jcal a Miatjtov irzov/yziq 
•/.a! to xaAov Supi?]? i~ ~ oxpOTOU oV.tteoov, 

"Ea!)oi; iAao? KaAAt/rruo, vj t6v Spaomqv 
ouo*£ ttot' otxefcov tocsv axo TrpoO-uptov. 




' H <joj3ap6v ysXaoaffa /.aft' 'Eaaoc^o;, tj tov spacTcSv 
£cu6v evl xpoO-upoi? Aki; iyoucra vswv, 

Ttj IlaipiT] to JcaTOTrrpov" £~sl Toiv] (XEv 6paa9-ai 
ou/C £&£Aoo, oi7] S' yjv 7:apo; ou o\Jva[/.ai. 




"Iuy£ v] Niy.ouc, 7] jcat o*io«tovtiov saxsiv 

avopa seal £•/. S-aXaj/.tov Trauma; e~ i<7Tay.EV7], 

Xpucrco 7i:ot/.!.AS-£t(ja, oiauyio? d^ ojxe&ugtou 

yAu—TTp col /C£tT(Xl, KuTOl, (piAov jcteocvov, 

IIop<pup£7j; ajxvou p.aAax.7J Tpi/l fjioTsc o'E&stcra, 
ttj? Aapicffafojs ^sivia <;. 


Thou who inhabitest Cyprus and Cythera and Miletus and the 
fair plain of horse-trampled Syria, come graciously to Callistion, 
who never thrust her lover away from her house's doors. 

2 3 
I Lais who laughed exultant over Greece, I who held that swarm 
of young lovers in my porches, give my mirror to the Paphian; 
since such as I am I will not see myself, and such as I was I cannot. 


Nico's wryneck, that knows to draw a man even from overseas, 
and girls out of their wedding-chambers, chased with gold, carven 
out of translucent amethyst, lies before thee, Cyprian, for thine 
own possession, tied across the middle with a soft lock of purple 
lamb's wool, the gift of the sorceress of Larissa. 

1 32 G R E EK A X T II L G Y [SECT. 2 




'AyyioXo'j pTjyim/o; i~ (axons, col tocSe Trsy.Trw 

tlmcua, x.xl Xrojs ocopa 0->jr,~oAtaj;" 
Aupiov 'Ioviou yap £—1 TVAaru y„'j[v.a Trspr^w 

(ttts'jSiov -^fx£T£pr^ vJAt.qv s; EtSoOiTj;* 
Oupto; ocXa' ex'-Aajx^ov sy.tu xai spam xal Ittco, 

Ssc-OTt xal ftaAajxcov Ku7rpt, xal r^iovwv. 




Tw ut£ Kavw— itx KaAAicTtov dV.oci u.u£ai€ 

TTAO'JCIOV V] KpiTlO'J A'J/VOV £i>7]^S &£to, 

Eu^a[y.£va rap! ttx»J6; 'AtoAAi^o;' £; S' itj.y. <psyyv; 
a&p^ca; <pr i c£ll;• c/ Ef7-£p£, ttoj; st;£<j£;. 




A£cy.i \j! r Hpax.AEi; 'Ap^oCTpy.TO'j i.£pov o'-aov, 

6'<ppa ttotI t;scTav Tra<rra&a xsxAiuiva 
TrftyXiy. teaeOoi^i yopcSv afouaa xal u'p.vwv* 

ap/.£iTW CTuy£pa Svjpi; 'Evjxaio'j. 

2 5 
Guardian of the seabcach, to thee I send these cakes, and the 
gifts of a scanty sacrifice ; for to-morrow I shall cross the broad 
wave of the Ionian sea, hastening to our Eidothea's arms. But 
shine thou favourably on my love as on my mast, Cyprian, 
mistress of the bride-chamber and the beach. 

To the god of Canopus Callistion, wife of Critias, dedicated me, 
a lamp enriched with twenty wicks, when her prayer for her child 
Apellis was heard • and regarding my splendours thou wilt say, 
How art thou fallen, O Evening Star ! 

Receive me, Heracles, the consecrated shield of Archestratus, 
that leaning against thy polished portico, I may grow old in 
hearing of dances and hymns ; let the War-God's hateful strife be 





M£X>.ov apoc GTuyeoiv >cay<o ttots ovjptv "Apvjo? 

£/.^po'XiT:o'jca /opoov Trap&sviov afeiv 
'ApTsatSo; Tsspl vadv, 'E~i;£vo<; tvJ>sc ;/.' &h)xev 

Xsux.ov s^sl jcsivou yvjp'-'-? ^ Tet ? £ f*&ij- 



Kspxt^a Tav opfrpivi ^eXtooviocov a[/.a cpwva 
ueXitOf/ivav, Lgtcov IIxa'axo'o; dftxudva, 

Tov te /.ap'/j^apsovTa 7W)Xuppo£f3&7jTOV arpay.TOv 
scXcdaryipa crpS7tTa? suo'pop.ov aprcodva<;, 

Kal Tr/jvac, xai tgvSs <pO:/jky./.y.TOV xo&atKc/.ov, 
araixovo? acxirrou seal TO^uTua? cpu^asca, 

nat? aya&ou TsASffiiXXa AioySkzoc, a cpi^ospyo? 


r i i  i 



'Apxi/av/j poiav ts Jtai apxi/vouv too*£ j/.vp.ov 
xai ouTiSocplotov gujcov e~o k u.^paXiov 


So I was destined, I also, once to abandon the hateful strife of 
Ares and hear the maiden choirs around Artemis' temple, where 
Epixenus placed me when white old age began to waste his limbs. 


The shuttle that sang at morning with the earliest swallows' cry, 
kingfisher of Pallas in the loom, and the heavy-headed twirling 
spindle, light-running spinner of the twisted yarn, and the bobbins, 
and this basket, friend to the distaff, keeper of the spun warp-thread 
and the reel, Telesilla, the industrious daughter of good Diodes, 
dedicates to the Maiden, mistress of wool-dressers. 

This fresh-cloven pomegranate and fresh-downed quince, and 
the wrinkled navel-like fig, and the purple grape-bunch spirting 

134 GEEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 

noG^'Jpsdv te fidrpuv [j.zdvTzibx/.x Trux.voppaya xapuov yA(op/j; aprioopov astuSo; 
'AypottoTTj twos [/.ovocTopQuyyi npivjxo) 

& 6 x.ap-o<p'jAa!;, 8svo*pwc)cqv 8-ufftajv. 



Ar { o~. Atx.ij.aivj £vauAax.o<poiTi<Ttv Hpat? 

'Hpcova£ Trsviypvj; e£ 67\.t"p]po<ih]S 
Moipav a.Atoi'Ta GTa/uo; 7cavc7csp{/.a ts rauTz 

o<nrot' s~l 7TAax(vou tooo' s&sto Tpi~ooo;, 
'Ex. j7.1x.pwv oAiytCTa* ttstt xto yap ou j/iya toGto 

JCA7JOIOV £V XuTCpYJ "flOS y£G)AO<pfo]. 



Apayu.aTa crot yupou ['jAax.oc, o> otAO-'jpe 

A'/joi, StoTtx.Asvj; apoupo-dvo; 
Eu(7Ta/uv a[A7j(ja? t6v vuv esxdpov' aAAa aim? 

ex. x.aAa|A-/]T0|At7j: aj^'j tp£pot ftps^avov. 

wine, thick-clustered, and the nut fresh-stripped of its green 
husk, to this rustic staked Priapus the keeper of the fruit dedicates, 
an offering from his orchard trees. 

To Demeter of the winnowing-fan and the Seasons whose feet 
are in the furrows Heronax lays here from the poverty of a small 
tilth their share of ears from the threshing-floor, and these mixed 
seeds of pulse on a slabbed table, the least of a little ; for no great 
inheritance is this he has gotten him, here on the barren hill. 

3 2 

These handf'uls of corn from the furrows of a tiny field, Demeter 
lover of wheat, Sosicles the tiller dedicates to thee, having reaped 
now an abundant harvest ; but again likewise may he carry back 
his sickle blunted from shearing of the straw. 





AiyipaTT) toSs Ilavl seal sux.ap— co Aiovocw Ayjoi X-O-ovlt) £uv6v Etbjxa yspx?, 
Air£ S' auxoug xaXa r:tosa seal x.a>.6v oivov 

jcal JtaXov K[/.yjcrai y.xp-ov a—' aaxa^utov. 




Euo*7j[/.o? t6v vtjov eV aypoO tovo*' avEuvj'/.sv 

T(5 TOCVTCOV aVSLttOV 7UOT0CTW Zs<p'jp<i> - 

Eu^a k u.evw yap oi t^a&s (ioa&oo;, ocppa Ta^iora 
XuCf/.7]<J7J 77£-6v(OV jcapTrov arc' acTa^uwv. 



KpTjp.vopaTav Si/.sptov Nu[/.<p<3v yjyvjTopa Tlavx 
a^oj/.sO'', 6; TOTpivov tovo*s AsAoy/s Sof/.ov, 

'L\aov srmsvai amuv Scot Aipa ttjvos jaoXovts; 
aevaou 7wOu.aTO? ofrj/av x.~w<7a[/.s9a. 


To Pan of the goats and fruitful Dionysus and Demeter Lady of 
Earth I dedicate a common offering, and beseech of them fair fleeces 
and fair wine and fair fruit of the corn-ears in my reaping. 


Eudemus dedicates this shrine in the fields to Zephyrus, most 
bountiful of the winds, who came to aid him at his prayer, that he 
might right quickly winnow the grain from the ripe ears. 

We supplicate Pan, the goer on the cliffs, twy-horned leader of 
the Nymphs, who abides in this house of rock, to be gracious to 
us, whosoever come to this spring of ever-flowing drink to rid us 
of our thirst. 

136 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 




4>pi£oxopuf toSe Havi x,al auAiaatv •8-ero Nuaoai? 

Stopov 0-6 <r/.o-ia; ©$>Jo*oto; oiovoao;, 
Ouvey' u-' a^aAsou Sipeo; piya *8*J*Jl<5Ta 

wauffav, opscxTai jrepcl y.sliypov 'Jo\op. 




Aafpvi? 6 Asu^o^pw;, 6 xoXyj ffupiyyt iv.eAicro'tov 
pou/.oAf/.ou? u'iavou; av-8-STO ITavl toco's, 

Too; TpTjTOu; o*6va/ia?, to Aayw.SoAov, 6<;<jv ducovra, 
vstBptoV., tocv — Tjpav k t:ot' e'j.aXo^ opei. 



2 01 Taoe, Hav cxo—r/JTa, TrxvaioAa o\opa auvaiu.01 

Tpiyjys? £/. Tpiflftrijjc -OivTO ALvoGTashj; - 
Aix.Tua j/iv Aap.t? abjptov, ITiypTj? Ss t:st7jvi3v 

Aaiy.OTreoV.c, KAeircop X' sivaAicpoiTa liva 1 
flv t6v uiv xat ecauxh; ev ^spi, tov 0*' in &ebj; 

euorojfov sv ~ovtw, tov o*e Kara Spuo/ou;. 

To Pan the bristly-haired, and the Nymphs of the farm-yard, 
Theodotus the shepherd laid this gift under the crag, because they 
stayed him when very weary under the parching summer, stretching 
out to him honey- sweet water in their hands. 

White-skinned Daphnis, the player of pastoral hymns on his 
fair pipe, offers these to Pan, the pierced reeds, the stick for 
throwing at hares, a sharp javelin and a fawn-skin, and the scrip 
wherein once he carried apples. 

To thee, Pan of the cliff, three brethren dedicate these various 
gifts of their threefold ensnaring ; Damis toils for wild beasts, and 
Pigres springes for birds, and Cleitor nets that swim in the sea ; 
whereof do thou yet again make the one fortunate in the air, and 
the one in the sea and the one among the oakwoods. 




ToOto coi, "ApTEjAt, Six, Kascovjjao; ziny.'z ayaAu.y., 
touto" <yu S' su&vjpou TOua u—sptc^e opio'j 

'Hits /.xt' EivocicpuAAov 6'po? ttocI xotvix (iaivsi; 
Sstvov |/.aijuo<7aic ey/.ovsoucx xucCv. 



STr/JAuyye; NujAcpwv suir&axe^, al to'gov uScop 

e'i^oucai ffy.oAioO touSs Jtocra Tzpsovoc, 
ITavo? t rj/TjEcca -it>jgte— toio xaXtq 

thv uxo Bacrcaivj; -oral AEAoy/£ TCSTpyj?, 
'Ispa t' aypsuTatci yspavSpuou 

-pE^ava, Atfb]Aoys£; &' 'Ep;/ito io*pu<ris;, 
Auxai $•' IatJ/COits Jtal £u»>r]poto Ssysa&s 

StocavS.ooi) Tayivvj;' EAxcporaoi'Vjc. 



Tav EAacpov AaScova xal a[A<p' 'EputAavQtov uotop 


This to thee, Artemis the bright, this statue Cleonyraus set up ; 
do thou overshadow this oakwood rich in game, where thou goest 
afoot, our lady, over the mountain tossing with foliage as thou 
hastest with thy terrible and eager hounds. 

Fountained caverns of the Nymphs that drip so much water 
down this jagged headland, and echoing hut of pine-coronalled 
Pan, wherein he dwells under the feet of the rock of Bassae, and 
stumps of aged juniper sacred among hunters, and stone-heaped 
seats of Hermes, be gracious and receive the spoils of the swift 
stag-chase from Sosander prosperous in hunting. 

This deer that fed about Ladon and the Erymanthian water 
and the ridges of Pholoe haunted by wild beasts, Lycormas son of 

138 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 

II a 1; 6 ©saci<$Eto Axtuovio; sias Auxdpf&ag 

TrXr^a; poafitoxto Soupaxo? oopiayw, 
Asoax Ss jcal oY/.spaiov aro GTOpihiyya |/.stcot;ci)v 

TTrx'j'jay.svo;, >coupx Ovj/.s Trap' aypdriSi. 



"AvSpojcXo?, co'-oaaov, toSs eroi xepa;, ai 2m ttouauv 

-9-vjpa (iaAtov aypa? eSrotowov ei/s tujpjV 
Ouxots yap xAayxTG? yupa? e£aATO xepaia; 

16; ETC ^AEf/.OT(p y£tp6; eV.Yjj30Aia. 

'Ocrcax.1 yap to^oio roxvaypsTi; laggs vsupa 

TOffffaxi? *^v aypeu; r^epo? •q £uAoy_oo' 
'AvO-' tov col toSs, <J>oT,6e, to Auk-uov g~aov ayivel 

ypussiai; TTAS^a? [/.etAiov a[/.<pw£ai?. 




fl ITav, <psppo;jivat.; lepav cpariv K7WS Ttoiy.vxi; 

x.uprdv UTOp ypucstov ysiAO? Lsl; oovax.tov, 
w O<pp' ai piv XsujcoTo Psppi9-OTa Scopa yaAa/.To; 
ouO-aaiv e; Kau^-svou 7ru>tva (pspwct od[7.ov, 

Thearidas of Lasion got, striking her with the diamond-shaped 
butt of his spear, and, drawing off the skin and the double-pointed 
antlers on her forehead, laid them before the Maiden of the country. 


Androclus, Apollo, gives this bow to thee, wherewith in the 
chase striking many a beast he had luck in his aim : since never 
did the arrow leap wandering from the curved horn or speed 
vainly from his hand; for as often as the inevitable bowstring 
rang, so often he brought down his prey in air or thicket ; where- 
fore to thee, Phoebus, he brings this Lyctian weapon as an 
offering, having wound it round with rings of gold. 

Pan, utter thy holy voice to the feeding flocks, running thy 
curved lip over the golden reeds, that so they may often bring 
gifts of white milk in heavy udders to Cly menus' home, and for 


(po'-vtov £>c Aaaiou cnj&eo? aty.' spuyvj. 




"A<J7copa, Ilav AO^t^Ta, toco's STpaToW.o; apoTpso; 

avr' euspvecriin? av-9-STO cot TSasV/j" 
Bocx.s S', scpv], ^aipcov Ta ca rcoi[/.vioc jcai gso yjwpyjv Tiqv yaXx.w [/.rxiTt TS[/.voy.ev7]V 
Aiffiov sup'/jcsi? to sxauAtov svO-aSs yap coi 

'H/w Tep-oyivT] y„al yajv-ov S/CTSAs<7St. 

thee the lord of the she-goats, standing fairly by thy altars, may- 
spirt the red blood from his shaggy breast. 


These unsown domains, Pan of the hill, Stratonicus the 
ploughman dedicated to thee in return of thy good deeds, saying, 
Feed in joy thine own flocks and look on thine own land, never 
more to be shorn with brass ; thou wilt find the resting-place a 
gracious one ; for even here charmed Echo will fulfil her marriage 
with thee. 






Ei to KoeXbSg dvqrasiv apsTTj; [/ipo; earl f/iywTov iv, TTavxtov tout a— sveij/.s Tu/vj' 

'Eaa3co\ y^P <j~£'j5ovto; eA£ui>spiav Trspid-sTvai 
•/.z'vj.ztf ayyjpavTto yptoaevoi euAOYCuj. 



y A<j{3sffT0v jcXeo? owe qpfXij wept — y.Tpio\ •O-evte; 

jcuaveov -9-avaTOu a^cpefiaAovTO vs<po; - 
Ou Si TE&vofoi S-avdvTS?, exsi c<p apsT^ x.aS'U77sp9-ev 

xuSaivouc avayst o<o[/.aTO? s£ 'Ai'Seto. 

If to die nobly is the chief part of excellence, to us out of all 
men Fortune gave this lot ; for hastening to set a crown of freedom 
on Greece we lie possessed of praise that grows not old. 

These men having set a crown of imperishable glory on their 
own land were folded in the dark cloud of death ; yet being dead 
they have not died, since from on high their excellence raises them 
gloriously out of the house of Hades. 


1-5] EPITAPHS 141 



Tov yai7]? )cal ttovtou ay-SKpS-sitfacjc y.sAS'J&oi; 

vauxYjv -iq-sipoo, TTS^o-o'pov 7VEAayou;, 
'Ev TpK7<7atc Soparov sxaTOvrairiv sarsyev apvjs 

2~apTyji;' aic/uvsoO-' oupsx TTSAay?]. 



'12 ^£tv', ayystAov Aax.sSai[v..oviGL; oti f/jSs'j.s&a toT; x.siviov p'vjp.aci Trst^djy.evot. 



OlSs Twarpav, TTOA'.'Say.puv £— ' tx\>~/£vi Ssay-ov syoucav, 

p'uo'aevoi Svocpspav at-i^efiaAovTO xovtv, 
"ApvuvTat S' aps-ra? aivov (/iyav. aAAa ti? a<rr<3v 

TOUfTo £<rio\ov Svac/.stv tacctu ursp TTarpiSo?. 

Him, who over changed paths of earth and sea sailed on the 
mainland and went afoot upon the deep, Spartan valour held back 
on three hundred spears ; be ashamed, O mountains and seas. 

passer by, tell the Lacedaemonians that we lie here obeying 
their orders. 

These men, in saving their native land that lay with tearful fetters 
on her neck, clad themselves in the dust of darkness ; and they win 
great praise of excellence ; but looking on them let a citizen dare 
to die for his country. 

142 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 3 




'12 Xpovs TravTOiiov {hwroT? Trave— iff/toTre Saiy.ov, 
ayvsAo? ttusiipuv 7taat ysvou TraOiwv, 

'fl; iepav cco^S'.v irstpcausvot 'EXAaSa j^P*) 7 
Bouotcov x.Asivot; &vr<nco(£SV ev oV.~£o*oi?. 



Kaprepo? sv woAS t u.oi? Tu/.ox.piro; ou too^s Gajxa* 
"Apyj; S' O'jx. aya9o3v <psio*ETai, alia xoouSv. 



K'javr/j tousSs [/.evsy/sa; coAscev avSpa: 

Molpa TroAuppvjvov 7raTp£oa puof/ivouc" 
Ztoov Ss cp9i[7.£vtov TtlXsTistt x.7,£o?, 01 ttots yuioi; 

tat]|jlov£? 'Offffalav K{/.flpi£aavTO xoviv. 

Time, all-surveying deity of the manifold things wrought 
among mortals, carry to all men the message of our fate, that 
striving to save the holy soil of Greece we die on the renowned 
Boeotian plains. 

Valiant in war was Timocritus, whose monument this is; but 
Ares spares the bad, not the good. 


These men also, the steadfast among spears, dark Fate destroyed 
as they defended their native land rich in sheep ; but they being 
dead their glory is alive, who woefully clad their limbs in the dust 
of Ossa. 

6-i i] EPITAPHS 143 



Aip<puo; eoV/jibjaev u~6 tzt\j~/L' c*/j[/.a o"' £<p' 7j[/.lv 

syyvO-sv Eupi-ou omoctqc xiyuToci, 
Ouz. aSi/toj;* spar^v yap axtoAeTa^.sv veOTMTa 

Tpyj/ei'/jv ^oAsy.ou oe£ap.svoc vscpsA7]v. 



Oi'&s xot' Atyaioto (3apu(ipo|/.ov oi§[/.a aixo'vts? 

'E/.^axavov tteSico xeifxsS-a [/.ecaaTtw. 
Xatpe jcauttJ tcots warpl? 'Epsrpta, ^aipsr' 'AtHjvat 

ysirovs; EuPotyj?, x a ^p £ •fraAacaa <piA7j. 



Eupofoj; ysvo; scpiv 'EpeTpix.ov, Sly/} Ss Soucwv 
xet[/.s9-a' cpsu yafoj; 6'<7<rov a<p' ^[/xrepTj?. 


We fell under the fold of Dirphys, and a memorial is reared 
over us by our country near the Euripus, not unjustly ; for we lost 
lovety youth facing the rough cloud of war. 


We who of old left the booming surge of the Aegean lie here in 
the mid-plain of Ecbatana : fare thou well, renowned Eretria once 
our country, farewell Athens nigh to Euboea, farewell dear sea. 

1 1 

We are Eretrians of Euboea by blood, but we lie near Susa, 
alas ! how far from our own land. 

144 GEEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 3 



A'iffyjAov Eucpopuovo; 'A&'/jvaTov too*e 
|;.v^xz x.aTacpOiy.evov 7ropo<pdpoio r£Xa<;' 

'Aa/.^v o" £uSo/.iiaov Mapaftcoviov aXao; av eTwoi 
xat [ia&u/jxiTvjet; Mvjfto; s~tCTa'A£vo;. 



Ou Tp"/]/i; ere aiOelo; i~ ' oorsa Asuxa jtaXuxrei 
ouo*' -/j jcuavsov ypa[/.;7.a "kxyo\JGx TOTpij, 

'AWvi T5t [asv AoAiy/j; t£ xai aiweiVYJs Apa/.xvoto 
'Ixaptov p'"/](7<7£t /.ufxa —spl xpoxaXai^' 

'Avti o" £yw ^£vr/j; noAujAvjfko; vj xevevj yO-tov 
toy/.toO-vjv Apudxwv oV|aciv ev poxavai;. 



Ei? 'Aio*-/jv i&zix /.aT7jAuci; eW a—' 'A&7jva3iv 

gtzi'/oiq eI'te ve/.u; vi<7cr£ai £x. M£po7j;" 
Mv] <7£ y' aviaxa) icdnovfi aro tvjae ■O-avovxa - 

7:7.vtoS£v £1? 6 <p£ptov si? 'AiSvjv avsfjco?. 


Aeschylus son of Euphorion the Athenian this monument hides, 
who died in wheat-bearing Gela ; but of his approved valour the 
Marathon ian grove may tell, and the deep-haired Mede who knew it. 

Not rocky Trachis covers over thy white bones, nor this stone 
with her dark-blue lettering; but them the Icarian wave dashes 
about the shingle of Doliche and steep Dracanon ; and I, this empty 
earth, for old friendship with Polymedes, am neaped among the 
thirsty herbage of Dryopis. 


Straight is the descent to Hades, whether thou wert to go from 
Athens or takest thy journey from Meroe; let it not vex thee 
to have died so far away from home : from all lands the wind that 
blows to Hades is but one. 

12-17] EPITAPHS U5 




'A-riK? eyco* x.sivtj y<*P k }:r i ~^Ai;- & ^ (/.' 'A9"/jv<3v 
Aotyo; "ApTj? 'ItxXcov ttoiv ttot' dXi]feaTO, 

Kai &£to 'Pto(/.aUov 7K>aojti&x" vuv Ss -O-avouavj; 
6ct£x wjaafoj Ku^wco; ^(//piacev. 

Xaiooi; vj 8-p£<J/otffa, xa\ vj {/.STsrcstTa AayoOca 
yjkov (as, Jtal 7) x-oAxot? uaxara Ss£a(/.sV/j. 



NauTnvoQ xaoo? sl(*X" 6 &' avxiov sera ystopyou" 
a>; aVi xai yaiy] £uvo? u77Sct' 'AiSvjc. 




n^WT'^ps; cw'Coic&s seal siv aXl xai xocra yaixv, 
ists Ss vauwou cv)(/.a irapspyo(/.svoi. 

I am an Athenian woman ; for that was my city ; but from 
Athens the wasting war-god of the Italians plundered me long- 
ago and made a Koman citizen ; and now that I am dead, seagirt 
Cyzicus wraps my bones. Fare thou well, land that nurturedst 
me, and thou that thereafter didst hold me, and thou that at last 
hast taken me to thy breast. 


I am the tomb of one shipwrecked ; and that opposite me, of a 
husbandman ; for a common Hades lies beneath sea and earth. 

Well be with you, mariners, both at sea and on land ; but 
know that you pass by the grave of a shipwrecked man. 






Noac/iyou Tacpo; eijxi' cu Ss -"XsV v.yX yap 6&' r^xXc, 
ioao^-sO-', al Aoizal vvje; s~ ovtottooouv. 



E'i'/j 7rovTO-6po) TiAoo; oupto?' rv ?>' ap' avJT^c, 
to; eui, toi; 'Ai'Seto TrpocxeAaV/] Aitxectv, 

M^ufpscfrco p.V] Aaixp-a >cax.o^£vov, ocaV so TOAiy.av 
ocTi; a<p' ^{/.STgpou TTStc^aT' saugs Ta<pou. 



NauTiXe, y/t] Treuftou tivo; Iv&aos Tuy.po; 6'S' sipi, 
ocaa' auTO? tcovtou fuyyavs y_p-/)<7TOTepou. 



Ti; ^svo?, oi vauvjys ; Aeovfiyo; svfrack ve>ipdv 
supsv sti' aiytaAOuc, y(3ss o*e tcoSs Ta<pw 


I am the tomb of one shipwrecked ; but sail thou ; for when we 
were perishing, the other ships sailed on over the sea. 

May the seafarer have a prosperous voyage ; but if, like me, the 
gale drive him into the harbour of Hades, let him blame not the 
inhospitable sea-gulf, but his own foolhardiness that loosed moor- 
ings from our tomb. 


Mariner, ask not whose tomb I am here, but be thine own 
fortune a kinder sea. 


What stranger, shipwrecked man ? Leontichus found me here 
a corpse on the shore, and heaped this tomb over me, with tears 

18-24] EPITAPHS 147 

Aa-/.puca<; ETrix.vjpov eov j3iov ou&£ yap auTO? 
•/jcuyo?, ai&utTj o iiaa ftaAacGOXOpEi. 




Ou jcovi; ou<)' oAtyov TCSTpij? papo?, aAA* 'EpacixTrou 

7]v ecopx; aCV/j 7:a<7a &ala<7<7a Tacpo;" 
"n>.STO yap cuv v/jt' tx 5' ocrrsa ttou ttot' Emvou 

mj&STai, al9utai; yvtoara [/.ovat,? evstteiv. 




'Hepbj Tepavsia, xax.6v IsTra?, oj<psA£<; "Icxpov 

t/jae xal e? Sy.uSiiov p.axpov opav Tava'iv 
MvjSs TCEAa; vaiEtv Xxsiptovixov oify.a ^a^accvj? vtcpot/iva? ajxcpl MsAoupiaSo;* 

NCv ^' 6 [V.EV £V 770VTC0 XfUSpO? VSJCU;' ol OS (3ap£iav 

vauTtAiyjv jcsvsot T/fiz potSui racpoi. 




Kai ttots @u[/.ioo*v)?, ra Trap' £A7:i§a /.r,§£a xAaiwv, 


for his own calamitous life : for neither is he at peace, but flits like 
a gull over the sea. 


Not dust nor the light weight of a stone, hut all this sea that 
thou beholdest is the tomb of Erasippus ; for he perished with his 
ship, and in some unknown place his bones moulder, and the sea- 
gulls alone know them to tell. 

Cloudcapt Geraneia, cruel steep, would thou hadst looked on 
far Ister and long Scythian Tanais, and not lain nigh the surge of 
the Scironian sea by the ravines of the snowy Meluriad rock : but 
now he is a chill corpse in ocean, and the empty tomb here cries 
aloud of his heavy voyage. 

Thymodes also, weeping over unlooked-for woes, reared this 
empty tomb to Lycus his son ; for not even in a strange land did 


OuSe yap 60-vetTjv sA7.y;v xdviv, a a ax tl: dbern 

©jviac, 7^ vvjccov IlGVTiafttov n? £/£t, 
"EvO-' 6 y£ ttou ~avTtov jcrspEtov KTSp ogt£x <paiv£i 

yu»Av6; £— ' acsivo'j /.siy.evo; aiyiaXou. 


ANTIPATER OF SIDON Malacca d-aXaroa' -a KuxAaoa^ v] gtsvov "Eaauk 
•/.uy.a xai 'O^sta; &Xsa [/.Ef/.odiA£S-a ; 


x£tva 2xap<patsu? a;v.<p£y.xA>j^E ai{/.tjv ; 


xovto;, 6 Tup.(3eu&el? oi&£v 'ApMrTaydpi)?. 




NaimAOi oJ t:aojovt£;, 6 Kupvjvaio; 'ApiCTWv 
7:avTa; weep ceviou AiT^o-rat. uu.u.s Aio? 

Eix£iv iraerpl Mivam, Trap' 'Ixapiat; 6'ti TOTpat? 
xsitou, £v Aiyaiw &u[aov acpEl; TcsXayei. 

he get a grave, but some Thynian beach or Pontic island holds 
him, where, forlorn of all funeral rites, his shining bones lie naked 
on an inhospitable shore. 


Everywhere the sea is the sea ; why idly blame we the Cyclades 
or the narrow wave of Helle and the Needles ? in vain have they 
their fame ; or why when I had escaped them did the harbour of 
Scarphe cover me 1 Pray whoso will for a fair passage home ; that 
the sea's way is the sea, Aristagoras knows who is buried here. 


sailing mariners, Ariston of Cyrene prays you all for the sake 
of Zeus the Protector, to tell his father Mono that he lies by the 
Icarian rocks, having given up the ghost in the Aegean sea. 

25-29] EPITAPHS 149 



'Hpiov eifjcl BiTOivo?, o&owrope* si o*£ Topoivvjv 

aei-cov £i; auv/jv Sp^sou 'A;/.<pi~oAiv, 
Ei-slv Nucayop<y, toxiScov on tov y.ovov auTto 

STp'jfy.oviv]; 'Epicpcov toAecs Travouciv). 

ON POLYANTHUS of torone, lost at sea 


Ata^to xIoAuavfrov, ov suvstic, oi ?:apa[/.Eifjcov, 

VU[J.<piOV £V TU|7.pW {HjJtSV 'ApiGTayopv] 

AE^auivn ctttooY/^v te ocrEy. (tgv oe ouaaE? 
(oastev Aiyaiou x.G[/.a 7rspl Sv.ia&ov) 

AuG[/.OpOV 6pS-piV0l [MV £7T£l VE/.UV t/JktpOATJE?, 

^£iv£, Topiovaiwv £t,'7aucrav £? Atjv.sva. 



"l£su utc' aiyEipotctv, ettei y.a.jT.s?, dv&oco , oolxa, 

jcai -T&' acraov Ltov ttioV/.q; ay.£T£p7.c, 
Mvacat, r^£ -/.pavav )cai aT707:po&i, av £7:1 Tiaao) 

2i[/.o; a~o<p£h[/.svto TratSl 7rapiSpu£Tai. 


I am the grave of Biton, wayfarer; and if leaving Torone 
thou goest even to Amphipolis, tell Nicagoras that Strymonias at 
the setting of the Kids lost him his only son. 


I bewail Polyanthus, thou who passest by, whom Aristagore 
his wife laid newly-wedded in the grave, having received dust and 
bones (but him the ill-blown Aegean wave cast away off Sciathus), 
when at early dawn the fishermen drew his luckless corpse, O 
stranger, into the harbour of Torone. 

Sit beneath the poplars here, traveller, when thou art weary, and 
drawing nigh drink of our spring ; and even far away remember 
the fountain that Simus sets by the side of Gillus his dead child. 

150 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 3 



EI? 6o*s NixavSpou tsx.vcov Tacpo;' sv <pao? aou? 
avucs Tav ispxv AumSix.a; ysvsav. 



"Apxi. ;as ysuojAevov £<oa? pps<po; ^pwaffs SatjAtov 
oOz. oiS' sit' aya&(3v al'xto; sits xaxcav 

'ArAYJpwT' ' Ai'Sa, ti ;as vyjttiov vjpxaaa? syj>pw; ; 
ti cttsuSsi; ; ou cot ttxvts; 6«psiX6f/.e9-a ; 



IlatSa [as TTSVTasTTjpov aX7]$£a -O-ujaov iyovTV. 

vTjASivj? 'Ai&yj; fjpTTaas KaXAi[/.a£0V 
'Aaaoc [7.s [ay] xAaioi?" Jcai yap (3iotoio (astsc^ov 

7raupou, >cal rcauptov t(3v (3iotoio kooccSv. 


This is the single tomb of Nicander's children j the light of a 
single morning ended the sacred offspring of Lysidice. 

3 1 

Me a baby that was just tasting life heaven snatched away, I 
know not whether for good or for evil ; insatiable Death, why hast 
thou snatched me cruelly in infancy 1 why hurriest thou 1 Are we 
not all thine in the end 1 

3 2 

Me Callimachus, a five-years-old child whose spirit knew not 
grief, pitiless Death snatched away ; but weep thou not for me ; 
for little was my share in life, and little in life's ills. 

30-35] EPITAPHS 151 




"AyysAS <£>sp*7sq>d vvj? ' Ep[jwj, tivoc tovo*s 7rpo7ref/xsic 

ei<; t6v a^.eiSvjTOv Taprapov 'Ai'osto ; 
Moipa ti; ai/.SAio; tov 'AptcTWv' •/jpTracr' ax' aupvj; 

e-TaSTV] ; f/i<rcro; §' scxtv 6 toxi; yevSTtSv. 
Aax.pu^ap^i; Haoutgjv, ou 7rvsu|/.aTa toxvtix fipoTSix 

col vsty.sxat ; t£ Tpuya? 6'[7,<paxa? yjAi/.iyj!; ; 




AoSexsTV] tov 7ratSa rca/n^p tibciibjxs ^iaitcxo; 
ev&aSs, t'^v 7toaat)v lAittoa, Nucotsakjv. 




LTaiSo? a7TO(p{h»/ivoio Kasoitou tou Msvecaty^p.O'j 
[/.VTJfJt' ecopwv olV.TSip', mc, jtaAO? (ov s&avsv. 


Hermes messenger of Persephone, whom usherest thou thus to 
the laughterless abyss of Death 1 what hard fate snatched Ariston 
from the fresh air at seven years old 1 and the child stands between 
his parents. Pluto delighting in tears, are not all mortal spirits 
allotted to thee? why gatherest thou the unripe grapes of youth ? 


Philip the father laid here the twelve-years-old child, his high 
hope, Nicoteles. 


Looking on the monument of a dead boy, Cleoetes son of 
Menesaechmus, pity him who was beautiful and died. 

152 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 3 



Ou to 0-avsTv aAyetvov, e~sl to ys Tracri 7:s~ptOTai, 
aXXa 7cplv -/jAt/.r/j; xal yovscov —poTspov. 

Ou yajAOv, ou^ utASvaiov tStov, ou vujA^pia Asx.Tpa, 
x.sT[Aai spca; tvoaacov, sgcojasvo; ttasovwv. 



Xaipsiv tov /.aTa ya; sfoa;, Esvs, Atoysv/] jxs 

(iaiv' s~l crav —pa^v Tuyy^avs 0-' cov e^SASt;" 
'>csTq; yap u~6 CTuyspa; eSajAaGxbjv 





Ti x asov si; toSiva xovstv, ti o*s TS/.sc&oa ; 

[;//] tsx.oi vj [ASAASt raiS6; opzv fravaTOv. 
'H'i&sio yap GTjjAa Biavopt. ysuaTO [v.'/JT'/jp, 

STTps—s o £/. 7tato6; y.vjTspy. touos tu/siv. 


Not death is bitter, since that is the fate of all, but to die ere 
the time and before our parents : I having seen not marriage nor 
wedding-chant nor bridal bed, lie here the love of many, and to be 
the love of more. 


Bidding hail to me, Diogenes beneath the earth, go about thy 
business and obtain thy desire; for at nineteen years old I was 
laid low by cruel sickness and leave the sweet sun. 


What profits it to labour in childbirth '( what to bear children 1 
let not her bear who must see her child's death : for to stripling 
Bianor his mother reared the tomb ; but it was fitting that the 
mother should obtain this service of the son. 

36-41] EPITAPHS 153 



KpvjOioV. tvjv 7COAU[/.U'9 , ov, £7C«TT<x[/ivY]v scaXa — ai£siv, 

Si^7jvTat Sapitov 7toAAobci O-uyxTspsc, 
' HtWnjv cruvspiO ov, asl aoXov vj <V a-ofipi^si 

£v&ao*s tov 7ca<yai? uttvov 6cpst.Aou.svov. 



ERINNA; BauxiSo? sy.[ji" TCOAuxXauTOCV o*s 77apsp~tov 

CTocAav, -rco /taxa ya; touto asyoi? 'Arocy* 
Ba«7/.avo? sW 'AiSa* tx Ss 7rouc£Xa era[j.a&' optovfi 

loiioTaTav Bau>toCi<; ayysAsovri -ruyxv, 
'fie Tav toxio, "Tf/ivato? ucp' a? siGvjysro TiS', 

iravo" S7K JtaoscTa? scdasys 7cup5ta'ia?, 
Kal du, co 'Tf/ivcue, yautov [AOA7?a?ov aoiSav 

s? #-pvjvc)v yospcov oOiyy.a [£&»b)pf/.ot»ao. 



Aucovit] [j.z Ai(3ut»(jav s/sl x.ovic, ayx, 1 ^£ 'Pto{/.?]S 
xsiasa rcapd-svucq rvj^s reapa i^af/.a&tp, 

The daughters of the Samians often require Crethis the teller 
of tales, who knew pretty games, sweetest of workfellows, ever 
talking ; but she sleeps here the sleep to which they all must come. 

I am of Baucis the bride ; and passing by my oft-wept pillar thou 
mayest say this to Death that dwells under ground, 'Thou art 
envious, O Death'; and the coloured monument tells to him who 
sees it the most bitter fortune of Bauco, how her father-in-law 
burned the girl on the funeral pyre with those torches by whose 
light the marriage train was to be led home ; and thou, O 
Hymenaeus, didst change the tuneable bridal song into a voice of 
Availing dirges. 


Ausonian earth holds me a woman of Libya, and I lie a maiden 
here by the sea-sand near Rome ; and Pompeia, who nurtured 


' H Ss [j.z 8-p &<j/a{/ivi] IIoaT7-/ji.'V) avrl dtiyaTpo? 
•/.AauGauiw) tuix^co jtfixsv £A£'jft£pt« 

IIOp £T£pOV C77£'j^O^J(Ja• TO $' £Oi}a<7£V, O'JOS xaT £'j/'/;v 

mietipav wj«v Xafucaoa Il£p<7£<pdv7]. 




Tr^v xuavwnv Mouaav, dbjddva ttjv [j.sAiy7jp'jv, 
aito? 6'S' £Qa-iv/j; tu|x ( 8o; avauoov s^si, 

Kal y.£iTat Ai&o? to; vj — avao<poc, vj 77£pt[3(OTo; - 
MoOaa koXtj, xoucpv) aol jcovi? vjos t:£Aoi. 



'H TTOAu S£ip*/]vtov Aiyup(OT£pvj, V] Trapa Bax./oj 

xal •8-oivati; auT/j? ^puc?OT£pv] KuTrpioo;, 

' H AaAivj <patSp-/j t£ /£AiSovi;, £vfr' 'Cty.Gvoix 

xetiAat, 'ATiar.Tco ocucpua ~kzi~ oasv/i 
™ ™ 1 j 1 i r i 

Tto tteaov acT^a'jLVj fJanfc dwra" tmv &£ totx'jtvjv 
oV.ij/.tov aTrpoiS^; dT/.foV.TEv cp'.Aivjv. 

me like a daughter, wept over me and laid me in a free tomb, while 
hastening on that other torch-fire for me ; but this one came first, 
and contrary to our prayers Persephone lit the lamp. 


Blue-eyed Musa, the sweet-voiced nightingale, suddenly this 
little grave holds voiceless, and she lies like a stone who was so 
accomplished and so famous; fair Musa, be this dust light over 

I Homonoea, who was far clearer-voiced than the Sirens, I who 
was more golden than the Cyprian herself at revellings and feasts, 
I the chattering bright swallow lie here, leaving tears to Atimetus, 
to whom I was dear from girlhood ; but unforeseen fate scattered 
all that great affection. 

42-46J EPITAPHS 155 




"Igtco; £[j.*/j; 7} y.sxp'jcps p.' oixfac xauTa 

Aaiva, Ktox.'jTO'j t' a[A^ptY07]TOV uocop, 
Ou'ti \j! avvjp, 6 Asyourr'., jiafijCTavsv e; ya^.ov aAAyj; 

TraTTTatvwv ti [7.aT7jv o'jvoaa 'Poucpivioc ; 
'AAAa f/.s Kyjps; avouffi [xeu.op(x£vaf ou pa. Svjttou 

IlauAoc TapavTtvT) JWtT&avsv tox.u^opo?. 



AtXivov co/.u[Aopcp (as Xe^toroi touto xsxocp^at 

T/jC Aioo*coosiou ypaf/|/.a Asysi aocpwj?, 
Koupov Ittsi Tixroucra staTsqj&iTO" xadoa o*£ MtjaoO; 

osl;a{/.svo? -8-aAsp^v JtAaito 'A&Tjvato'a 
Aec^aSsaaw a/o; jcal 'Lijffovi roxTpl AvTroucav 

"ApTSfM, G0l 0*£ XUVtOV S-7]pO<pOVO)V £[/.£A£V. 




'Ap/£>,£co [v.£ oa(/.apra iToAu^tv/jv, ©soosjctou 
— aloV. x,al aivo~ afl-ou? £W£-£ A7][/.apsT>K, 

Bear witness this my stone house of night that has hidden me, 
and the wail-circled water of Cocytus, my husband did not, as men 
say, kill me, looking eagerly to marriage with another ; why should 
Rufinius have an ill name idly 1 but my predestined Fates lead me 
away: not surely is Paula of Tarentum the only one who has died 
before her day. 

These woful letters of Diodorus' wisdom tell that I was engraven 
for one early dead in child-birth, since she perished in bearing a 
boy ; and I weep to hold Athenais the comely daughter of Melo, 
who left grief to the women of Lesbos and her father Jason ; but 
thou, Artemis, wert busy with thy beast-slaying hounds. 

Name me Polyxena wife of Archelaus, child of Theodectes and 
hapless Demarete, and a mother as far as the birth-pangs ; but 

156 GKEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 3 

' Occov £-' (oSfciv x.7.1 ty.7jT£px* 7?a7oa Ss oV.tjj.tov 

£<pOa<j£v ouS' auTtov efccoatv ^eAttov* 
'O/.Tco/.y.i^s/.ST!.; 5" aurr Savov, apn tsxouaa, 

apTt Se Jtai vuj/,<py], TCavxoAtyo/povto;. 




Ttjv Gsjji.vto; c^aatiav ajAtojAVjTov ts cuveuvov 
LTauAivav <pvhj/iv/jv svvsax,ai6sV STtov 

'Av5ptovt/.o; iTjTpo? avvjp p.v^avj'ix Ttvtov 

TTjvos xavj(jTaTi'/jv trnjaaTO [/.apTjpivjv. 



"At&i; IjaoI Zyrjy.ny. jcal ei? s[/.s 7rveG{/.a AwroOffa, 
co? ~apo; S'jcppocuvvj; vuv ooucputov rpocpact, 

'Ayva, 7:ouAuyo*/jT£, Tt TrsvO-tjAOV GVvov locust? 
avo*po? a~o GTSpvtov outcots ftstsy. >capa 

@stov £p7]atocraca tov oux&ti' col yap s; "AtoVv 
tja&ov 6[xou £toa<; eXfirioe? ay.STspac. 

fate overtook the child before full twenty suns, and myself died 
at eighteen years, just a mother and just a bride, so brief was all 
my day. 


To his wife Paulina, holy of life and blameless, who died at 
nineteen years, Andronicus the physician paying memorial placed 
this Avitness the last of all. 


Atthis who didst live for mo and breathe thy last toward me, 
source of joy fulness formerly as now of tears, holy, much lamented, 
how sleepest thou the mournful sleep, thou whose head was never 
laid away from thy husband's breast, leaving Theius alone as one 
who is no more; for with thee the hopes of our life went to 

47-51] EPITAPHS 157 




Tic tivoc Bucra, yuvxt, IlapiTjv u— o x.iova Jtstcai ; 

Ilp-/]E(o KaXAixsAS'JC. x.xi ro^a-v] ; Sajxivj. 
Tic Ss ere jcal x.Tsp£'i£s ; ©soV.piToc, tu as yovyiec 

iiifioGxv. ^vnaxeic. o ex. tivoc ; ex. to/.stou. 
EOca TToatov £T£(ov ; ouo Ksfccooiv. -q pa y' (xtsx.voc ; 

ou/t, aAAa TpiSTV] KxX'aitsa7jv eXwcov. 
Ztooi cot xsivo'c ys sc (3a&u Y?jpas iV.oiro. <70i, CjSivs, ~dpoi 7ravTa Tij/tj xa xaXa. 



Ti-ts aaV/jv yodcovTS; saw xxpaaiavsTS tu[a[3o> ; 

ouSsv syg) -8-pvjvwv aaov sv tp&tuivotc. 
Avjys ydcov seal rcaus tto'ctic, seal ^rai^sc sasio 

^atpsrs /.ai p.vTjj/.yjv gco£st' 'Aaa^ovfojc. 



'Ev&xo*s y/j y.y.-ziyzi tit-8^v rca&cov Aioysirou 
SX. rieAO~OVVV](JOU TVjVOS oucaiOTaTwv. 

Who and of whom art thou, woman, that liest under the 
Parian column ? Prexo, daughter of Calliteles. And of what 
country ? Of Samos. And also who buried thee ? Theocritus, 
to whom my parents gave me in marriage. And of what diedst 
thou 1 Of child-birth. How old ? Two-and-twenty. And child- 
less 1 Nay, but I left a three-year-old Calliteles. May he live 
at least and come to great old age. And to thee, stranger, may 
Fortune give all prosperity. 

Why idly bemoaning linger you by my tomb 1 nothing worthy 
of lamentation is mine among the dead. Cease from plaints and 
be at rest, O husband, and you my children fare well, and keep 
the memory of Amazonia. 

Here earth holds the Peloponnesian woman who was the most 
faithful nurse of the children of Diogeitus. 





AuSo; syw, vocl AuSo;, £A£u9£piio S£ ja£ Tuy.fito, 
o£g7TOT(X, TiaavOv] tov gov sO-su Tpocp£y.' 

Euaioov aciv/j teivoi; fiiov *^v S' u— y/jpio; 

7rpd; [7-£ fAOAT];, go; £yo>, o*£G7;OTa, jcnv 'Aro>]. 



2oi seal vjv u~6 yvjv, val osGXora, ttigto; uTrapyco, 

co; Trapo;, £uvofoj; oux e*7:iA7j9-d[/.svo; 
"12; |A£ tot' eV. vougou Tpl; It: aGcpaXs; vjyays; i/vo;, 

jcal vuv apxouarn tKo u— £&ou xaXuffa], 
Mavvjv ayysiXa;, IIspGTjv y£vo; - su o*£ [/.£ p££a; 

s'^si; ev ypsivj SfjLwa; sroijAOTspou;. 




T'/jv TpijBov 0; wapayeig, av 7:to; to&£ ffyj|/.a vo^oj? 
(/.yj, oeofAat, ysAaGvj; si x.uvo; £gtl Tacpo;" 

A Lydian am I, yes a Lydian, but in a free tomb, my master, 
thou didst lay thy fosterer Timanthes ; prosperously mayest thou 
lengthen out an unharmed life, and if under the hand of old age 
thou shalt come to me, I am thine, O master, even in the grave. 

Even now beneath the earth I abide faithful to thee, yes my 
master, as before, forgetting not thy kindness, in that then thou 
broughtest me thrice out of sickness to safe foothold, and now 
didst lay me here beneath sufficient shelter, calling me by name, 
Manes the Persian ; and for thy good deeds to me thou shalt have 
servants readier at need. 

Thou who passest on the path, if haply thou dost mark this 
monument, laugh not, I pray thee, though it is a dog's grave; 

52-56] EPITAPHS 159 

'E/tXaiicO-vjv 3pTps? Si x,oviv cuvEibj/.av ava/.TO; 
6; f/.ou jcai OTJjXyj tovS' eyjzpaEs Aoyov. 



T/jfts tov ex. Msaithj? apyov xuva qpinolv 6 7;sTpo? 

fc/StV, Eu|A7]AOU — ICTTOTaTOV (puAa/.a - 

Taupov {Atv xaXesaxov, 6V y,v en" vuv os to xsCvou 
(p&eyjy.a Gito—'/jpal vuxto; s/O'jciv oSot. 




Ou/.STl 7T0U TA7J[AOV CX-OTT SAtOV [ASTavaGTpiX ~£po\£ 

ttasxto; AS7CTCcXsat? oix.o? syst ere Auyot;, 
OuS' u— 6 f/,apf/.apuyyj ftxAspco-uio; 'Hpiysvsi>j<; —apai&ufjG-si; SaA-ojASvtov 7CTSpuycov 
Sv;v )C£<paA^v aiAoupo; KTO&pMJS, iyXk<y. Ss ttx.vtx 

vjp-xcra, xai ©&ovsp-/jv oux exopsows ysvuv 
Nov Ss c?. y.-^ x.oucpvj jcpu7rrot x.ovic, x.AAa |3apsTa, 


tears fell for me, and the dust was heaped above me by a master's 
hands, who likewise engraved these words on my tomb. 

Here the stone says it holds the white dog from Melita, the most 
faithful guardian of Eumelus ; Bull they called him while he was 
yet alive ; but now his voice is prisoned in the silent pathways 
of night. 


No longer, poor partridge migrated from the rocks, does thy 
woven house hold thee in its thin withies, nor under the sparkle 
of fresh-faced Dawn dost thou ruffle up the edges of thy basking 
wings ; the cat bit off thy head, but the rest of thee I snatched 
away, and she did not fill her greedy jaw ; and now may the earth 
cover thee not lightly but heavily, lest she drag out thy remains. 

160 GREEK ANTHOLOGY. [sect. 3 



H Geo xai <p0t,[7.£va; XsuV oc-rsa TtoS' svl TJ|v/io> 

iTx.oi £ts Tpoaso'.v fKjpag, avp<3<m A'j/.x;" 
Tav S' aoerav oiSsv uiva rir.Aiov, a t' apCoTiAoc 
"Octtsc, Ktfr:apc3v6? t' oiovoaoi ffxomaL 



'H UTZQ col XapioV.; ava— auETOCt ; si t6v 'Apiay.a 

too Kupvjvaiou TOxtoa Asystc, u— ' e;/.oi. 
'XI XaciSa, ti Ta vsp&s ; ttoau; c/.oto?. al &' avoSoi ti ; 

ij/eOoo?. 6 Ss IIaoutcov ; ySj&o? a7ro)Ao;xs9a* 
Outo; eao? Ao'yo; ujipuv aAvjihvoV el r^£ tov houv 

po'JAsi toG Xapiou, [joC? [/iya; sty.' 'AiS*/]. 



Svj'j.x ©soyvtdo? siu.1 Sivwt^so;, to (/.' s—s&vjx.ev 
rAa'jx.oc STatoshjc avrl 7:oA>jypoviou. 

Surely even as thou liest dead in this tomb I deem the wild 
beasts yet fear thy white bones, huntress Lycas ; and thy valour 
great Pelion knows, and splendid Ossa and the lonely peaks of 

Does Charidas in truth sleep beneath thee ? If thou meanest 
the son of Arimmas of Cyrene, beneath me. Charidas, what of 
the under world 1 Great darkness. And what of the resurrection ] 
A lie. And Pluto % A fable ; we perish utterly. This my tale 
to you is true ; but if thou wilt have the pleasant one of the 
Samian, I am a large ox in Hades. 

I am the monument of Theognis of Sinope, over whom Glaucus 
set me in guerdon of their long fellowship. 

57-63] EPITAPHS 161 




Touto TOi YdLBxipite [7.v/][j.v-'iov, stOae 2a[jivs, 

7j Aifto; 7) [JUJtp^ t/j; ;j.£ya>//;; (piAiH)?' 
Atsl Qflfflffta gs' ffu o", si ■Oij/.i;, £v <p9iy.£voi<7iv 

to'j AtjOtj? s~' eu.ol [j-Tj ti 7CtTj<; uSxto;. 

I -r?f ' A 

*> 1 


Tap<7£uc, [at] yrj^a?' a'i&£ Ss fMjo' 6 Traxyjp. 



Kpvj; ysvsav Bpoxa^o; ropTuvio? £v#-ao£ Y.tX[j.y.i 
ou y-axa tout' £A&wv, aXXa x.v.t £;v.7ropiav. 



T/jSe Satov 6 Aixwvo; 'Axavdtog Upov vizvov 
x.oi[l6Lt<x.i' S-Vflaxsiv [/.iq )iy£ too? ayaO-ou?. 


This little stone, good Sabinus, is the record of our great friend- 
ship ; ever will I require thee ; and thou, if it is permitted, drink 
not among the dead of the water of Lethe for me. 


I Dionysius of Tarsus lie here at sixty, having never married ; 
and would that my father had not. 


I Brotachus of Gortyna, a Cretan, lie here, not having come 
hither for this, but for traffic. 

Here Saon, son of Dicon of Acanthus, rests in a holy sleep ; say 
not that the good die. 





"Aaco; [/iv Moucrat? ispov Asys tout' avax-efcO-at 
toc? pifiAOu; Sei^a? tcx? Ttapa Tat? XAaTavoi; 
'H t aa? &s cppoupeiv >env yvrcto? evO-ao*' epasT/]? 
. saStj, tw x.icgw toutov ava<TT£<po[/.ev. 



antipater of sidon 
'Hpcowv xapux' ap£Ta? (/.ax-apcov o*s 7rpo<p7JTav, 


Moucrwv cpsyyo? "Op.vjpov, ay/jpavTOv CTO[/.a jcogjaou 
xocvto;, ocAippotHa, £eivs, y.S/tsuO-e /.ovt?. 


Say thou that this grave is consecrate to the Muses, pointing to 
the books by the plane-trees, and that we guard it ; and if a true 
lover of ours come hither, we crown him with our ivy. 

The herald of the prowess of heroes and the interpreter of the 
immortals, a second sun on the life of Greece, Homer, the light of 
the Muses, the ageless mouth of all the world, lies hid, stranger, 
under the sea-washed sand. 





'AvSootAocyvjc sti S-pvjvov, eigeti Tpoajv 

o*so/.ousi)-' ex. paftpcov -acav £pswcO|/ivyjv 
Kal [/.69-ov AiavTSiov, ut;6 ors^avv) te ttoa-zjo? 


Mcaovi&sto o\a Moucav, ov ou pa TWCTpl? aoio*6v 
xog{as?tou, yo<r/)S ^' a(A<poTSp7)c x.Aip.<XTa. 




Ou-ztETi a^EAyo^ivac, 'Op<psu, Spua;, ouxeti Trsxpa? 

a^si?, ou abjptov auTOv6{/.ou? aysXa?, 
Oux&n jcotfjuxffsi? ocvsjaojv ppdfxov, ouyl yaAa(av, 

ou wcpSTtov cupfAOu?, ou TCaTaysucav aXa' 
"Haeo yap* as Ss tcoaaoc jcaTtooupavTO •9-uyaTpE; 

Mva'Aoauva?, [agctvjp o" sqoya KaAAtoro*. 
Ti ©&ii/ivoi? GTOvaysuf/.sv scp' uiactv, avfoc' aAaAxslv 

tcov toxiSwv 'Aio'tjv ouSe -frsoi; ouvaju? ; 

Still we hear the wail of Andromache, still we see all Troy 
toppling from her foundations, and the battling of Ajax, and 
Hector, bound to the horses, dragged under the city's crown of 
towers, through the Muse of Maeonides, the poet with whom no 
one country adorns herself as her own, but the zones of both 

No longer, Orpheus, wilt thou lead the charmed oaks, no longer 
the rocks nor the lordless herds of the wild beasts ; no longer wilt 
thou lull the roaring of the winds, nor hail and sweep of snow- 
storms nor dashing sea ; for thou perishedst ; and the daughters of 
Mnemosyne wept sore for thee, and thy mother Calliope above all. 
Why do we mourn over dead sons, when not even gods avail to 
ward off Hades from their children 1 




Atopiya, oGTia f/iv era toxXok /.civic, y^V K7rooS9[i.o? 

yy.lTTJC 7] To f/.UpO)V S7.77V00C C/.[J~ t/OVVj, 

Ht. 770TS tov jpcpievra 7repM$Te"XXou<ja Xapaqov 
erjyypouc 6p9-piv(3v vjtpao xiaau(3£(i>v' 

2a7W><5ott Ss [/ivousi 91X73; sti xal fievsouaiv 
cocV/jc ai Xeuxal 9&syyd|/.svai csXick: 

Ou'voaa gov aajcapierrdv, 6 Nau/paTic o)0*s cpuXaEst 
Sot' av NeiXou vau? §90X05 reva-p]. 



"Apxi XoysuoyivTjv as [/.eXurdOTOXcov sap u'[/.vo>v, 
apn &s xuxvsud 9 9-syy oyivTjv crToy.aTi, 

"HXacrsv si? 'A/spovTa owe 7cXaTU x.u[xa K.a|7.ovTwv 
Moipa Xivox.Xto(TTO'j r^s?— otic ttXajcaTa?" 

26? S' s~£tov, "Hpivva, x.aXoc ttovo; ou as ysywvsi 
<p8tT^at, sysiv &s yopouc aj/.|/.iya ILspiatv. 

Doricha, long ago thy bones are dust, and the ribbon of thy hair 
and the raiment scented with unguents, wherein once wrapping 
lovely Charaxus round thou didst cling to him carousing into dawn ; 
but the white leaves of the dear ode of Sappho remain yet and 
shall remain speaking thy blessed name, which Naucratis shall 
keep here so long as a sea-going ship shall come to the lagoons 
of Nile. 

Thee, as thou wert just giving birth to a springtide of honeyed 
songs and just finding thy swan-voice, Fate, mistress of the 
threaded spindle, drove to Acheron across the wide water of the 
dead ; but the fair labour of thy verses, Erinna, cries that thou 
art not perished, but keepest mingled choir with the Maidens of 




nap0-£vix.yjv vsaoioov sv uixvoTroAoiG'. {/.saiggocv 

"Hpivvav Mouccov a'v&sa o*ps~TO[./.ivav 
Ato*a; si; ujvivoaov avapraMrev r ( pa too" s[/.cppcov 

sitt' studio? a TraTi; - fJacxavo? sera' 'Alfoa. 

anacreon's grave (i) 


'fl £svs, to'vSs Tacpov tov 'Avax-psiovTO? at/.sij3o)v 
g—sigo'v (/.ot Tvapuov sifu yap oivo~OTy]?. 

anacreon's grave (2) 


Hsivs, xacpov TOXpa aitov AvaapsiovTO? a[/.st|3o)v, 


Sttsigov £{r?j (rrcoowj, c~sigov yavo?, oeppa ksv ol'vto 

oorsa yyjS->](77] Ta[/.a voTi£6u.sva, 
'O; 6 Ateovuerou |j,£fASA7]t/ivo; oivaGt, jtw|/.ot;, 

w? 6 <piAy./cpr]TOu cuvTpocpo? ap[/.ovi7];, 
M'/jSs /caTacp^tfASvo? o*iya toutov uTrotcro) 

tov ysvsTj p.sportov yoopov dcpsiAOfv.svov. 

The young maiden singer Erinna, the bee among poets, who 
sipped the flowers of the Muses, Hades snatched away to be his 
bride ; trulv indeed said the girl in her wisdom, ' Thou art envious, 
O Death.' 

stranger who passest this the tomb of Anacreon, pour libation 
over me in going by ; for I am a drinker of wine. 

stranger who passest by the humble tomb of Anacreon, if thou 
hast had aught of good from my books pour libation on my ashes, 
pour libation of the jocund grape, that my bones may rejoice wetted 
with wine ; so I, who was ever deep in the wine-steeped revels of 
Dionysus, I who was bred among drinking tunes, shall not even 
when dead endure without Bacchus this place to which the genera- 
tion of mortals must come. 



[SECT. 4 



Ns(3peuov 6~ ocrov caAmyc, uTspixyev auAtov 

togctov uTTep TCaaa? sxpays tsTo ysAu?, 
0<jo*£ [/.aTTjv KWfltXoii; ^O'jOo; 7tspi yz'ikzmv iajj.bc, . 

$ jc/jpooVrov, IltvSaps, creio [liXi' 
MapTug 6 MaivaAio; Jtspdei? #sdc, up.vov asiax; 

tov c£o, xai vo;auov ATjcrap.evo? oovobuov. 



®s<77n? oo*s, TpayiJtYjv 6? avs—Aaaa 7rptoTO? aot&nv 

xw[/.^Tai? vsapa? JcatvorofAWV yapira?, 
Bax./o; ote Tpuyix.6v xaxayot ^opov, to Tpayo; a&Atov 

joiTTi'/.6q v^v gujcwv appt/o? a-8-AOV stv 
Oi Ss [/,eraxAa(7cou<Tt veoi raSs* [/.upio? aiciv 

7TOAA0C 7Cp0ff£Up7]<76l ~/7.TZpy.' raj-ii O* ev.a. 




'Hp£|A' UTOp TUfApOtO 20Cp0X.A£0;, "^pEfAOC, JUffGS, 
£p7tu(oi? /AOSpOU? SJWTpO^lcOV TcAO/Ca^OU?, 


As high as the trumpet's blast outsounds the thin flute, so high 
above all others did thy lyre ring ; nor idly did the tawny swarm 
mould their waxen-celled honey, Pindar, about thy tender lips : 
witness the horned god of Maenalus when he sang thy hymn and 
forgot his own pastoral reeds. 

1 1 

I am Thespis who first shaped the strain of tragedy, making new 
partition of fresh graces among the masquers when Bacchus would 
lead home the wine-stained chorus, for whom a goat and a basket 
of Attic figs was as yet the prize in contests. A younger race 
reshape all this ; and infinite time will make many more inventions 
yet ; but mine are mine. 

I 2 

Gently over the tomb of Sophocles, gently creep, ivy, flinging 
forth thy pale tresses, and all about let the rose-petal blow, and 


Kal tctocaov xavTTj O-ocaaoi p'do*ou, vj ts (piAoppa)?; 

a'(X7rs>.o<; uypa izipic, xA7j[/.aTa ysua^svyj 
ElVS/tSV eustuyj; TTtvuTOtppovo; 7]v 6 [/.EAt/po; 

yjmoja' £/. Mougcov af/.f/.iya xal XapiTcav. 



Al XapiTS? TEiV.Evd? TI AajiisiV 07T£p OU/l 7i£C£lTat 

^7]T0ucai <j>uyj/jv supov 'Api<7TO<pavou?. 



Kal xarcupov ysAaffa? 7rapaf7.£i[3so cpiAov eixojv 
pYJu.' £7i:' £[/.oi* 'Piv&tov sip.' 6 Supay.OTios, 

Moucatov OAiyrj ti; arjSovi?, dcAAa cpAuaV.oav 
ex, TpoevuccSv l'o\ov xtccov £^p£(j/a.(X£t>a. 



'ATp£[x«;, oi ^ev£, patvs* 7rap' E'jct^Segiv yap 6 izpinQuc, 

SUOSl X0t|7-7]BEl? UTCVOV 6<p£tA0|J-£V0V 

EtixpaTSb) MsAsaypo?, 6 tov yAi»cuo'a;cpuv "Epwra. 
/.al Moucra? iXapaf? eru<jT0Ai<7a<; Xapwrtv 

the clustered vine shed her soft tendrils round, for the sake of the 
wise-hearted eloquence mingled of the Muses and Graces that lived 
on his honeyed tongue. 

The Graces, seeking to take a sanctuary that will not fall, found 
the soul of Aristophanes. 

With a ringing laugh and a friendly word over me do thou pass 
by ; I am Ehintho of Syracuse, a small nightingale of the Muses ; 
but from our tragical mirth we plucked an ivy of our own. 

Tread softly, stranger; for here an old man sleeps among 
the holy dead, lulled in the slumber due to all, Meleager son of 
Eucrates, who united Love of the sweet tears and the Muses with 

168 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 4 

"Ov S-sottxi; vjv&ptocs Tupo; Ta^aptov &' ispa yjHov, 
Kw; o" spxrq Msportov TrpsGJi'jv sy/jporpocpsf 

'A1V si ;asv 2upo; scat, caXafA, si o° oOv cu ye <I>oivi£, 
vaio\6c, si 8' "Eaatjv, X a ^? £ > T ° ( ^' fcuxo cppacov. 



Naero? s;xa &ps— tsiooc Tupoc, roxToa o*s (as tsx.voi 

"AtvHc sv 'Agguqioic vaioj/iva TaSapotc, 
Euxparsto o" sfiXacTOv, 6 cruv MouGai? MsTiaypo? 

TTpcSra MsviTTT^eiai? auvxpoyacroc? Xapiciv. 
Ei o*s Supo;, tC to -8-au^a ; (Aiav, Esvs, TOXTpwa x,og[aov 

vaioaev sv -8-vaTOu; —xvTag stocts Xao?. 
IIouaust'/^ S' syxpacx raa sv SsATOict. 7:po tu;a(3ou - 

y/jpio; yap ysiroov syyu&sv 'Aiosto. 
'Aaaoc [as tov AaAiov jcat -psa^ur^v Co -pocsi7rtov 

yaipsiv, si; yvjpx; Jcaufo; tV.oio AaXov. 




LTacra col oiyo'Asvto, IluAaS"/], KtoxuSTat 'EAAa?, 
oVasxtov yarrav sv /poi Jtsipa[/iva, 

the joyous Graces ; whom God-begotten Tyre brought to manhood, 
and the sacred land of Gadara, but lovely Cos nursed in old age 
among the Meropes. But if thou art a Syrian, say Salam, and if 
a Phoenician, Naidios, and if a Greek, Hail ; they are the same. 

Island Tyre was my nurse; and the Attic land that lies in 
Syrian Gadara is the country of my birth ; and I sprang of 
Eucrates, I Meleager, the companion of the Muses, first of all 
who have run side by side with the Graces of Menippus. And 
if I am a Syrian, what wonder ? We all dwell in one country, 
stranger, the world ; one Chaos brought all mortals to birth. 
And when stricken in years, I inscribed this on my tablets before 
burial, since old age is death's near neighbour; but do thou, 
bidding hail to me, the aged talker, thyself reach a talking old age. 

All Greece bewails thee departed, Py lades, and cuts shcrt her 
undone hair ; even Phoebus himself laid aside the laurels from 


Auto; S' aT[A7]T0to xdp.a; a^sOrjxaTO Sa^va? 

<J>OlpO? £OV Tip.toV 75 Sip? UfV.VOTTOAOV, 

Mousat S' E/CAocugocvto, poov S* SffTKjffev ax.outov 

'Acwxo; yospwv r^ ov ^^ <7T0[/.aTwv, 
"E'XXr^sv Si [/.£Xa$pa Attovucoto /opstvjc, 

eOts GtSvjpsfojv oi^.ov s,Sy]? 'Arose*. 



'Opcpso; oiyo t u.svou Ta^a -rt; tots asi— sto Mouca, 
c£u Ss, IlAaTaiv, <pO-tj/ivoo Tra'jcraTO xat jaftapv)" 

'Hv yap srt TjpOTSptov p.eXscov oAtyvj Tt? axoppoi^ 
sv crai; cto^op.svv] >cal cppscrl jtat 7:aAa[/.ai;. 



OuxsV ava. <J>puyt7jv 7UTuoTpo<pov to; ttots {/iXtj/si; 

x.pou(/.a oY £UTp7jTtov (p&syyop.svo; SovaV.wv 
OuS' svl cat; 7?aAa[/.ai? TptxtovtSo; spyov 'Afrava; 

to; wplv eravxbjcrst, vujAcpoysvs; SaTupe" 
A'^ yap aXujcTOTOoai? cipiyyT] x?P a ? ouvsxa <I>oi(3io 

•&vy.To; suv Sstxv si? spiv ■qvTtaca;, 
Atoxol S' oi /CAoQovts; idov cpopp.tyyt [/.sXt^pov 

oi—y.Gxv ii, aO-Atov 00 GTScpo; a.AA' ai'Sav. 

his unshorn tresses, honouring his own minstrel as was meet, and 
the Muses wept, and Asopus stayed his stream, hearing the cry 
from their wailing lips ; and Dionysus' halls ceased from dancing 
when thou didst pass down the iron path of Death. 

When Orpheus was gone, a Muse was yet haply left, but when 
thou didst perish, Plato, the harp likewise ceased ; for till then 
there yet lived some little fragment of the old melodies, saved in 
thy soul and hands. 

No more through pine-clad Phrygia, as of old, shalt thou make 
melody, uttering thy notes through the pierced reeds, nor in thy 
hands as before shall the workmanship of Tritonian Athena 
flower forth, nymph-born Satyr ; for thy hands are bound tight in 
gyves, since being mortal thou didst join immortal strife with 
Phoebus ; and the flutes, that cried as honey-sweet as his harp, 
i^ained thee from the contest no crown but death. 



[sect. 4 



AiiopTJ objpsiov l|xa<J<jdfJ.evo? o£[£a? aupai; 

TAa;j.ov, aopTTjOsl; £* Aaaia; ttituoc, 
Attopyj, <I>otpco yap avapaiov si? Spiv Sffmjs 

Tratova KsAaiviTTjv vatsracov SaTups" 

SeO Se (3oav auAoio [x£Ai[ipouov ouksti Nuy/pai 
to; Tcapo; sv 3>puyioi; oupsci TCSU50(i.s8-a. 



"IfAEpOV aUA7](7aVT(. XOAUTp7]TO)V O10C AtOTtOV 

£i7T£ Atyu<pO-oyyw <J>ot{3o; iit\ rXa^upw' 
Map(7U7], s^sucto tsov £'j'p$aa, tou; yap 'A-Btjvij? 

auAou? ix. ^>puyivj; outo? EA^fcaTO, 
Ei 8e gu towjtoi; tot' evettvee!;, oux av "Tayvi; 

tqv £7:1 Matavopw xXauas ouffauXov sptv. 



A-/JS xotI Tav Mowrav otoup.ot? auAOiaiv astffat 
aSu ti {/.ot ; Jtrvto xa/.TuV asipa[/.svo; 

Thou hangest high where the winds lash thy wild body, 
wretched one, swinging from a shaggy pine ; thou hangest high, 
for thou didst stand up to strife against Phoebus, O Satyr, dweller 
on the cliff of Celaenae ; and we nymphs shall no longer as before 
hear the honey-sounding cry of thy flute on the Phrygian hills. 

Phoebus said over clear-voiced Glaphyrus as he breathed desire 
through the pierced lotus-pipes, • Marsyas, thou didst tell false 
of thy discovery, for this is he who carried off Athena's flutes out of 
Phrygia; and if thou hadst blown then in such as his, Hyagnis 
would not have wept that disastrous flute-strife by Maeander.' 


Wilt thou for the Muses' sake play me somewhat of sweet on 
thy twin flutes 1 and I lifting the harp will begin to make music 


' Ao^zty.xi "" Jtp&tSiV 6 Ss (3toxoAos a[/.;/.iya fl-s^et 
Aaovig xapoS&no 7cvsu(jwcti [/.sXtco^svo?* 

'Eyyu; Ss (TTavTS? Aaciocuysvo? svSo-9-ev avTpou 
Ilava t6v aiyiparav 6p<pavi<7W(7.e; utcvou. 




Ts#v>jx' Eutu/iSv]; 6 (AsXoypatpos' ol xcctcc yaiav 
ipsuYST'" sycov coSa; Spyerai Euruy&qg' 

Kal xifrxpa; ocutco Sistoc&xto duvxaTaxauffat 
ob&sxa, xai xwrra? sixo<Ji7CSvre vop.cov. 

Nuv 6 Xapcov STreA^AuO-s' ttoi ti; a7CSA'{b] 
Xowrov, £— si yao\jv EuTuyiSvj? xareysi ; 



Ou SsY&rai Mapxov tov pviTOpa vexpov 6 LTaoutcjov, 

si-tov apxsrao Kspftepo? toSe xucov, 
Et, S' I&sasi^ 7cavTC0?, 'l£iovt Msaitwvi 

to} (/.sXoxowiTYj xai TlTUOJ [AfiXsTa* 
Ouosv yap sou ysipov syto jcaxov, aypi; av eTvfrcov 

coos GOAOixiyi) 'Pouoo; 6 ypau[/.aTixds. 

on the strings ; and Daphnis the neatherd will mingle enchant- 
ment with tuneable breath of the wax-bound pipe ; and thus 
standing nigh within the fringed cavern mouth, let us rob sleep 
from Pan the lord of the goats. 


Eutychides, the writer of songs, is dead ; flee, you under 
earth ! Eutychides is coming with his odes ; he left instructions 
to burn along with him twelve lyres and twenty- five boxes of 
airs. Now Charon has come upon you ; whither may one retreat 
in future, since Eutychides fills Hades too 1 


Pluto turns away the dead rhetorician Marcus, saying, ' Let the 
dog Cerberus suffice us here ; yet if thou needs must, declaim to 
Ixion and Melito the song-writer, and Tityus ; for I have no worse 
evil than thee, till Rufus the critic comes to murder the language 

172 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 4 



"Hu.7]V a/psiov x,aAay.o; (p'JTOv, It. yap Eiv.eto 
ou cGV, ou (avjaov cp'JsTat, ou GTacpuAvy 

'AXAa p.' av^p djiuija' ' Eai/.wvioV., A£--ra Toprjca; 
yzikzx jcat gt£ivov po~v oy£T£u<jay.£voc, 

'Ex. Ss TO'J £UT£ TTlOtai [/.SAXV 7TOTOV, £Vx>£0; Ota 

Trav £—0; acpOiyx.TW io/k AaAto gtoiv.xt'.. 


Euu.a&tav r,T£iTO (Mouc £•./.£ 2im.oc 6 Mi/./.ou 

Tat? Moucat?" ai &£, TXaij/.o; o/.a);, E^oaav 

'Avt' oAiyou f/iya f ^£p ov ' ^Y ^ ^' < * v; * T7 i v ^ £ xsyvjvws 
xeiuai too Sajjuou St.— aoov 6 Tpayuco? • 

ITaiSapitov Aiovuco; d-vy/.oo;' oi Si Asyouctv 
isp6? 6 TTAox.ay.o;, toujaov ovsiap £;v.oi. 




'£2 [, sl f/iv £— ' apTOv SATjAu&aT' e; [/.uyov oaaov 

<JT£l/£T' (S77£l A'/T/jV oi,X.EO[A£V 3tOtXuJ37]v) 


I the reed was a useless plant ; for out of me grow not figs nor 
apple nor grape-cluster; but man consecrated me a daughter of 
Helicon, piercing my delicate lips and making me the channel of 
a narrow stream ; and thenceforth, whenever I sip black drink, 
like one inspired I speak all words with this voiceless mouth. 

Simus son of Miccus, giving me to the Muses, asked for himself 
learning, and they, like Glaucus, gave a great gift for a little one ; 
and I lean gaping up against this double letter of the Samian, a 
tragic Dionysus, listening to the little boys ; and they repeat 
Holy is the hair, telling me my own dream. 

mice, if you are come after bread, go to another cupboard 
(for we live in a tiny cottage) where you will feed daintily on 


00 seal 7:iova Tupov K7roops(|/e<r<d-s Jtal aunv 

Loyaoa xal ^sitt^ov qj/vov a— 6 axu{3aXci)v' 

Ei 5' ev s[/.ai; (3i(3Xoun xocaiv x.xTaOrjCoT' dSdvra, 
*/»"Xaucrs<ji>' ou>c aya-9-ov xwjy.ov £~£oyda£voi. 




c/.iv^aAaaocppacT7jv awcuTaT*)? crocpfojc, 
Toia xspl tyy/'ffi tl; avsipsTO* ttio? fl-lp.^ si-sTv 

ttjv J/u^yjv, -8-vtjt^v 7] ttocaiv aS-avy/rov ; 
Stoy.a Ss o*£i x.y.Asstv ^ a<rtop.aTOV ; sv Ss votjtoi? 

T0OCt£oV 7j ATj-TOl? v^ TO <7l)VaV/pOT£0OV ; 

AuTap 6 toc? {ji ( 8aou? av£A£^y.TO tiov [^erscoptov 
jcai to rapl ^uyrfi spyov 'AptCTOTSAOu? 

Kal Trapa tm <3?aio\«M TlAaTMvi/.ov u^og e— tyvou; 
Tracav svjjfRajxb] TravTO-9-sv aTpejcfojv" 

ElTa TCpUTTEAAWV TO TpiSoJVlOV, SlTa y£V£lO'J jcaTa^7]j(o>v, tvjv auctlv e£s<p£osv 
Ei77£p 6'aio? egti ^aT^ cpu'cri? (ouSe yao oiSa) 

7j #V7]T7] xavTw; scttIv r a&avaTO?, 
2T£yvo(puvj? Tj auAo; - otocv §' 'A^spovTa 7rep>j<nrc 

jcet&t to V7][/.epTS? yvwffeai to; 6 iTAaTtov. 

rich cheese and dried raisins, and make an abundant supper off 
the scraps ; but if you sharpen your teeth again on my books and 
come in with your graceless rioting, you shall howl for it. 


That second Aristotle, Nicostratus, Plato's peer, splitter of the 
straws of the sublimest philosophy, was asked about the soul as 
follows : How may one rightly describe the soul, as mortal, or, on 
the contrary, immortal 1 and should we speak of it as a body or 
incorporeal ? and is it to be placed among intelligible or sensible 
objects, or compounded of both 1 So he read through the treatises 
of the transcendentalists, and Aristotle's cle Anima, and explored 
the Platonic heights of the Phaedo, and wove into a single fabric 
the whole exact truth on all its sides. Then wrapping his thread- 
bare cloak about him, and stroking down the end of his beard, 
he proffered the solution : — If there exists at all a nature of the 

174 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 4 

Ei 5' eD £},£'.; tov TtocToa Klsdy/ipoTOv , A|/. 1 Spay.i<0T7.v 
p.iaou Kcd TSyicov gov osj/.a; dV.yaAacov, 

Kai /csv £— LyvoLvj; otjja (tco{mcto{ ocurixa crauTOV, 
f^-ouvov cheep CjijTeSis tou-8-' utto^si-oij.evo;. 



El' [J.z IlAaTcov ou ypa<|>£ S'xo eysvovTO nXartovs;* 
Sw/'.pscTtx.cov oapwv avQ-ex ttccvtgc <p£pco' 

'AAAa VO&OV [/.' £T£A£(j(j£ IlavaiTtO;* 05 p' £T£A£GG£ 

xai ^ U X^ V ^' v ' ) '3 T7 i v i fcttfAS vd&ov teasgsi. 



Ei77x? vj'Xts y?fy z KXsdfAppoTo? cou,ppaxto)T73? 

'/JAaT* a<p' u^tjaoO T£i^£o; £i; 'Ai'Sav, 
"A^iov ouSev lo\ov S-avaxou x,ax.ov -q to Il>,aTcovo; 

ev to Trepl ^uyrfi ypaiy.y.' avaAsEa[/.svo?. 

soul — for of this I am not sure — it is certainly either mortal or 
immortal, of solid nature or immaterial ; however, when you cross 
Acheron, there you shall know the certainty like Plato. And if you 
will, imitate young Cleombrotus of Ambracia, and let your body 
drop from the roof; and you may at once recognise your self apart 
from the body by merely getting rid of the subject of your inquiry. 


If Plato did not write me, there were two Platos ; I carry in 
me all the flowers of Socratic talk. But Panaetius concluded me 
to be spurious ; yes, he who concluded that the soul was mortal, 
will conclude me spurious as well. 


Saying, ' Farewell, O sun,' Cleombrotus of Ambracia leaped off 
a high wall to Hades, having seen no evil worthy of death, but 
only having read that one writing of Plato's on the soul. 





Ei-s ti;, 'HpobcXeiTS, t£ov fj.opov, he, %i [/.& SaV.pv> 
7]Y a Y sv > SU.V/-G&-/JV S' ocjffoba? a.[//poT£pot 

'H/\tov dv >.£<7/7] / a/\Aa cru (jiv ttou, 
Esiv' ' AAix-apv^csu, TSTpa-a'Xai c— orV/j, 

Ai §£ Teal Cwo'jctv avjSove; r ( civ 6 Travrwv 
ap— a/r'/jp 'Atoyj? oux, eVi x^P 7 - paXst. 



'Ev&OClOCi) TO 7701WA3C TO /CUX,Al"/COV, OUO£ /££A£U#"tO 
/aipW, Ti; 770AAOU? CO§£ V.tX t6§£ <p£p£l" 

Micco jcai 7cep£<poiTOv £pto;v.Evov, out' a.Tto xprwjs 
t:ivw Gix./aivco ttscvto. xa 07][/.6<jia. 



015' 6'ti #vaTO<; dyw scpajAspo?' <xaa' otocv aGTpoav 

(7.aGT£'.'o) TWJtiva? aixcptSpou-ou; sXucag 
OujcsV ImiJ/auco yai*/]? ttogiv, izaax Trap' auTui 

Zavl {>£OTp£<p£o; T7iu.— ajAppochj?. 

One told me of thy fate, Heraclitus, and wrung me to tears, 
and I remembered how often both of us let the sun sink as we 
talked ; but thou, methinks, friend from Halicarnassus, art ashes 
long and long ago ; yet thy nightingale-notes live, whereon Hades 
the ravisher of all things shall not lay his hand. 

3 2 
I hate the cyclic poem, nor do I delight in a road that carries 
many hither and thither; I detest, too, one who ever goes girt 
with lovers, and I drink not from the fountain; I loathe everything 

I know that I am mortal and ephemeral ; but when I scan the 
multitudinous circling spirals of the stars, no longer do I touch 
earth with my feet, but sit with Zeus himself, and take my fill of 
the ambrosial food of gods. 



[SECT. 4 




BioxoAixal MoiTai 07copade§ ttoxoc - vOv ft' ajia 7?a<rai 
£vt\ y.ia; piavopag, svtI p.ia? ays>.a;. 



Hravco TTxavov "Eptorx x-XTavriov l~\xn: "Eotoft, 

a N^ftSfft?, tocco toqov a.[7jjvo|7.sva, 
'n? xe Tra-O-v] xa y' spsEsv 6 fts D-pacuc, 6 ~plv axctpfiyx 

oaxpust —t/.ptov veuaafxsvo? [isAstov 
'E; fts paS-uv Tpl? jcoXtcov a-s-rocrsv a uiva &aufi.a" 

<pAsEsi ti? 7Cupi 7;up # y'^ax' "Eptoro? "Eptoc. 




'O Trravo? tov TTxavov l'o' toe ayvjct x.spauvov, 
ftsi/tvix; to? x-psicaov TrOp xupo; sgtiv, "Epto;. 


The pastoral Muses, once scattered, now are all a single flock in 
a single fold. 


Nemesis fashioned a winged Love contrary to winged Love, 
warding off bow with bow, that he may be done by as he did ; and, 
bold and fearless before, he sheds tears, having tasted of the bitter 
arrows, and spits thrice into his low-girt bosom. Ah, most 
wonderful ! one will burn fire with fire : Love has set Love aflame. 


Lo, how winged Love breaks the winged thunderbolt, showing 
that he is a fire more potent than fire. 




AafJiirctSa &sl; rd^a, povjAy.Tiv si'asto p'a^ov 
ouaoi; "Epto;, Trvjpvjv S' si/s jcaTW^aS^Tjv, 

Kal ^S'jEoc? TaAaepyov Oxo £uyov au/eva Ta'jpwv 

£c— stpsv Avjou? auXa/.a 7rupo<pdpov, 
Ei77S §' avto (iAs^a? auTto Au' 77Avjc70v a.poupa?, 

p.7] as tov EupojTTTj? [iouv ux' apoTpa fixklii. 



'Hv xa/a cjpi^ovTo; evapyea Ilavo? axoustv, 
7rvsGfAa yap 6 7CAaoT7j? e'yxaTsp.t^s tu— w, 

'AaV opdtov (psuyou<7av ai///jyavo; aVraTOv 'H/(o 
7nj/iTiSo? ^pv^-ibj y-9-dyyov avoxpsAea. 



IlaAAa; rav Ku-8-spsiav svottaov sstTrsv tSoCicra, 
Ku-rrpt, SiAst; ourto? e? xpfaiv sp/djxsS-a ; 

' H o ocTraAov ysAotffaffa" ti jxoi cax.o; ocvtiov aipsiv ; 
si yuj/.vvj vixcS, Tito; orav oirXa Aa(3«o ; 

Laying down his torch and bow, soft Love took the rod of an 
ox-driver, and wore a wallet over his shoulder; and coupling 
patient-necked bulls under his yoke, sowed the wheat-bearing 
furrow of Demeter; and spoke, looking, up, to Zeus himself, 'Fill 
thou the corn-lands, lest I put thee, bull of Europa, under my 

One might surely have clearly heard Pan piping, so did the 
sculptor mingle breath with the form ; but in despair at the sight 
of Hying, unstaying Echo, he renounced the pipe's unavailing 

Pallas said, seeing Cytherea armed, ' Cyprian, wilt thou that 
we go so to judgment V and she, laughing softly, ' why should I 
lift a shield in contest 1 if I conquer when naked, how will it be 
when I take arms 1 ' 




[sect. 4 



'A Ku~pi; tocv Ku—piv evl KvioVo stxsv iSouca* 
<peu, <peu, roO yutj!.v-/}v ziM [j.z ITpa^iTEAvj; ; 




Heivoi, Aa'tvea; p.^ ^scuste toc; 'ApiaSva; 
[XT] xal avaO-ptoG/O] ®7]?sa oi^ouivTj. 



'Ex. ^bi'rfi [/.s &sol Tsu£av ai9-ov ex o*s Xi&oio 
£g)-,qv ITpa^iTeA7]? sp.xxXiv sipyaaaTO. 



AuToaaTw;, SaTupic/.s, Sovac; tso; t^/ov ia.AASi 

7) ti Trapax.Aiva; oua? aysi; x.aAaf/.to ; 
"Oc o*e ysAcov ciyvjasv tea); o" av <p0iyc;aTO |A'j9ov 

a.AA' U~ TEp— G)A7J; El/ETO ATlfrSOOVl* 


The Cyprian said when she saw the Cyprian of Cnidus, ' Alas 
where did Praxiteles see me naked?' 

Strangers, touch not the marble Ariadne, lest she even start up 
on the quest of Theseus. 


From life the gods made me a stone ; and from stone again 
Praxiteles wrought me into life. 

Untouched, young Satyr, does thy reed utter a sound, or 
why leaning sideways dost thou put thine ear to the pipe 1 He 
laughs and is silent ; yet haply had he spoken a word, but was 


O'j yap >c vj o o ^ spuxsv e/.tov <$' r^-a'CsTO cyvjv 

•8-UJJLOV OAOV TpsJ/y-C TT/j/.Tl^O? aG/OAlT]. 



<E>£o <tu Mupcov ~'Xy.G<jX<; oux, ECpO-acra?, aAAa ge yxAx.6$ 

— plv J"J/7)V (SaASE'.V £<pfta<7£ 7T/]YV'j;7.£V0;. 




Tov 2aTupov AiooVopoc Ex.oiy.tGEv, oux. dTopsuasv" 
yjv vu^yjc, lyepel?" apyupo; u^vov E/£t. 



Ei 5tal ixTriGTa x,Auouct Asyw TaoV <p7]y.l yap v]0*v] 

ri/yvx £>jp^c&ai Tspp.a.Ta t/jcos cracpvj 
Xstoo? ucp' '^[/.STEpv]?" avoTTEpf&vjTo; Se raTT^ysv 

oupo;* a[/.toy.7]TOv o" ouo*£v Ivevro ppoTOt;. 

held in forgetfulness by delight ? for the wax did not hinder, but 
of his own will he welcomed silence, with his whole mind turned 
intent on the pipe. 

Ah thou wert not quick enough, Myron, in thy casting ; but 
the bronze grew solid before thou hadst cast in a soul. 

This Satyr Diodorus engraved not, but laid to rest ; your touch 
will wake him ; the silver is asleep. 

4 6 

Even though incredible to the hearer, I say this ; for I affirm 
that the clear limits of this art have been found under my hand, 
and the mark is fixed fast that cannot be exceeded. But nothing 
among mortals is faultless. 




"HSv) y.xYki-iTTp^ov i~' sujcapTTOtct Xo^siai; 

Xifriov ex po^scov avfrocpope? jcoXujmjiv, 
"H§7j eV ax.psjxovs'jctv t<7o£uy£t.)v y.y— apwctov 

uousopxvTC tsttiE SiXy 61 ocjaoaXoSeV/jv, 
Kal (pOvO-ai; utto ystaa Sojaou? TEu£a<7a ^sXtocov 

sx.yova Tr/jXoyuTOi; ceivocW.ei d-aXa[/.oi£, 
'Txvwsi &£ frxAacaa <piAo'(s<pupoio yaATjvyj; 

vvpcpopot; voiTOi? suoia tts— xa'Asv/j;, 
Oux st:1 7rpu[Avaioi<n >ca.TatyKsOU<ra x.opu|A[ioi:, 

OUK, £771 p7]y|AtVO)V a<pp6v £p£UyO[A£V7J" 
NaUTlA£, 7T0VT0|A£^0VTt JCCCl 6p|AO&OT7Jpt IIpi7j7:C0 

teutM^o? "^ TpiyXvj; avfr£;AO£<7r;av ituv, 
"H cxapov auSr^vxa Tiapal pw^.oicri 7rupo)G7.? 
aTpo|7,o; 'Ioviou T£p|Aa. S-aXacffOTropsi. 

Now at her fruitful birth-tide the fair green field flowers out in 
blowing roses ; now on the boughs of the colonnaded cypresses the 
cicala, mad with music, lulls the binder of sheaves ; and the careful 
mother-swallow, having fashioned houses under the eaves, gives 
harbourage to her brood in the mud-plastered cells : and the sea 
slumbers, with zephyr-wooing calm spread clear over the broad 
ship-tracks, not breaking in squalls on the stern-posts, riot vomiting 
foam upon the beaches. sailor, burn by the altars the glittering 
round of a mullet or a cuttle-fish, or a vocal scarus, to Priapus, 
ruler of ocean and giver of anchorage ; and so go fearlessly on thy 
seafaring to the bounds of the Ionian Sea. 


i- 3 ] RELIGION 181 



Euo*ia piv tuovto? 7rop<pupETai' ou yap a7jT»]? 

xuaaxa 'Xeuxatvei cpputl yapaG<70f/.£va, 
Ouxst'. o*£ (mXa^saen TcsputAaff&eiffa ftaAaacra 

slotoaiv avTto-o? TTpo? [ia&oc siaaySTOV 

Ol ^SCpUpOl 77VSIOUCIV, £~ ITp'jCs'- &£ /£AlO*tOV 

/caocpSGt jco'aa7jtov 7T»jca(iivi] 0-aAatAOv. 
Oapcsi vaxmXtij? £p.7ceCpa[i.s, xav 7;apa Supnv 

xav 7capa Swceaixtjv — ovTOTTOpTJ; y.po/.aAyjv 
MoGvov svopjAiTao 7TCtpa.ii (3c>)jaoT<tc IIpivj— ou 

■^ axapov ■/] (3to/.a; cpAsEov ipsu&opivou?. 



O'jpiov ex. -p'J;xv7]; ti; ooTjyijTTjpa xaASiTto 

Zvjva jcxra TrpoTOvwv lar'iov dxTCSTacag" 
Eit' £-1 Kuavsa? Siva; Spd[/.o?, sV9-a IIogeiocSv 

/taiATTUAov eikiaasi xopia rapa J/ajAa&oi;, 
Errs /.xt Aiyaivjv ttovtou TTAaV.a vo'gtov epeuvcx:, 

vsic&co tcS&s pa'Xtov (J/aiOTa 7Capa £oavto - 
n^£ tov euavnjTOV asl 8-sov 'AvTWTOCTpOU 7T7.1; 

CTTGE <!>&tov ayaxHj? crJaSoAOv suttaoiVj;. 

Ocean lies purple in calm ; for no gale whitens the fretted 
waves with its ruffling breath, and no longer is the sea shattered 
round the rocks and sucked back again down towards the deep. 
West winds breathe, and the swallow twitters over the straw-glued 
chamber that she has built. Be of good cheer, skilled in 
seafaring, whether thou sail to the Syrtis or the Sicilian shingle : 
only by the altars of Priapus of the Anchorage burn a scarus or 
ruddy wrasse. 

Let one call from the stern on Zeus of the Fair Wind for guide 
on his road, shaking out sail against the forestays ; whether he runs 
to the Dark Eddies, where Poseidon rolls his curling wave along the 
sands, or whether he searches the backward passage down the 
Aegean sea-plain, let him lay honey-cakes by this image, and so go 
his way ; here Philon, son of Antipater, set up the ever-gracious 
god for pledge of fair and fortunate voyaging. 

182 G E E E K A NTHOLO G V [sect. 5 




TfiwXw u~' av-9-sp.dsvn ic/jv Trapa Maiovo; Epy.O'j 

Sapois? •/] AuotSv z^oyoc, slut rrdAic. 
Mapru? syco 7cpt«ro] ysvd|M}V A105, ou yap ^XeVyeiv 

Xa&piov uta 'Psvj? tj&saov vjv.etec-/;:- 
AuT/j xai Bpou.iio ysvot/.7]v rpocpdg, sv o*£ xspauvai 

sopaxov eup'jTspw <pto-n. ipasivdusvov* 
IIptoTai; 0" yjy.oT£pyj«7tv £v opyaaiv oivao" omopira 

ou'Oa.TO; £/. [ioxputov £av«)o; a'u.£A<;£ i>£oc. 
IlavTy. [7.£ KOfff/zqcravro, toXus o*£ u.£ 7c6XXob«? aiciv . 

a<7T£at,v 6a ( 8i<7toi; sups [/.syaipouiv/jv. 


I'/jo ut:o T-/jv apx.£'j;)ov it ajz/rcauovTSS, odirac, 

yuTa Trap' 'Ep»x£ix afuxpov 6S0O ©uaojci, 
M/j tpupoav, OTerot. Si (3apsi ydvu xafAVSTS u.oyiho 

xal Si'iz ooXiyav oiu.ov avuc<rau.,£vo!.' 
rivot"^ yap xal Sw.o; sugx.ioc, a $•' otto TOrpz 

TuLoac, suvTrjaei yuio|3ap7J xauafov, 
v Evo\ov o*£ <p'jyovT£; 6— topivou >cuv6? aaOjia, 

to; {>£[xt;, 'Ep[/.shjv sivdoiov ti£-£. 

Beneath flowering Tmolus, by the stream of Maeonian Hernius, 
am I, Sardis, capital city of the Lydians. I was the first who bore 
witness for Zeus ; for I would not betray the hidden child of our 
Ithea. I too was nurse of Bromius, and saw him amid the 
thunder-flash shining with broader radiance ; and first on our 
slopes the golden-haired god pressed the harvest of wine out of 
the breasts of the grape. All grace has been given me, and many 
a time has many an age found me envied by the happiest cities. 

Go and rest your limbs here for a little under the juniper, O 
wayfarers, by Hermes, Guardian of the Way, not in crowds, but 
those of you whose knees are tired with heavy toil and thirst after 
traversing a long road ; for there a breeze and a shady seat and 
the fountain under the rock will lull your toil-wearied limbs ; and 
having so escaped the midday breath of the autumnal dogotar, as 
is right, honour Hermes of the Ways. 

4-8] 11ELIGI0N 183 



EivoiJicpuXXov opo; KiAXv^viov ocwcu XiXoy^o)? 

tyjS' bodjjc' spaTOo yu[/.va<jiou [/.s^suv 
'Epir/j;, to st:i "KcaSzq ay.apax.ov r^' uajuv&ov 

TroXXor/.t, xal ftalspo'j; O-vj/.av I'cov gts97.vo'j;. 

VI 1 



ITava p.s tovS' ispvj; s~l Xwroraoos, aiyiaXiTinv 
Ilava, tov euopj7.(ov t^o scpopov Xitisviov, 

Ot Ypt~vj£<; s-8-evTO* [iiXco &' syto aXXors jcuotoi? 
aX^OT£ S' aiyiaXou toCos <ja*p]Vo[36Xois' 

'ATAi TrapaTrXst, £sivs, csflsv S' eyto ouvsxa TauTVj? 

S'JTtOlV]? 77E|^d/tO XpVj'JV OTriG&e VOTOV. 



Baio$ tSstv 6 ITpivj— o; £— ouyixXiTiSa vaiw 

JpjX^v, aifruia; ou ttoIu y' airuTepo;, 
<J>ck;6(;, arcou?, o'tov epyjij-aivjctv It: ajcTaTc 

c,iaazixv p.oyspc3v uUs? iyftupoXtov 


I who inherit the tossing mountain-forests of steep Cyllene, 
stand here guarding the pleasant playing fields, Hermes, to whom 
boys often offer marjoram and hyacinth and fresh garlands of 

Me, Pan, the fishermen placed upon this holy cliff, Pan of the 
seashore, the watcher here over the fair anchorages of the harbour; 
and I take care now of the baskets and again of the trawlers off 
this shore. But sail thou by, stranger, and in requital of this 
good service of theirs I will send behind thee a gentle south wind. 

Small to see, I, Priapus, inhabit this spit of shore, not much 
bigger than a sea-gull, sharp-headed, footless, such an one as 
upon lonely beaches might be carved by the sons of toiling 


'A/./.' m xk •■z-.-Zjz u.z Bmn&oav r. xaXaiASirrqe 

Afiuffou xed tx 0-sovTa x.7.9-' SofleroC r ( vi: i-' spyiov 
oV.y.ovi:. O'j y.o:c.a: yvcMTOV iyo-jz: tottov. 



>'(., r ,'~ , 'y~ tti' ti — t } y/r.y — r/irri- 

-  t ' * I * 7 

ITavy. /.y.'/.v: y.-W: Han /.ac'.O'j ttooo: Erna ipaivet, 

cuvdeacv xxXtv^dv TTy.v zvavsi xaXtziuav. 

1 « 



EustYpet XacvodTipoE, xat i'. -z-ziv/x o\uy.tov 

 . 1 .. 

'.l£-j-r/;: ipcsi£ toj!+ ikto dusrov 0:0:, 
Kavi rdv uiXiKdpov obco xpiuevotb Bdacov 
Havoc' suvacYpsuco Jtai fcixn xai KaXauu 

fishermen. But if any basket-fisher or angler call me to succour, 
I rush fleeter than the blast : likewise I see the creatures that run 
under water : and truly the form of godhead is known from deeds, 
not from shape. 

Whether thou goest on the hill with lime smeared over thy 
fowler's reed, or whether thou killest hares, call on Pan : Pan 
shows the dog the prints of the furry foot, Pan raises the stiff- 
jointed lime-twigs. 


Fair fall thy chase, hunter of hares, and thou fowler who 
comest pursuing the winged people beneath this double hill ; and 
cry thou to me, Pan, the guardian of the wood from my cliff; I join 
the chase with both dogs and reeds. 

9.13] RELIGION 185 




Kaui tov ev cy.i/.po'i: OAtyov 8-sov jjv £--/:: wt/- ( ; 

E'jx.aipcoc, Tsucr/ y.r ( [teyaXcav o*£ '{>•'•'/?■>' 
'He a ye S-/jaoT£iwv SuvaTai &eo? xvopl ttevettvj 

o\oc£ic {>?.•., toutwv /cupto? £ ; .y.>. TJ/cov. 



"Hv Tracix: row a, ^NXorawYiiuav $£ xaXetTOU, 
Troops IIonSaiTK xsutevov dv rptodto, 

E ; .-£ T .v oiov £-' Ipyov av£i; -ooV.r evd-j; ex-si'vo: 

SUpiMtSC TV/ 001 ~ pvjH'-O; EUXOAITJV. 




Tr.v yx/.crp p.£ 7iyo'jci, xai oux icy. ftOVTOftopsucoo; 

va-'j^l oil&uveiv aTpoaov £•!»— Aolvjv, 
Oux a-oo-/;y.' 5' eyco' Pp«XV [*** <7/ - 7 - ?°" **^* daXaoGJ] 

-7.V fcov' o-j •j.zzzojv r xpicte kXagc TUYJK. 
v E(7tco tt/joV.aioi; £T£:t; 7CAiov" dcXao yap aXX]] 

HapTor £vco S' efojv oV.iy.oc. <7<iH,0[/iv7j. 

1 1 
Even me the little god of small things if thou call upon in due 
season thou shalt find ; but ask not for great things ; since what- 
soever a god of tbe commons can give to a labouring man, of this 
I, Tycho, have control. 


If thou pass by the hero (and he is called Philopregmon) who 
lies by the cross-roads in front of Potidaea, tell him to what work 
thou leadest thy feet ; straightway will he, being by thee, make thy 
business easy. 


They call me the little one, and say I cannot go straight and 
fearless on a prosperous voyage like ships that sail out to sea ; and 
I deny it not ; lama little boat, but to the sea all is equal : fortune, 
not size, makes the difference. Let another have the advantage 
in rudders ; for some put their confidence in this and some in that, 
but may my salvation be of God. 



[sect. 5 




Ttjv Aio; a[i.<pt~o7vOv \j.z XeXioova, thv i-\ (itoy.ot; 

c~£v()ziv aOavaroiv ypvjov dTrwTaasvvjv, 
Ei>'tsx.vov, a<7T0va£/]T0v, s/ec Tacpo;' oo yap aaa.'jpco; 

Saiy.ovs; ^aSTSpvjv s^asttov eu<rs(3fov; 



'Ayvov '/pr^ irniofo Ouwoso; svt6; iovtx 

'.yveivj S' son <ppovsiv oaia 

EfjLjxevai' ai 





'Ayvo? xsi: Tsasvo; xa&apou, £svs, daifzovo? spyou 
vpu/j/jv, vuy.oaiou vat-iaxo; a^ap.svo;' 

' fl? ayaO-oi; /.eiTai ^aiT) Aipa?, avSpa &s qpaOXov 
ouo' av 6 77a; vtJm vauaaiv 'fi/.savoc. 


Me Chelidon, priestess of Zeus, who knew well in old age how 
to make offering on the altars of the immortals, happy in my 
children, free from grief, the tomb holds ; for with no shadow in 
their eyes the gods saw my piety. 

He who enters the incense-filled temple must be holy ; and 
holiness is to have a pure mind. 

1 6 

Hallowed in soul, O stranger, come even into the precinct of a 
pure god, touching thyself with the virgin water ; for the good a 
few drops are set ; but a wicked man the whole ocean canno* - wash 
in its waters. 

14-17] EELIGION 187 




Ei col Eopafos ael (iio;, ouSe d-aXaaaav 
sttaio? yspcaia; t O'jx. IxaTKjffoc? ocWc, 

V E(A~ /j; Ks/.fo-iyj; e~ tpr]asvai, o<pp' av &ts(va? 
ATjfJL'/jTpo; [AsyaXa; vux.Ta; I'S^c isocov, 

Tojv a— o x,"nv Ctooictv axnola, /.but' av utxai 
e; — Xeo'vwv, s^et? #u[v.6v |!Xa^poTSpov. 


Though thy life be fixed in one seat, and thou sailest not the 
sea nor treadest the roads on dry land, yet by all means go to 
Attica that thou may est see those great nights of the worship of 
Demeter ; whereby thou shalt possess thy soul without care among 
the living, and lighter when thou must go to the place that 
awaiteth all. 




M7] jac tov iv. Ai,Savoio Aeye, tivz^ t6v <pi7\ox.«[A(ov 
TcpTTOj/.cvov vuyioi? TjtO-ctov oapoi;* 

Bato; cyto vu[A<pvj; a~6 ycifovo; aypouoT/j; 
[/.ouvov e~OTpuvtov coy a <puTOC(X.acptv]i;, 

"EvO-cv aw' cuxap— ou [v.e cpiATj; IcrsiJ/av aAwvjs 
Tccrcrapc; 'Xlpatov ex. TOCupcov arccpavot. 


pan's piping 

alcaeus ok messene 

"Eiattvci Ilav Aapoictv 6pci[iaTa yciACTt [aougocv, 

CfATTVCt TT0l[/.CVl(0 TCpTT d'V.CVO; OOVaX.1, 

EuxCAao*w auptyyi ycwv [/.caog, cV» &e cuvwSou 
/CAa£s xanfiuvtov pvj|/.aTo; ap(/.ovi7]V 

'Ap/^l o*c coi, pux)-[/.oio -/.ara Jtpdrov, cvB-cov I'yvo; 
p'/jfjacTOw Nuitfflai? TaTffoe [;.e9-uo'pia<Ttv. 

Call me not him who comes from Libanus, stranger, who 
delights in the talk of young men love-making by night ; I am 
small and a rustic, born of a neighbour nymph, and all my business 
is labour of the garden ; whence four garlands at the hands of the 
four Seasons crown me from the beloved fruitful threshing-floor. 

Breathe music, O Pan that goest on the mountains, with thy 
sweet lips, breathe delight into thy pastoral reed, pouring song 
from the musical pipe, and make the melody sound in tune with 
the choral words ; and about thee to the pulse of the rhythm let 
the inspired foot of these water-nymphs keep falling free. 

i- 4 ] NATURE 189 




M?j cu ye 7coiov6{/.oto xEpirAEOv iauo; w^s 
touto yapaSpat7]? xtepp.ov, oStxa, 7rivj;, 

'AXAa p.oAwv p.aXa. tut&ov u~ep oaiAxX'/jpOTOv axpav 
x.eice ye ~ap v.zLvx 7roi[/.£via ttitui 

Euprj<7Si<; xelapu^ov £ux.prjvou o\a TCSTpijs 
vS.jj.tx. Bopeaivj; <LuypoTSpov vupaSo;. 



Ta^s Kara yAospoio otqpsl? ASty-iovo?, oSixa, 

ap.Traucov p.oyspou f/.aA&a/.a yula x.otcou, 
Hiyi cs z,al Zs^upoio TLvacco[j.£V7) tcitu? auaai? 

&ea£s&, TETTiyoiv sLcafovra [/.eXo?, 
Xto 7C0i{/.^v ev 6'pEcct f/.sca[/.(3piv6v ayyo-8-t xaya? 

cupicoVov Xacia? & utco T^Xa/ravou* 
Kau^-ax' OTrtopivoto <puya>v y.uvo? atTiro?^si; 

aijptov eu toSs col Havl Xsyova 7zi&ou. 

Drink not here, traveller, from this warm pool in the brook, full 
of mud stirred by the sheep at pasture ; but go a very little way 
over the ridge where the heifers are grazing ; for there by yonder 
pastoral stone-pine thou wilt find bubbling through the fountained 
rock a spring colder than northern snow. 

Here fling thyself down on the grassy meadow, O traveller, and 
rest thy relaxed limbs from painful weariness ; since here also, as 
thou listenest to the cicalas' tune, the stone-pine trembling in the 
wafts of west wind will lull thee, and the shepherd on the moun- 
tains piping at noon nigh the spring under a copse of leafy plane : 
so escaping the ardours of the autumnal dogstar thou wilt cross 
the height to-morrow ; trust this good counsel that Pan gives thee. 

190 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 6 



'T^bcotxov ~apa Tavo*e x„a5K(£o cptov/- sccxv 

<ppi(j<jO'J«7av xeux,7jv xXcSvag u—6 Z$<pupoic, 

Kai cot x.a^Aa^ouciv ep.oi; xapa vajiaat ffupty!; 
frsAyoyivcov aEet >«5;7.a jc%Ta (iASCpapiov. 



"Epyso seal /.ax' ejv.av il^su ttituv, a to |j.£Aiyp6v 

Trpo? [/.aXaxou? fost xexXif/iva Zs^upou; - 
'Hvio*e xai xpouviau.a [/.eXiaTay^s, svfta fxsA^crotov 

7jo*uv epvjy.aiot; utivov ayto -/.aAa[/.oic. 



T(su utco ffjcispav TTAaxavov, ££ve, -rave's Tirapspxcov 
a; axaXai Zscpupo; 7cysuf/.aTt cpuAAa oovei, 

"Evfta p.e Ntx.ayo'pa? x.7vUt6v smtocto MaiaSo? 'Epy.av 
aypou y.ap~ OTO/too puropa Jtal y.xsavcov. 

Sit down by this high-foliaged voiceful pine that rustics her 
branches beneath the western breezes, and beside my chattering 
waters Pan's pipe shall bring drowsiness down on thy enchanted 



Come and sit under my stone-pine that murmurs so honey-sweet 
as it bends to the soft western breeze ; and lo this honey-dropping 
fountain, where I bring sweet sleep playing on my lonely reeds. 

Sit down, stranger, as thou passest by, under this shady plane, 
whose leaves nutter in the soft breath of the west wind, where 
Nicagoras consecrated me, the renowned Hermes son of Maia, 
protector of his orchard-close and cattle. 

5 -io] NATURE 191 



SivotTti) aocgiov Apua.fWv As— a;, oV t' a— 6 — £Tpa; 

-/.pouvoi, j&vjjr/j 7toiAufuy^$ Toxaowv, 
Auto? £-£i crupiYY' fJLsXiaoSTCtt suxsXaoq) ITav 

uypdv 1st; £sux.t(3v X 6 ^ ? u— sp >totXatw«>v, 
Ai 5s — soiE -Oa'Xspo'icri yopov — oclv ecTr^avTO 

'TSpia&s? Nuy.cpat, Nu[/.<pat ' Ajxaopuaos?. 



i 7.5' u~ 6 tk; — Aa/ravou; a— aXco TSTpufxivo? uttvo) 
euosv "Epoi;, Nut/.©ai? Xau/rcaoa — ap$i|A£vo; - 

N'jy.©ai 5' aAAvJATjGf ti {A£aaou.£v ; ai'&s <$k toutco 
(r^, si— ov, op.oO 7ri>p x,paSt*/j; [xspo— ojv. 

Aay.-a? S' to? s^as^s xal u^ara, frspiAOv 
Nu[/.©oci 'Epcmafts; AOUTpO^OSUCtV u5wp. 



Ilav oils, TojJiTtoa p.ij/.vs tsoi; e—l ysiXsci cupcov, 

'H/(0 yap ^St? TOWfV £Vl ^SIAOTTS^OIC. 

Let the shaggy cliff of the Dryads be silent, and the springs 
welling from the rock, and the many-mingled bleating of the 
ewes ; for Pan himself makes music on his melodious pipe, running 
his supple lip over the joined reeds ; and around him stand up to 
dance with glad feet the water-nymphs and the nymphs of the 

Here beneath the plane-trees, overborne by soft sleep, Love 
slumbered, giving his torch to the Nymphs' keeping; and the 
Nymphs said one to another, ' Why do we delay ? and would that 
with this we might have quenched the fire in the heart of mortals.' 
But now, the torch having kindled even the waters, the amorous 
Nymphs pour hot water thence into the bathing pool. 

Dear Pan, abide here ; drawing the pipe over thy lips, for thou 
wilt find Echo on these sunny greens. 

192 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 6 




Tov v.s aiOov uiuvTiffo tov wYTnevra — xsso— <»v 

I III I / -. I II 

Nicaivjv ots yap rupcriv STSiyoooysi 
'AA/.a^oo:, tots <I>ot8oc e7r«*ov r.os ooaatov 

Xaa, Auxtopsfav evOiy-svo; xt&apinv, 
"EvOxv eyco XupaoiSo;' u7KMcpou<ra§ oi ye Xejprij 

yspy.xo*i, rod %6{/.7COu [AapTupivjv xd(Aiffai. 



'Asvaov KaS-apiqv y.s — apspyoy.svowiv ooirat; 

Tr/jyyjv ay.fiA'J^sc ystrov^ouora varr/j, 
ITavxTj S' S'j — 'XaTavotct Jtai n[/.spod-aXXs<tt Satpvatg 

earejx^iat, axiepinv ^uyoj/ivvj /Jwi'/jv 
Touvexa u.r^ y.s Oipeu? — apay.sipscr Si^av OAOAKtov 

ay.— x.'jtov — ap' sy.ol seal xo'ttov yjcj/i?]. 



EuSsi; ipuXXoffTpcoTc — soVo, Aacpvi, a<uu.a xsxuaxog 
ay.— a'jtov* CTa).'./.;; f)' aprwc xysT; aV opyj" 

1 1 
Remember me the singing stone, thou who passest by Nisaea ; 
for when Alcathous was building his bastions, then Phoebus lifted 
on his shoulder a stone for the house, and laid down on me his 
Delphic harp; thenceforth I am lyre-voiced; strike me lightly 
with a little pebble, and carry away witness of my boast. 

I 2 
I the ever-flowing Clear Fount gush forth for by-passing way- 
farers from the neighbouring dell ; and everywhere I am bordered 
well with planes and soft-bloomed laurels, and make coolness and 
shade to lie in. Therefore pass me not by in summer ; rest by me 
in quiet, ridding thee of thirst and weariness. 

Thou sleepest on the leaf-strewn floor, Daphnis, resting thy 
weary body ; and the hunting-stakes are freshly set on the hills ; 

ii-i6J NATUIiE 193 

'Aypsuei o*s vj Hav y.xl 6 tov jcpoJtosvra Ilptmco; 

jci'j'jov 4©' lu-Sprw x.paxl xa&ocTC xdy.svo; 
"Avrpov Icrto ttsiyovts? 6|7,oppo»>o'/ aXXa tu ©suye, 

<ps'jye, [j.zdz\^ u7cvou j«o|v,a xaT&tf}d(£Svov. 



r Epiv.a; xao sVraxa — ap' op/arov ttvsfjidevTa 

ev Tpidf^ot;, TTOAia? SYYU'9-sv aidvo;, 
'AvSpacri Kex[£n(5Gr'.v eytov ay.— auciv ooVfto* 

^u^pov &' a/pai; Jtpava u&wp xpo/ix'.. 



ITotij-Sviav ayAw<7<70? av* opyao*a fjiATOTai 'A/to 
avri&po'jv 7cravot; >j<rr£pd<p<ovov 6'— a. 




MinxsTi vjv fuvupiQs racpa Spui!', [xvjjesTt ©wvsi 
xiXtovd; eV dbcpofaTOU, Jidffffuos, jtejcAiasvo;' 

and Pan pursues thee, and Priapus who binds the yellow ivy on 
his lovely head, passing side by side into the cave; but flee thou, 
flee, shaking off the dropping drowsiness of slumber. 

I, Hermes, stand here by the windy orchard in the cross-ways 
nigh the grey sea-shore, giving rest on the way to wearied men ; 
and the fountain wells forth cold stainless water. 

l 5 
Tongueless Echo along this pastoral slope makes answering 
music to the birds with repeating voice. 


No longer now warble on the oak, no longer sing, O blackbird, 
sitting on the topmost spray ; this tree is thine enemy ; hasten 
where the vine rises in clustering shade of silvered leaves ; on her 


194 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 6 

'Ey&po'v crot rods o£vopov* £~£iy£o ^' affX/TCSAOg EvOa 
avrsAASt yXauxcov auaxio; ex, TrsTaAcov 

KsiVVJC TOUXTOV £p£'.<70V £~l xXaOOV ay.(pi T* EX.SIVY] 

;j.ea— e, liyuv 77po/£tov ex. CToy.aTtov xeaocSov 
ApO; yap £tt' dpvifrEtfci (pspsi tov avapaiov tcov, 
a Ss fJoTouv orspyet 8' ujavowoXou? Bpo[/.io?. 




KaoSvs; aTT/jopiot Tavavj; Spudc, suaxiov m|/o; 

av^paaiv axpTjTOv xaujAa cp'JAasaofAEvotc, 
EuttetoXoi, xspap.tov GTsyavtoTEpoi, oixia cpy.TTiov, 

oue&a TETTiyWV, EV^lOl a/.p£p.ov£;, 
Kr^f/i tov up.£T£patciv uTro/.'XivfrsvTa /.ojAoaciv 

pucaaS-' axrivcov yjsXiou qwyaoa. 



AuAaxi scat y/jpa TSTpuiAEvov epya-uvvjv pouv 
"A'X/Cwv ou cpovivjv yjyays 7rpo; xoitioa, 
AL^ecO-el? spycov 6 §s ttou [iiaB-E'/] £vi tcoiv) 

[U)/C7)fr|/.Ol? apOTpOU TSpTVET' EASuOspiT). 

bough rest the sole of thy foot, around her sing and pour the 
shrill music of thy mouth ; for the oak carries mistletoe baleful 
to birds, and she the grape-cluster ; and the Wine-god cherishes 

Lofty-hung boughs of the tall oak, a shadowy height over men 
that take shelter from the fierce heat, fair-foliaged, closer-roofing 
than tiles, houses of wood-pigeons, houses of crickets, noontide 
branches, protect me likewise who lie beneath your tresses, fleeing 
from the sun's rays. 


The labouring ox, outworn with old age and labour of the 
furrow, Alcon did not lead to the butchering knife, reverencing it 
for its works ; and astray in the deep meadow grass it rejoices 
with lowings over freedom from the plough. 

I7 - 20 ] NATURE 195 



'AtSI x.opa p.eAiO-psTCTS, AaAo; aocaov ap-a£aaa 
TSTTty' axT^civ SaTra cpspEu; t£x.£giv 

tov aocaov a Aa.AOEGaa, tov suTrrepov a 7tT£po£<7Ga, 
tov £evov a Eeiva, tov •B-spivov •0-spiva ; 

Kou/l Ta^o? pt^et? ; ou yap &£[7.t? ouoe SUouov 
oaaucB-' u[xvo~oaou? ujy.voxoAOti; CTo'jj.a<rtv. 



Tittts [X.S tov cptA£p-/]|xov avaios'i 7TOi[/ivEs aypT) 

TETTtya SpocrepcSv £ax.£t' ax ax.p£y.6vwv, 
Tr.v Nup.cpEtov xapoSiTtv ayjSova x.rj(xaTt [vicrcto 

oupsct seal ax.i£pai? ^ou-9-a AaAsuvTa vaxat? ; 
'HviSe xki x.t^A.yjv xocaucpov, •qvuk tocgou? 

^apa;, apoupaivj? apxaya? su7TOpfo)S* 
Kapxtov &!]A7jT-/jpa<; easiv #s[v.i; - 6'aaut' kcsivoo^' 

qniXXcov jcai yXozor^ ti? cpO-o'vo; £<rrl Spo'cou ; 


Attic maid, honey-fed, chatterer, snatchest thou and hearest 
the chattering cricket for feast to thy unfledged young, thou 
chatterer the chatterer, thou winged the winged, thou summer 
guest the summer guest, and wilt not quickly throw it away 1 for 
it is not right nor just that singers should perish by singers' 


Why in merciless chase, shepherds, do you tear me the solitude- 
haunting cricket from the dewy sprays, me the roadside nightingale 
of the Nymphs, who at midday talk shrilly in the hills and the 
shady dells ? Lo, here is the thrush and the blackbird, lo here 
such flocks of starlings, plunderers of the cornfield's riches ; it is 
allowed to seize the ravagers of your fruits : destroy them : why 
grudge me my leaves and fresh dew 1 

196 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 6 



Tittts ~av/j[j.£pio;, Ilavo\ovl galops *oupa, 
[./.upot/iva JceXaoei? TpauAa &x OTOttaTcov ; 

'H to i 7cap9-sv(a? 776&0; IV.sto tocv toi XTHjupx 
©pyjiVtto; Tvjpsuc atva Pwjorajtevo? ; 



©uoats 6 /.(0| J ///-T'/]c, 6 toc vjy.cpi.xa javjax vojjls'Jwv, 

@'jp<7i? 6 cupiCtov ITavo? tiTov odvaxi 
"EvSio? oivottottj; (uciepav u— Tav tcituv su&si, 

cppoupet §' auTO? sacov TCOtavta [iaxrpov "Epto;. 



2t(3u,sv aAtppxvTOio wapa Y-8-ap.otXav y&ovy. icovrou 

ospxdfxevoi tsj/.svo; Ku~pio*o; EivaAia? 
Kpavav t' aiysipotci xaTaorcuov, a? axo vxy.a 

Ho'j&al a^uffdovTat ytiksnw aAxudve?. 

Why all day long, hapless maiden daughter of Pandion, soundest 
thou wailingly through thy twittering mouth ? has longing corne 
on thee for thy maidenhead, that Tereus of Thrace ravished from 
thee by dreadful violence 1 

Thyrsis the reveller, the shepherd of the Nymphs' sheep, Thyrsis 
who pipes on the reed like Pan, having drunk at noon, sleeps 
under the shady pine, and Love himself has taken his crook and 
watches the flocks. 

2 3 
Let us stand by the low shore of the spray-scattering deep, 
looking on the precinct of Cypris of the Sea, and the fountain 
overshadowed with poplars, from which the shrill kingfisher* 
draw water with their bills. 

21-26] NATUEE 197 




KuTTpifto? OUTO? 6 /wpOC, £"£'- 91XOV E7TAETO T*/jvX 

otiev a::' vpteipou Aapwrpov opvjv 7dXayoq 
"Ocppa (ptAov vauT»)fft tea?) ttaoov ay.cpl Ss ttovto? 
o*£iaaivsi, Xwcapov o*spy.oj/.svo; £6avov. 



Ml]5tETl Sst{AaiVOVTS? aq>£yysa VJ/tTO; opi/Avjv 

si: sui SapcaAScos; ttacoets 770VTO~6poi. 
Ilaciv aAcoojAEvot; TQAauy&x oV.aov kvz-tw, 

Ttov 'AcjcXrmaowv [/.v7](ao<tuvtjv Jcap.aT<*>v. 



'O ttaoo? topalo; - yap AaXayeuffa ^eXiowv 

•/•$■/] /to /apist; Zscpupo?, 
Asiatovs? 3' avO-sOci, ffgfftyjijxsv fts S-aAacca 

jcuy-aci jcat ^p"/)/si 7tvsu|/.aTt ($pa<7<TO|/iv7j. 

This is the Cyprian's ground, since it was her pleasure ever 
to look from land on the shining sea, that she may give fulfilment 
of their voyage to sailors ; and around the deep trembles, gazing 
on her bright image. 

No longer dreading the rayless night-mist, sail towards me 

confidently, seafarers ; for all wanderers I light my far-shining 

torch, memorial of the labours of the Asclepiadae. 


Now is the season of sailing ; for already the chattering swallow 

is come, and the gracious west wind ; the meadows flower, and 

the sea, tossed up with waves and rough blasts, has sunk to silence. 

"Weigh thine anchors and unloose thine hawsers, mariner, and 


'Avxupa? kvIXoio xal ixXuaato yuata, 

vxutiae, >cai 77X0)01; Trarrav £©£•.; oOov/jv 

TaOfr' 6 IT017J770; Svcov £77tT£AAO[Aoa 6 XtfAeviTa^, 
tovO-otixp', to; 77A1001; Tcdtoav £77' £[A7?opfa]v. 



'Axjaouo; po-8-17] vy]i Spdao;, ouos ^toCky.^nx 

7rop<pup£i Tpo[7.£pvj ippix.1 jjapaffffOf/ivyj, 
"HSvj o*£ 77'Xacc£t piv u77<.opo<pa yupa jfSAtwov 

oi/cia, A£i[7.(ovcov o" a(3px yeXa TCSTaXa' 
Touvexa [AVjp'JcacS-s o\appoya x£iay.xTa, vauTat, 

£Ax.£T£ o" ay/jjpa; cptoAaoV.; ex Xif/ivtov, 
Aai<psa o" £uucp£a TrpoTOvi^STS' raoS-' 6 Tlpbpo; 

U|Af/.lV £VOpV.lTa? 77ai; £V£77tO BpojAiou. 



Oux. ideXcd, <&iAo07jps, xa-ra tctoaiv, ocaV £77' apo'jpvj; 

o'xiVUG&ai, ZecpupOU 7TVSUfiaTl TSp~d[ASVO?" 
'ApJCSt [AOl X.OITVJ [A£V U770 77A£'jpYJtft /a[A£'JVa, 

syyu? yap 77po|AaAoo Sejaviov £voa7Ci7};, 

sail with all thy canvas set : this I Priapus of the harbour bid 
thee, man, that thou mayest sail forth to all thy trafficking. 

Now is the season for a ship to run through the gurgling water, 
and no longer does the sea gloom, fretted with gusty squalls, and 
now the swallow plasters her round houses under the eaves, and 
the soft leafage laughs in the meadows. Therefore wind up your 
soaked cables, sailors, and weigh your hidden anchors from the 
harbours, and stretch the forestays to carry your well-woven sails. 
This I the son of Bromius bid you, Priapus of the anchorage. 


I do not wish to feast down in the city, Philotherus, but in the 

country, delighting myself with the breath of the west wind ; 

sufficient couch for me is a strewing of boughs under my siJe, for 

at hand is a bed of native willow and osier, the ancient garland of 

27-29] NATUKE 199 

Kal Auyo;, apyaiov Kapiov n-iy%' otXkv. cpspssOto 

oivo; seal Moucscov 7] yxpitaax A'jpy], 
©ujy.fps; ttivovts; ottco? Aio? Z'jyJkzx vuf/.<pyjv 

f/iA7;iO[J.SV, V7JCOU Sstf-OTtV Vj|ASTSpYj;. 




"T&xffi )wd x,vJ7k otcrt, xal aXffsai seal Atovt-'cto 
xal tcovtou 7wA7-9-g) ysirovo; S'j<ppo<Juv/], 

Tepxva Ss iaoi yaivj; ts x,al s£ aAo; aAAo&sv aAAO? 
xal ypwrsu? opsyst Swpa Jtal aypov&'[/.o?, 

Tou? §' sv SfAol p.ip.vovTa; -/j opvi&iov ti; astocov 
•^ vaujcu TCop9y//jtov <p8-£y[j.a 7rapyjyopssi. 

the Carians ; but let wine be brought, and the delightful lyre of 
the Muses, that drinking at our will we may sing the renowned 
bride of Zeus, lady of our island. 


I am filled with waters and gardens and groves and vineyards, 
and the joyousness of the bordering sea ; and fisherman and 
farmer from different sides stretch forth to me the pleasant gifts 
of sea and land : and them who abide in me either a bird singing 
or the sweet cry of the ferrymen lulls to rest. 




Eucsfiivj to [/.sXa&pov a;ro — pcoTOio 0-ey.eiXou 
aypi jcai u^tjaouc vjyaysv el? opdcpou?, 

Ou yap owe* aAAOTpiwv x.t£7.vojv X^jferopi 
oXpov aoXXi^tov tsOcs May.-/jo"dvtos, 

O'JOS Xl7CSpv>]TlW KEVSto JCal ax.SpOS'i [AG/thi) 

xXkugs oocaiOTOtTOU lu<t&oG otAevo?* 
'H; os 7rovwv au.— auy.a <puXa<JGSTai dcvopl oucaup, 
woe 5tai eu<7s[3s<j)v £pya wivot ixepoxtov. 



XstXo; 'AvuajTSta to ypurrsov si; sv.s TeVyei" 
txXXa ~y.oy.r;yovj:r t v xai Trov.x vuy.cpimov. 

Righteousness has raised this house from the first foundation 
even to the lofty roof; for Macedonius fashioned not his wealth 
by heaping up from the possessions of others with plundering 
sword, nor has any poor man here wept over his vain and profitless 
toil, being robbed of his most just hire ; and as rest from labour 
is kept inviolate by the just man, so let the works of pious mortals 

Aniceteia wets her golden lip in me ; but may I give her also 
the draught of bridal. 


1-5] THE FAMILY 201 



Ouwco aoi xa'Xux.tov yujy.vov Oipo?, ouo*£ jxsXaivsi 
[idxpu? 6 TrapOsviou; TrpwrofjOAtov ^aptrac, 

'AXX' '/jo* - /] Soa toEoc vsoi iH^yougiv "Eptore;, 
Auerio^x.7], T^Gp T'j<p£Tai dy/.p'jcptov. 

<t>£uy(o;A£v (^uasptOTS;, sco; p£Ao; oux eVi v£'jp-?j - 
p.avTi: eyto [A£yxA7j; a'jTix.a TTup/.a't^c. 



Eiapo? 7]'v&£i [xsv to —plv pooV., vuv 5' evl [jAggm 

ysitxaTt TTOpcpupsac sa^aaaf/.sv x.aAux,a<; 
2"Jj eTCcp-siS^cravTa yevsft-At'/] aapLSva t^Ss 

•/jot, vjy.cpiStcov acraoraT'/] AS^stov" 
KaAAiGTT]? <JTsq>rHjvat £7ul /tpoTacpoici yuvat^o? 

Aonov •q [/.ip.vetv yjpivov r ( £Atov. 

GOODBVE to childhood 


Tt|Aap£Ta 7:po ya(/.oio ra Tujv.xava tt]v t' epy.TEiv^v 

ccpaxpav, to'v t£ x,d[/.a? puxopa x.£x.pu<paAov, 

Not yet is thy summer unfolded from the bud, nor does the 
purple come upon thy grape that throws out the first shoots of its 
maiden graces ; but already the young Loves are whetting their 
fleet arrows, Lysidice, and the hidden fire is smouldering. Flee 
we, wretched lovers, ere yet the shaft is on the string ; I prophesy 
a mighty burning soon. 

Eoses ere now bloomed in spring, but now in midwinter we 
have opened our crimson cups, smiling in delight on this thy 
birthday morning, that brings thee so nigh the bridal bed : better 
for us to be wreathed on the brows of so fair a woman than wait 
for the spring sun. 


Her tambourines and pretty ball, and the net that confined her 
hair, and her dolls and dolls' dresses, Timareta dedicates before her 


Toe? T£ xopac, Atv.vaTt, x.o'pz x.dpa, to; ir.<.zv/.i^, 
av&£TO, Ta x.opav ivouiAaV 'Apr&uoi. 
AaTcoa, tu Si ttxiSo; u— ep yspx Tw-apsTSta; 

[SECT. 7 


BiSWi; KuSipvj jj.z tstj; avsO-^x-aro, Ku—pi, 
p.op<pyj? etSwAov AuySivov eu£apiv>}' 

'Aaaoc <tu tv} [/.oocvj [/.syaAvjv yapiv ocvrtjxep^ou, 
ci; sfto;' apxeiTat 5' avSpo; 6{M><ppoauv7]. 



Ilsifroi seal Ilacpia 7rax.Tav jmjcix <ji;j!.[iAtov 
Ta? x,aAux.o<7T£(pavoo vjpvpio; E'jpuvop.a; 

' Ep(JLO<piAa? av£xb];csv 6 pW/COAo?* aAAa S£/£g!>£ 
avx' aura; Trascrav, avx' eyiO-ev to piAt. 

marriage to Artemis of Limnae, a maiden to a maiden, as is fit ; 
do thou, daughter of Leto, laying thine hand over the girl 
Timareta, preserve her purely in her purity. 

Cythera of Bithynia dedicated me, the marble image of thy 
form, Cyprian, having vowed it : but do thou impart in return 
thy great grace for this little one, as is thy wont; and concord 
with her husband satisfies her. 

To Persuasion and the Paphian, Hermophilas the neatherd, 
bridegroom of flower-chapleted Eurynome, dedicates a cream-cheese 
and combs from his hives ; but accept for her the cheese, tor me 
the honey. 

6-io] THE FAMILY 203 




Mwcots A'j/vs fxuxifjTa OEpoi; pjo' op.(3pov dysipoi; 

;x7j tov sjagv 7cauc7j? vuy/piov sp/oasvov 
Aisi <tu (pBovsst; tt] Ku~pioV yap o&' ' Hpto 

TJpj/.ocs AEiavo*pco — &u;ae, to aoixov sa. 
' H<pai<7T0u teae&ei;, xal 7?et9-0[/.ai otti /jxa£-tcov 

KuT:pi§a -&co7T£u£t; Sscttotucijv oouvvjv. 




'A Ku7cpi? oO 7cavo*a;/.o;' IXaaxso Tav #-so'v, sittmv 

Ouoaviav, ayva? avfrsaa Xpucoyovai; 
O'i/.co ev 'A(/.cpix.Asou;, oi jcai tsxvcc scat fiiov zayt 

£ovov" asl §£ cr<piv Aonov si; sro; r ( v 
'Ex gs&sv apyojxsvot;, to TTOTVia" xv]So'[A£voi yap 

a&avaTWv ocutoi ttasiov syouai [3p0T0i. 



EucpooTOi vas; TTSAayiTiSs;, at ::opov "Raatj; 
ttasits x.aAOv )cdXwoi? o*e£afX.svat Bopsrjv, 

Never grow mould, lamp, nor call up the rain, lest thou stop 
my bridegroom in his coming; alway thou art jealous of the 
Cyprian ; yes, and when she betrothed Hero to Leander — O my 
heart, leave the rest alone. Thou art the Fire-God's, and I believe 
that by vexing the Cyprian thou flatterest thy master's pangs. 


This is not the common Cyprian ; revere the goddess, and name 
her the Heavenly, the dedication of holy Chrysogone in the house 
of Amphicles, with whom she had children and life together; 
and ever it was better with them year by year, who began with 
thy worship, mistress ; for mortals who serve the gods are the 
better off themselves. 


Fair-freighted sea-faring ships that sail the Strait of Helle, 
taking the good north wind in your sails, if haply on the island 


"Hv -G'j £-' jftovcov K(oav xara vacrov t$qr6 

4>avtov eic yapo~dv ospt0(/.svav —sAayoc, 
Tout' £~o; KYYE&aiTE' xaX^ vus, <ro; (y.s xo[ji(,st 

Vj/.spo? O'j vauTav — o<7ai Si 7re!,o7:opov. 
Ei yap tout' s'i— oit' euayyeAoi, auTtxa Zeus 
o'jpio; ui7.£T£pac Trve'JrrsTai ei? dfldva?. 




Kal xaAiv, EtAvjOma, Au/.aiviSo; sXOi xxXeuorc 

suao/o;, w&ivtov to^e guv sutu/i7j' 
H? toSs vuv f/iv, dcvaffoa, x,opvj; u~ep - ocvti Ss ~ai$d? 
ucTSpov sucooV,; aAAO ti v/jd; e/oi. 



Td / a c£o; to; a~£/£i;, 'AcxAvpis, to 7Cpd yuvaucd? 

AmO$U»j; 'AxSfftOV (OCp£A£V Su£a[ASVOC, 

riyvioa/.Etc' r ( v S' apa AaOv] jcai [aig&ov a7raiT?jc, 
cpyjai -apscscQai |*.aprup»]V Tuvac. 

shores of Cos you see Phanion gazing on the sparkling sea, carry 
this message : Fair bride, thy desire brings me, not a sailor but a 
wayfarer on my feet. For if you say this, carrying good news, 
straightway will Zeus of the Fair Weather likewise breathe into 
your canvas. 


Again, Ilithyia, come thou at Lycaenis' call, Lady of Birth, 
even thus with happy issue of travail ; whose offering now this is 
for a girl ; but afterwards may thy fragrant temple hold another 
for a boy. 


Thou knowest, Asclepius, that thou hast received payment of 
the debt that Aceson owed, having vowed it for his wife Demo- 
dice ; 3'et if it be forgotten, and thou demand thy wages, this 
tablet says it will give testimony. 





"ApTS[/.i, crol toc ~£kCkx Ki/vjTio'j i'waio uio?, 
xal 77£~ltov OAiyov 7tTUY{MC ©ejAiGTOoixYj 

Ouv£xa oi Trpvjsta Is/oi ^tCTa? U7rep£<>^e; 
y£ipa;, axsp to£ou, tcotvioc, viffffOf/ivvj" 

"Apre^-t, vvpiayov o*£ xal SMT&TI xaioa Asovtj. 
veucov iSsiv xoOpov yut' exas^o^svov. 



Tvj Ila^i - /) crTSCpavou?, -r/j IiaAAao\ ttjv 77Aoxa[/.iSa, 

'ApTS[/.lfl\ ^tOVTJV aV&£TO KaAAtpO'/]' 

Eup£xo yap [/.vvjiTTYjpa tov ^•8-e^.s, xal ^aysv Y](3vjv 
Tco<ppova, xal tsxeiov a'pasv Stlxts yevo;. 




"OXpta T£xva y^vomjS-s" tivo; ysvo? sste, ti S' u[a£v 
to^s xaAOi; yapisv xei|/.svov est' ovo(/.a ; 

Artemis, to thee the son of Cichesias dedicates his shoes, and 
Themistodice the strait folds of her gown, because thou didst 
graciously hold thy two hands over her in childbed, coming, O 
our Lady, without thy bow. And do thou, Artemis, grant yet 
to Leon to see his infant child a sturdy-limbed boy. 


Callirhoe dedicates to the Paphian garlands, to Pallas a tress 
of hair, to Artemis her girdle ; for she found a wooer to her heart, 
and was given a stainless prime, and bore male children. 

Be happy, children ; whose family are you 1 and what gracious 
name is given to so pretty things as you 1 — I am Nicanor, and my 


Nutovcop dyco eifju, zxr^p o" dy.ol Ai— top'/jro?, 
(Ai]Tnp 0" 'Hyijffco, xsifAi yevo; Maxeocov. 

Kal ;j.£v eyto <&'ikx siyi, xa( ecrxi p.ot outo; KoeXf 0?, 
ex. 8' z^r/9fi Toxitov EVraas; at/.<pOT£pot. 



AuTio xai T£x.££(7(ji yuvaixi ts Tup. ( 6ov £o*£iy.£v 
'AvSpoTiwv outtw o" ouosvo; eitj.t. Tacpo?. 
Outw xai LLSivaiui tcoauv ypovov £i 0" apa xai oet, 

os£a£u.7W ev £j/.oi touc 7:poT£pou; Trpoiipou;. 




©eiovovj; exXaiov £;.r/j; |x6pov, oftV £m TratSo; 

£A7:i<7i xou<poT£pa; eVrevov si; oouvag' 
Nov o*e p.£ xai 7:0.10*0? <p&ov£pr ti? £v6«T(pi<7£ Motpa - 

<p£'J pp£CpOC, £^£U<jO-7JV XO.I C£ TO "a£1~ Oy.EVOV. 

Il£p(j£<pov7], to'o*e Tra/rpo; ettI •Qpv^voKJiv aV.oucov, 
■9-es fip£<po; e; x6a7tou? (j.vjTpo? a^oi/opiv/];. 

father is Aepioretus, and my mother Hegeso, and I am a Macedonian 
born. — And I am Phila, and this is my brother ; and we both stand 
here fulfilling a vow of our parents. 


Androtion built me, a burying-place for himself and his children 
and wife, but as yet I am the tomb of no one ; so likewise may 
I remain for a long time ; and if it must be, let me take to myself 
the eldest first. 

I wept the doom of my Theionoii, but borne up by hopes of her 
child I wailed in lighter grief; and now a jealous fate has bereft 
me of the child also ; alas, babe, I am cozened of even thee, all that 
was left me. Persephone, hear thou this at a father's lamenta- 
tion ; lay the babe on the bosom of its mother who is gone. 

16-20] THE FAMILY 207 



T H ttou ah jcftoviac, 'ApsxTj^ia;, ££ axaTOio 

Kco/curou •9-ep.svav 'i/vo; eV aiovi 
Oiyoaevov (3p£<po; apri veto <pop£Oucrav ayoc-rto 

coz-xetpav ^a.Aspal AtopiSe? eiv 'Ai'&a, 
neu&o^evat tco xvjpa* cu &s ^aivouca Trapaa? 

Sax.ouciv ayy£iAa<; x£tv' aviapov £7co?" 
Ai~aoov (o^ivada, cptAai, teV.oc, <xaao piv avSpl 

Eu'9povi xaAAtTTOfAav, aA^o S' ayw cp 8 (.pivot?. 



'E? 7rd(Jtv a&pvjaaca. 7rap' ec^aTivj? aivoc |AOip7j<; 

vjv£(ja xal ^ovtoug, r]v£ca xal £uyiou;, 
Tou<; pxv, oti £wov aitcov avspa, too? &' era toiov 

aAAa TOX-rqp [/.([/.voi xatalv £9' ^jASTEpoi?. 



NixoroAiv Mapa&tovn; eS-7]y.aTO T7j8' evl X£Tpy) 
op-pp'/jca? oV.y.puot? Aapvaxa [/.apjAapsvjv, 

Surely, methinks, when thou hadst set thy footprint, Aretemias, 
from the boat upon Cocytus' shore, carrying in thy young hand thy 
baby just dead, the fair Dorian women had compassion in Hades, 
inquiring of thy fate; and thou, fretting thy cheeks with tears, 
didst utter that woful word : friends, having travailed of two 
children, I left one for my husband Euphron, and the other I bring 
to the dead. 

Gazing upon my husband as my last thread was spun, I 
praised the gods of death, and I praised the gods of marriage, 
those that I left my husband alive, and these that he was even 
such an one ; but may he remain, a father for our children. 

Marathonis laid Nicopolis in this stone, wetting the marble 


'AaV o'jftev ttXsov inyv ti yap ttasov ivspi wnoeu; 
uouva) uTTep yaivjc, oiyo;/ivv]; aXo^ou ; 


earth's felicity 


Mtj |/iv.'.!/vj "y.piojv Ta p.vvjp.aTa |ao'j, TOxpoSira, 

ouctev &/to ftpv^vtov a£iov O'j^e ftavtov 
TsV.vtov T£/.va AEAoira* f/.WK azsAaucra yuvai/.o; 

auyy^pou" TpicToic 7raioiv eotoxa vacuous, 
'E^ (6v xoAAaxt 7:aT^a? sao?; £vsxotu.taa jcoatcoi? 

ooSsvo? oijAco^a; ou voaov, ou -Oavarov 
O't y.£ x.aTaor7:£iGavT£; obrnuova, tov vaujwv u7rvov 

xoiuacfrxt /oip'/jv — suv^xv £77' su<7£(iscov. 

coffin with tears, but all to no avail ; for what is there more than 
sorrow for a man alone upon earth when his wife is gone ? 


Find no fault as thou passest by my monument, wayfarer ; 
not even in death have I aught worthy of lamentation. I have 
left children's children ; I had joy of one wife, who grew old along 
with me ; I made marriage for three sons whose sons I often lulled 
asleep on my breast, and never moaned over the sickness or the 
death of any : who, shedding tears without sorrow over me, sent 
me to slumber the sweet sleep in the country of the holy. 




EivoSiov GT£i/ovTa {/.s<jaj/. l Gptvov eiSov "Aas^iv 

apri xouav )tap7rc3v xeipofjtivou -©ipso?, 
Ai-Aai §' ax.xtvs? [as scaTSCpAsyov, ai piv "EptOTO? 

TraiSo? am' 6<p$-aA[/.<3v, ai Se Trap' ^eXCou' 
'AaV a? piv vu£ aOS-t? IxoCfxurev, a? 5' ev ovsipoi; 

e'iStoAOv [/.op<pvj<; [aoaaov avscpXdyursv 
AuTtrovo; §' BTSpoi? eV e'Aol ttovov ut^/o; stsuEsv, 

simtvouv 7cup ^uyvj xocaao? aTrsiKOviGa?. 




T H 6a vu toi, KXsdvtxs, St' aTpa7UTO?o /.iovti 

crstvyte -^vT^GavS-' ai Awrocpal Xaptrs? 
Kai ce ram co&stjglv eV/j/uvavro ^spsfffftv, 

xoups, wercoiiiffai S' yjaijcos ecci /apt?. 


I saw Alexis at noon walking on the way, when summer was 
just cutting the tresses of the cornfields; and double rays burned 
me ; these of Love from the boy's eyes, and those from the sun. 
But those night allayed again, while these in dreams the phantom 
of a form kindled yet higher ; and Sleep, the releaser of toil for 
others, brought toil upon me, fashioning the image of beauty in 
my soul, a breathing fire. 


Surely, Cleonicus, the lovely Graces met thee going along the 
narrow field-path, and clasped thee close with their rosedike hands, 

14 209 

210 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 8 

T'/jXoOi [AOi [/.a a a yyXo? 7rupd<; 5' O'jx. aacpx>i; a<rcov 
Iprestv a'jvjovjv, a (pfto?, av&iptxa. 



'ApvsiTai tov "Eptora Tsx.eiv vj KuTrpi; loouaa 

ocXXov £v ^tdioig "I[/.spov 'Avtio^ov 
'A'Ala, vsoi, GTspyoiTS vsov ITo^ov -^ y*P ° *oupo? 

euowrat /.petGTcov outo; "EptoTO? "Epw;. 



"Eyyst tco&iv swcs AtoxXso;, ouo" 'A/sawo? 

xsivo'j tc5v Lspcov aic/Oavexoci x.uaOo)V 
Koikoq 6 TraT?, 'A/slws, Xhjv sca^d;* si Ss xi? 0'!»/) 

cpTjTiv, £7rt<7Taiy.7]v [/.ouvoi; eyto t« KXkoL 



Ebcdva jviv Ilapiyjv ^tooyXu^o? avuc' "EpwTO? 

ripa^iT£AVjc, KuTupiSo; woffioa TU7re><Ta[/.evo$, 
Nov &' 6 &£tov x.aXAwTO; "Epco? SfA^u/ov ayaXj/.a 

auTOV dbcsuiovfoa^ SicXacffS IIpac.tTsX'/jv, 

boy, and thou wert made all grace. Hail to thee from afar; 
but it is not safe, my dear, for the dry asphodel stalk to move 
too near the fire. 


The Cyprian denies that she bore Love, seeing Antiochus among 
the youths, another Desire ; but you who are young, cherish the 
new Longing ; for assuredly this boy is found a Love stronger 
than Love. 


Pour in and say again, 'Diodes'; nor does Acheloiis touch the 
cups consecrated to him ; fair is the boy", Acheloiis, exceeding 
fair ; and if any one says no, let me be alone in my judgment of 

Praxiteles the sculptor made a Parian image of Love, moulding 
the Cyprian's son ; but now Love, the most beautiful of the gods, 

3-7] BEAUTY 211 

v 09p' 6 yiv ev S-vxtgi;, 6 o" ev ocldipi (piATpa (3pa|3euY), 
yy<; &' O.UM c/.7p Tpocpopioct, II0801. 

'07\(jict7j Msootcwv iepa tto'ai?, a #SG7raio*a 
xatvov "Epcoxa vetov 0-ps^sv £ cpayejAo'va. 



'Appou;, val tov "Eparra, rps<psi Tupo;' dcA/Va Mufoxo? 
scpecsv e/.AatA^a; durrepa? "^SAto;. 




'Ev col Ta.jAa, Mufexs, piou TrpufAV^ci' avY7crai' 
ev col ^'jyv^; — vsou.a to /\£i<p9-ev em' 

Nal yap Stj ia ca, >coCpe, rascal x.cxpoici Xo&euvra 
ouiLOtxa.) val p. to cov cpatopov e— icxjjviov, 

"Hv [j.oi c>jvv£<p£; o;xu.a .SaV/j? tcots, /sty-* §£o*opx.a, 
r ( v 3' IXapov ^AS'i/^c, tj^'j ts&t^asv sap. 

imaging himself, has fashioned a breathing statue, Praxiteles, that 
the one among mortals and the other in heaven may have all love- 
charms in control, and at once on earth and among the immortals 
they may bear the sceptres of Desire. Most happy the sacred 
city of the Meropes, which nurtured as prince of her youth the 
god-born new Love. 

Delicate, so help me Love, are the fosterlings of Tyre ; but 
Myiscus blazes out and quenches them all as the sun the stars. 


On thee, Myiscus, the cables of my life are fastened ; in thee 
is the very breath of my soul, what is left of it ; for by thine eyes, 
boy, that speak even to the deaf, and by thy shining brow, if 
thou ever dost cast a clouded glance on me, I gaze on winter, and 
if thou lookest joyously, sweet spring bursts into bloom. 



[sect. 8 



MELEAGER cuptyys; ev oup£G'. p.vj/.STt Aa<pviv 
<jkov£it', aiyipa.T7] ITavl yapi^oaevat, 

Mvj^S <70 TOV «7T£<pO£VTa, XupTj <J>Ol(jOtO 7TpOCp7JTl, 

oV.<pv/] 7rap&svi7j tA£A<p' 'Tax»tv9ov Sri" 
'Hv yap 6V tjv Aacpvt; ;aev 'Opsiaat., crol o" 'Ta/.iv9o<; 
T£p7rvo;" vuv Se 7r6&tov axfjirrpa Aicov iyixisi. 



Nup.cpai, TCu&ouivo) cppaGar' dtrpejcss, ei xapooViov 
Aa<pvi; Ta; AEuxa? torV avsTrauc' dpicpou?. 

Nal vat, ITav <rupi;cTa, jcai si? aiystpov £>»£ivav 
croi ti jcaxa (pXoioO ypafy,;/ exoAaij/S >.£y£tv 

ITav, ITav, too; MaXsav, too? opo; ^IPiocpiSiov £p/£u' 
Iqoujxai. N'j|7.<pat yatp£T', £yw S' urayto. 




"A[/.7:EA£, [A7J7UOTE Cp'JA'Xa Yaf-<Xl 0TTSUdOU(J« (3aA£tf9m 

&ei<W.; larooiov IlA£iaSa ououivav ; 

O pastoral pipes, no longer sing of Daphnis on the mountains, 
to pleasure Pan the lord of the goats ; neither do thou, lyre 
interpretess of Phoebus, any more chant Hyacinthus chapleted with 
maiden laurel ; for time was when Daphnis was delightful to the 
mountain-nymphs, and Hyacinthus to thee ; but now let Dion 
hold the sceptre of Desire. 


Nymphs, tell me true when I inquire if Daphnis passing by 
rested his white kids here. — Yes, yes, piping Pan, and carved in 
the bark of yonder poplar a letter to say to thee, ' Pan, Pan, come 
to Malea, to the Psophidian mount ; I will be there.' — Farewell, 
Nymphs, I go. 


Vine, that hastenest so to drop thy leaves to earth, fearest thou 
then the evening setting of the Pleiad 1 abide for sweet sleep 

8-1 1] BEAUTY 213 

Mefvov iiz 'Avtiaeovti 7re<reiv u7to tIv yaujcuv Cttvov, 
iq tote toi; y.aAoT; wavTa ^aptLoiAEva. 



"HSvj yiv yXux.'j? 6'pOpo;* 6 S' £v TrpoO-upoiGiv aoxvo? 

Aap.t? a7ro({/ujrsi to AEtcpOiv 2ti 
S^etXio; ' Hpoc/CAstTOv Lo\ov £GT7] yap U7u' auya? 

6<pO-aA[/.tov (JSatj&eii; jcvjpo? he, avSpaxa^v. 
'AXAa [aoi sypso Aa[A&, ouGafAjAops' JtauTO? v EptoTo; 

saxo? sytov £~l go?? oaxpuac Sajcpuyew. 

to fall on Antileon beneath thee, giving all grace to beauty 
till then. 

1 1 

Now grey dawn is sweet ; but sleepless in the doorway Damis 
swoons out all that is left of his breath, unhappy, having but seen 
Heraclitus ; for he stood under the beams of his eyes as wax cast 
among the embers : but arise, I pray thee, luckless Damis ; even 
myself I wear Love's wound and shed tears over thy tears. 




'lmv.Q -rt§u7CveuaTS, si oV/.a/.i; [Aupov SLOSi£, 

Eypeo xai o&C„cu yzzn\ cpiAai; crrscpavov 
"Ov vuv f/iv ■9-aAAOvTa, |/.apaivd(Aevov Si Trpo? r^w 

ctyeai, ujASTspvj? ffu|/,(3oXov -/jAiy.iT]?. 



lis;./ -to croi, 'PqSojcXsia, tgSs <rrsoo;, avfrsct, x.aloi; 

auro; u<p' ■f t >j.z-£ -"/Xs^aasvo; ?:a"Xaaai; - 
"Egti y.pivov poftlv] ts jtotXuq voTspyj t' avepuovT] 

jcai vapxi<y(705 uvpo? y.uavaoys; I'ov 
Taura GTS'J/au.sV/j 7^/Jqov [/.syala-jyo; douffa" 

avQsir A/wyei? cu 6 crs^avo;. 

Sweet-breathed Isias, though thy sleep be tenfold spice, awake 
and take this garland in thy dear hands, which, blooming now, 
thou wilt see withering at daybreak, the likeness of a maiden's 

I send thee, Rhodocleia, this garland, which myself have* twined 
of fair flowers beneath my hands ; here is lily and rose-chalice 
and moist anemone, and soft narcissus and dark-glowing violet; 
garlanding thyself with these, cease to be high-minded ; even as 
the garland thou also dost flower and fall. 


i- 5 ] FATE AND CHANGE 215 



Ei y.yXkzi /.VLU/y., yiyvcocr^ 6'ti xal po'Sov av9-sT, 
oKkv. p.apavSev acpvw cuv xo7rpiot? eptcpvj* 

"AvQo; yap %a\ &aXXo£ icrov ypo'vov eaxl "k</.y6vTX, 
raura 8' ojzvj 90-ov£(ov eEs^apavs /povo;. 



To cdo*ov ax(/.aQsi paiov ypovov r^v Ss TrapeXtto] 
^•/jtwv supv^si; ou po'Sov oOCkv. (3axov. 



Ms'/vyj rrou, [/i[/.v7] ots toi stto; Ispov swrov 

topvj KaXXwrov, /top"/] eXa<ppoTaTOV 
"fipyjv ouS' 6 tc/.'/igtos ev aiSipi TOxpcpfracsi opvi?. 

vuv iSe Tzy.vt' i~\ yyk avfrsa ceo xiyuxai. 

If thou boast in thy beauty, know that the rose too blooms, 
but quickly being withered, is cast on the dunghill ; for blossom 
and beauty have the same time allotted to them, and both together 
envious time withers away. 

The rose is at her prime a little while ; which once past, thou 
wilt find when thou seekest no rose, but a thorn. 

Thou remembei'est haply, thou rememberest when I said to thee 
that holy word, ' Opportunity is the fairest, opportunity the lightest- 
footed of things ; opportunity may not be overtaken by the swiftest 
bird in air.' Now lo ! all thy flowers are shed on the ground. 



[sect. 9 



'H to 77aAai Aai? ttkvtiov ps7.o;, o'L/.stc Aat; 

a7.A' drscov (pavspyj —aciv eyco Niaeats. 
Ou [jA Ku— ptv (ti o*£ Kuwpts £(xoi 7t)iov -q offov op/.o? ;) 

yva>pii./.ov ouS' aur^ Aa'io\ Aai? &Tt. 



Et f/iv yyjpaaxsi to xaXdv, p.STaSo; ::plv ondXIh)' 

el Se [xsvst, ti <pop-/j tou&' o ;/iv£i S^ovai ; 



<l>£i5y] 7cap9-svw]?, seal t£ 7;)iov ; ou yap £; 'Ai&vjv 
eaQoOV supy^orsis tov <piAsovTa, jcdp*)' 

'Ev CwoTct. t<x T£p— va Ta KutoiSos* £v 5' 'A/soovti 
6<jT£a icai c~ooY/}, 7wcp8-evs, %su?d(Ae&a. 

I who once was Lais, an arrow in all men's hearts, no longer 
Lais, am plainly to all the Nemesis of years. Ay, by the Cyprian 
(and what is the Cyprian now to me but an oath to swear by ?) 
not Lais herself knows Lais now. 

If beauty grows old, impart thou of it before it be gone; and if 
it abides, why fear to give away what thou dost keep ? 


Thou hoardest thy maidenhood ; and to what profit ? for when 
thou art gone to Hades thou wilt not find a lover, girl. 
Among the living are the Cyprian's pleasures; but in AcLieron, 
maiden, we shall lie bones and dust. 

6-io] FATE AND CHANGE 217 



Auptov aOprjcco as' to 5' ou ttots yivExat y^Iv 
Tauroc [7.oi i[/£ipovTt ^apiCsca, aXXa S' s? aXXou? 

ScSpa <p£pSl?, £[7.£r)£V 7TICTIV a~ £l~«|J.£V7]. 

"Otyoy.y.i ia~zoiq gs. ti 5' za~ spo; sgti yuvataaiv 

Y'^p«? ajXETp'/jTW 77A7]9o'(7.£VOV pUfldl. 



IIavSo)pvj? opotov ysXoco iuSov, ou§£ yuvaT/»a 

p.£[7.«, kaV aurcov Ta TiTepa. tiov AyaScov 
'fi? yap ex' OuAUfv.Troto [A£t<z ^frovo? rj&sa 7ca<nw 

TUOToovTGU, 7ri7rT£tv xat Jtornx yvjv o<pelov. 
'H Se yuvq p.ETa. 7coj[/.a x.aToi/p'/jcaca wapsta? 

coasctev ayAa'fyv cov £<p£p£v yapi-rtov, 
'A[y/poT£po)v S' yjjxapTEv 6 vuv (3io?, otti xal aov/jv 

y/jpacx-oucrav s^si, jcal tu^o; ouSev ej^si. 


1 To-morrow I will look on thee ' — but that never comes for us, 
while the accustomed putting-off ever grows and grows. This 
is all thy grace to my longing ; and to others thou bearest other 
gifts, despising my faithful service. ' I will see thee at evening.' 
And what is the evening of a woman's life ? old age, full of a 
million wrinkles. 


I laugh as I look on the jar of Pandora, nor do I blame the 
woman, but the wings of the Blessings themselves ; for they nutter 
through the sky over the abodes of all the earth, while they 
ought to have descended on the ground. But the woman behind 
the lid, with cheeks grown pallid, has lost the splendour of the 
beauties that she had, and now our life has missed both ways, 
because she grows old in it, and the jar is empty. 




"HrV/J TOl CpOlVO—COpOV, 'E~IX,ASS;, £/„ <)Z BotoTOU 

£a)Virc 'Apxfoupou ~ky.\j— p6v optops csax?, 
v Hovj x,al CTX<p'jAa! Sps~ av/j; £7n[xiu,vinffX0VTai 

xaC tic, ysii/.spiv^v ajxqpep&pet xaXuftav* 
Sol S' o"ts y^aivvj; d-spfjcq xposcu? outs yircovo; 

svSov a~oa/.>//]a"/j <$' acripa [AS{Jup6u.svo;. 




'E'p9syE<o, vat Ku-piv, a javj # so'?, to uiya toau^v 
■9-upi (/.a-9tov" ©Tqpwv aol jcoca6; oux. spavin' 

Sol jcoXo; o'j/c scpy.vv] ®vjptov <xaa' c.uto; u7CSOTSfi$' 
O'j^s Aioc ttt'/^si; 7cup to jcspaovofioAOv. 

Toiyap iSo'i, t6v Trpo'aQs aoXov rcpou'ihixsv iftscrOai 
osiyu.a -Gpzcr'jcToy.ivj; -/j [iap'Jcpotov NitASfft?. 




'H Ka9y.p^ (Nu;.//pai yap s~ojvu;aov ic^oyov ocaacov 
xpvjv/j T^aaatov Soj/tav sjaoI AipaStov) 


Now is autumn, Epicles, and out of the belt of Bootes the clear 
splendour of Arcturus has risen; now the grape-clusters take 
thought of the sickle, and men thatch their cottages against winter; 
hut thou hast neither warm fleecy cloak nor garment indoors, and 
thou wilt be shrivelled up with cold and curse the star. 

Thou saidst, by the Cyprian, what not even a god might, 
greatly-daring spirit ; Theron did not appear fair to thee ; to 
thee Theron did not appear fair ; nay, thou wouldst have it so : 
and thou wilt not quake even before the flaming thunderbolt of 
Zeus. Wherefore lo ! indignant Nemesis hath set thee forth to see, 
who wert once so voluble, for an example of rashness of tongue. 

I the Clear Fount (for the Nymphs gave this surname to me 
beyond all other springs) since a robber slew men who were resting 

11.15] FATE AND CHANGE 219 

Alj'iffTTQ? 0T6 \jsji Trapy.y.AivTOpx; s/.tocvsv avo*pa<; cpovivjv tepot? Addas //pa, 
Keivov avacTps^aca yXuxuv poov ouxiO'' ooiTai; 

Pau£w ti; yap epei tqv Ka&apyjv Sti (as ; 




Kkcca^zia-qi; ttots vvjo: sv uSoru, Svjpiv s&evto 
o\ccrol utcsd p.O'Jv/j? {/.apvajASVoi cavioo?. 

Tu^ £ p-sv 'AvTayopyj; IleurfffTpaTOV ou vsij.sgyjto'v, 
vjv yap uxsp ^u/'/j?* oXa' £[/.sX7j<ts AUv]. 

N^/eft' 6 piv, tov o" siAs -/jjtov ocao;* -q 7;avaAa<7T0t>p 
xtjqwv ouS' uypw irausTat ev 7reXaysi. 



Olo" OT1 f/.Ol 7iAOUTO'J XSVSOl J&pZC,' aAA(X, MsviXTUS, 

^7) AEys, Trpo? XapiTWv, tou[/.ov ovstpov i[j.oi' 
'AAysw v^v Sia xavTO? z-oc, toSs rajipov a>couor 

vai, cpiAs, tc3v 7capa coo tout' avspacTOTaxov. 

beside me and washed his bloodstained hand in my holy waters, 
have turned that sweet flow backward, and no longer gush out for 
wayfarers ; for who any more will call me the Clear 1 


Once on a time when a ship was shattered at sea, two men fell 
at strife fighting for one plank. Antagoras struck away Pisistratus; 
one could not blame him, for it was for his life ; but Justice took 
cognisance. The other swam ashore ; but him a dog-fish seized ; 
surely the Avenger of the Fates rests not even in the watery deep. 

I know that my hands are empty of wealth ; but by the Graces, 
Menippus, tell me not my own dream ; it hurts me to hear 
evermore this bitter word : yes, my dear, this is the most unloving 
thing of all I have borne from thee. 





'Hpaffib)£ ttao'jtojv, 2w<rixpaT&;" dcXXa ttsv/j; o*v 

ou/.sV epz* a».;ao; <pap;/.a/.ov otov syei" 
' H oe Trapo; crs xaXeuaa uupov jcai tsotcvov "ASojviv 

MvjvocpiAa, vGv co'j to'j voy.a. 7Cuv&avsTat. 
Ti; tto&ev et; avSpcov ; ^dik toi ttoai? ; yj [aoai; syvw; 

tout' £7:0;, to; ouosl? ouSev s/ovti 9D.0?. 


fortune's plaything 


Oux. &9iXouffa Tuyvj <rs Trpo'/jyaysv, aXV iva 0V47] 
to; on f/ixp 1 ? ^o^ ratvra 77oi£?v ouvanw. 



Aitov wavra qp£pei* (JoAtyo; ypovo; oio*£v <i[Aeij3sw 
ou'voaa {/.op^'/jv cp'Jctv y^i tu/vjv. 


Thou wert loved when rich, Sosicrates, but being poor thou 
art loved no longer ; what magic has hunger ! And she who 
before called thee spice and darling Adonis, Menophila, now 
inquires thy name. Who and whence of men art thou 1 where is 
thy city 1 Surely thou art dull in learning this saying, that 
none is friend to him who has nothing. 

Not of good-will has Fortune advanced thee ; but that she may 
show her omnipotence, even down to thee. 


Time carries all things ; length of days knows how to change 
name and shape and nature and fortune. 

i6-2o] FATE AND CHANGE 221 




ZfdStv, eivaAtv] ®£ti, Msy.vova xal piya cpwvsiv 
{/.avS-ave, p.TjTpcov) Aap.— ao\ &aA— op.evov, 

Alyu7TT0u At(3v)dj<Jiv U77* ocppuctv, ev&' a770Tap,Vet 
x.aA>vi7ruAov ®r^7]v NeiXo; dAauvop.evo?, 

Tov oe p.a/vj? a.y.opyjTOv 'AyOXiv. ilwv evl Tptowv 
(p^syysT&ai rceofa), |mjt' evl (HteffffaAfy 



IToij TO 77£ptpA£rTOV X.OA7.0? <7£0, AtOpl Ko'piV&£ ; 

7cou cre^pavai Trvpytov, tcou toc TraAai *T£ava ; 
LToO vvjol p.axapcov, 7:00 dti>f/.ara, tcou o*e oV.p.apr£; 

Si<ju<ptai Aatov ■8-' at,' ttot£ p.uoiaoe<; ; 
Ou§£ yap ouo I'yvo?, 7coXuxau,(jt.op6, <T£io AlXswirai, 

7cavra §£ cup.p.ap'j'a? £C£<pay£v T^OAep.o;. 
Mouvai aro'ptbjTOi NKjpijjfSs? 'flxsavoTo 

xoupai (7tov ayewv [Aip.vou.ev ocajcuovs?. 


Know, O Thetis of the sea, that Memnon yet lives and cries 
aloud, warmed by his mother's torch, in Egypt beneath Libyan 
brows, where the running Nile severs fair-portalled Thebes j but 
Achilles, the insatiate of battle, utters no voice either on the 
Trojan plain or in Thessaly. 


Where is thine admired beauty, Dorian Corinth, where thy 
crown of towers 1 where thy treasures of old, where the temples 
of the immortals, where the halls and where the wives of the 
Sisyphids, and the tens of thousands of thy people that were 1 for 
not even a trace, most distressful one, is left of thee, and war 
has swept up together and clean devoured all ; only we, the 
unravaged sea nymphs, maidens of Ocean, abide, halcyons wailing 
for thy woes. 




El'Os [as ravTOtotatv In TTAa^EaOai ar^rat; 
yj Atjtoi <7T?jvai {/,aiav aXtootv.svTj' 

OuX av ^7]TOCPJV7]V TOGOV SfJTSVOV. 01 £[./.£ OSlATIV, 

6'caai; 'Eaat}V(ov vviual 7rapa7rXso| 
Ayjao; epyjf/.aivj, to TOxXai cspa;* ov|>s [/.ot "Hpv^ 
AtjtoO;, aXX' oi/.Tp'/jv two* sxsOtjx.s Su7]v. 



El f*ev ar6 SxapTTj; ti? £90?, £svs, |A7j (a£ ysXaGc - /];, 
o'j yap ejAOi f/.ouv7] Tauxa TSAecrors Tuyjyj" 

Ei §£ ti; e^ 'Acivj?, [a - ^ ttsvOss, Aapo*avi/.oi; yap 
cx.7]7TTpot; Aiv£ao\ov Traca v£vsoxs tttoaic* 

EL &s &£iov TS|iiv7] xal Tsfysa vaev/jpa? 

£/|A7]{AtdV &VJICOV I^SJCSVOffSV "Ap7J?, 

EtvA 7ra.Aiv pacriAEia* <ru S' co texo?, arpojAE ' Pcop.vj 
(3ocaa£ Jta-8-' 'Eaatjvcov arfi ^uYOO£(J(/.a oUvj?. 


Would I were yet blown about by ever-shifting gales, rather 
than fixed for Avandering Leto's childbed ; I had not so bemoaned 
my desolation. Ah miserable me, how many Greek ships sail 
by me, desert Delos, once so worshipful : late, but terrible, is 
Hera's vengeance laid on me thus for Leto's sake. 


If thou art a Spartan born, stranger, deride me not, for not 
to me only has Fortune accomplished this ; and if of Asia, mourn 
not, for every city has bowed to the Dardanian sceptre of the 
Aeneadae. And though the jealous sword of enemies has emptied 
out Gods' precincts and walls and inhabitants, I am queen again ; 
but do thou, my child, fearless Rome, lay the yoke of thy law 
over Greece. 

21-25] FATE AND CHANGE 223 



'Hptocov oAtyat ptev sv ouutaoiv, ai S' bti Aot~ at 

Trarptos; ou ttoaaco y' awcuTspai tzsSiwv* 
Oi'vjv seal as, raXatva, Trapsp^ojy.svo; vs Mu/.vjvvjv 

SyVWV, atTwOAlOU XaVTO? Sp7j|/.GTSp7]V, 

Aitcoai/CGv fjt.Tjvu(/.a* yspcov Ss ft;, •/] TTOAu/puso;, 

Sl~SV, Ku/.AOi— «V T«o' STTS/.StTO 770At?. 




Et xal spvjy.aiT] y.iy\>[j.y.\. xovi£ svQ-a Mujctjvtj, 
st Jtal aaaupoTspv] tocvto? Lostv erctOTOAOU, 

IXou Tt; x.aOoptov xXsivqv TCOAtv vj; sTCaTViaa 
Tsiysz, jcat IIpta'Aou toxvt sV.svwcra Sottov, 

TvcoGSTat sv9-sv ocov TTscpo; sff-8-svov" st Ss [as yyjpa? 
upptasv, apxou(/.cu p.apTupt Matovur/j. 




2Tpu[/.ovt xal y.syaAw xs~o Atcrij.svov ' Eaa'/jg-ovtco 

'^ptOV 'HScOV/j; <J>UAAtO*0;, 'A|A<pt770Al, 


Fev/ of the native places of the heroes are in our eyes, and 
those yet left rise little above the plain; and such art thou, 
hapless Mycenae, as I marked thee in passing by, more desolate 
than any hill-pasture, a thing that goatherds point at ; and an old 
man said, ' Here stood the Cyclopean city rich in gold.' 

Though I am but drifted desolate dust where once was Mycenae, 
though I am more obscure to see than any chance rock, he who 
looks on the famed city of Ilus, whose walls I trod down and 
emptied all the house of Priam, will know thence how great my 
former strength was ; and if old age has done me outrage, I am 
content with Homer's testimony. 

City built upon Strymon and the broad Hellespont, grave of 
Edonian Phyllis, Amphipolis, yet there remain left to thee the 


Aoittoc toi AiGoTriyj; BpaupioviSo? Xyyux. vtjou 

p.iavei xai 7roTaij.oO Ta;xcpty.a^/jTOV uStop, 
Tr.v §e ttot' AiyeiSai; (/.eyaAyjv sptv to; aAtav9e; 

Tp'j/o; e~ ' ajxcpOTspat; Sepy.dp.e9-' y^idctv. 



'A Trapo; aSp.7]To; av£p.(3airog, to Aay.eSatj7.ov, 

y.aTr.'ov lie' EupcoTa Sep/.eat, 'HXevtov 
";' oicovol Se xara y9ovd; oiy.ia ■QivTE? 

p-upovrai, p.rJAwv S' oust aiouci Auy.oi. 



Ttjv 7roAiv oi vey.oe; Trpoxepov Ctocav y-axeAenj/av, 
7Jp.ei; Se ^covTe; tqv -ttgaiv ex< 




'OXy-aSa wup p.' ecpXe^e rdflrajv aXa p-eTpv-caaav 
ev yS-ovl ttJ rady.a; ei? spi y.eipapivv], 

traces of the temple of her of Aethopion and Brauron, and the 
water of the river so often fought around ; but thee, once the high 
strife of the sons of Aegeus, we see like a torn rag of sea-purple on 
either shore. 

O Lacedaemon, once unsubdued and untrodden, thou seest 
shadeless the smoke of Olenian camp-fires on the Eurotas, and the 
birds building their nests on the ground wail for thee, and the 
wolves do not hear any sheep. 

Formerly the dead left their city living ; but we living hold the 
city's funeral. 

Me, a hull that had measured such spaces of sea, fire consumed 
on the land that cut her pines to make me. Ocean brought me 

26-31] FATE AND CHANGE 225 

"Hv XEAayo; otscroxrsv s~ ' -fldva - aAAa SaXaffCTj; 

TTQV £[AE y£lVaU.EV/}V SUpOV aTTlffTOTEp'/jV. 




* FIv vso; aAAa tcsvtk, vuv yvjptSv ~aou<7ig'<; sif/.t, 
to u.ovo; ex wavTWV oix.Tpo; sv ric(/.q>OTipoi$, 

r O; tots jQrijaSat ouvau.7)v o— oV ouo*s sv siyov, 
vOv r)' ottots yp'/j<7l)ai [7.y ( ouva[/.at tot' syw. 




Kvjv ;a£ <payv)S £-1 pu,av; srt 5cap7ro(popr<7W 

ocgov It:\.(j~zXgv.i aoi, Tpays, ftuoj/ivco. 



Xp'JTOV aVYjp E'jpoiV £Al7u£V fipd/OV OCUTOtp 6 ^p'JTOV 

ov ai~£v o'j/ suocov *^£v ov sups ppdyov. 

safe to shore ; but I found her who bore me more treacherous 
than the sea. 


I was young, but poor ; now in old age I am rich, alas, alone of 
all men pitiable in both, who then could enjoy when I had nothing, 
and now have when I cannot enjoy. 

Though thou devour me down to the root, yet still will I bear 
so much fruit as will serve to pour libation on thee, goat, when 
thou art sacrificed. 


A man finding gold left a halter; but he who had left tlin 
gold, not finding it, knotted the halter he found. 


226 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 9 




'Aypo; 'A/y.w.svifto'j ysvdjATjv ~° T £> v '^ v ^ Msvi-tto'j, 
stat ttxaiv £c sxspou p7]<70|A<xt ei; stsoov 

Kal yap'vo; zyziv [AS ttot' costo, >tai 7iraAiv oOto; 
OIST7.1" eifu S' oaoj: ouoYvgc, aXXa Tuy/]:. 



'Eattic cr'j Toy/] (Jtiya yxipZTZ' tgv )>wiv' S'jpov 
ouoiv £[aoI y' u|ai'v Tra^srs tou; iast etts. 


fortune's master 
'EXttiSo; ouf^i To/-/j; srt, (aoi [/.sXet, our)' kasy^co 

Aoi— ov ttj? a-TkatTfj?' yJA'jQov el? Aiy.sva. 
Eiy.l ttsv/j; av9pto~o;, i7.Z'j\)zv/q os cjvotx.wv 
uppiCTVjv ttsvivj; ttaoutov a7TO<7Tp£<po|Aai. 




'EXwi? asl pt,0T0u x.'Xs— ret ypovov vj ttjv.xtt] os 
r ( oi; tx? 7TOAAa? souacrsv aayoAta;. 

3 2 
I was once the field of Achaemenides, now I am Menippus', and 
again I shall pass from another to another ; for the former thought 
once that he owned me, and the latter thinks so now in his turn ; 
and I belong to no man at all, but to Fortune. 

Hope, and thou Fortune, a long farewell ; I have found the 
haven ; there is nothing more between me and you ; make your 
sport of those who come after me. 

No more is Hope or Fortune my concern, nor for what remains 
do I reck of your deceit ; I have reached harbour. I am a poor 
man, but living in Freedom's company I turn my face away from 
wealth the scorner of poverty. 

Hope evermore steals away life's period, till the last morning 
cuts short all those many businesses. 




Mvj £»jtsi SsXtoutiv zu.tXc, llpiaaov -apy. PcoaoTc 
t/.7]Ss ra MvjSev/jc TCSV&sa Ntopvj;, 

jMvjS 1 "Ituv sv ■9 , aXaf/.ois Jtai avjodva? sv tctoXoigiv 
xauTa yap oi -poxepot twcvtoc yjucvqv syoa^ov' 

'A^V IXapaT? XapiTScai f/.Sfuy[/ivov vjSuv "Epcoxa Bpd(/.lOV TOUTOt? S' 6<ppU£? OUX. ETTpETTOV. 



'H T7. cdoV., coSoEccav SYSt? yapiv aXXa ti ttco'asi?, 


a odd 

cxuT'/jv, Th Ta pooa, '/je <juva|/.cpoTEpa ; 

Seek not on my pages Priam at the altars nor Medea's and 
Niobe's woes, nor Itys in the hidden chambers, and the nightin- 
gales among the leaves ; for of all these things former poets wrote 
abundantly ; but mingling with the blithe Graces, sweet Love and 
the Wine-god ; and grave looks become not them. 

You with the roses, you are fair as a rose ; but what sell you 1 
yourself, or your roses, or both together 1 


228 GIIEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 10 



'Eoy.-/io'.: mtv 'AqjpooiGio? sc; Z? y -S o'ivo'j 
a'ipiov, -poG/.ovla; tov9o; sOvjx.s f/iya. 

Oivo; stai KsVraupov a7cwAs<Jsv to; o^peXsv os 
y'r^.y.c; vjv o"; toOtov KX(0^s<ra[/.sv. 




r^£'jx.o-OTy.t; SaT'jpoid xal afATCXoqpuTOpt Ba/./w 
'Hotova£ rpcoTa Spay^axa (puTaXwj; 

Tomt5(3v oivoireowv Tpwrcrou? IspwaotTO tougos 
litTwXr.ffa? oivou xptoToyuToio xaoou?, 

Hv met? cr7T£''<7avT£c ocov ^s»xic oivotu Bax./to 
xal SaTupoic, Saxuptov rrXstova TTtop.eOy.. 



Tvj pa ttot' OolufXTTOto 7csp\ xls'jpa; sxaX'j'isv 
o£u? a-o ©pyjxvjs opvjjxsvo? Bopsa; 

At the Hcrmaea, Aphrodisius, while lifting six gallons of wine 
for us, stumbled and dealt us great woe. ' From wine also perished 
the Centaur,' and ah that we had too! but now it perished from us. 

To the must-drinking Satyrs and to Bacchus, planter of the vine, 
Heronax consecrated the first handfuls of his plantation, these 
three casks from three vineyards, filled with the first flow of the 
wine ; from which we, having poured such libation as is meet to 
crimson Bacchus and the Satyrs, will drink deeper than they. 

With this once the sharp North Wind rushing from Thrace 
covered the Hanks of Olympus, and nipped the spirits of thinly- 


'Avootov o' kvaocivcov soaxs ©psvac" ocuTap ex.o'JoOyi 
C<07], Iltspiav yrjv s , 7«eff<7a{z4vy]* 

"Ev rt; sy.oiy' kutyj? /sstco f/ipo?' oO yap sows 
Sspp/^v (3a<JTa£stv av&pl <pD.<o —cottogiv. 

StOOYY'JAV], SUTOpveUTS, [AOVO'JaTS, [/.otxpoTpo^TJXs, 

u<j/auyjijv, ct£!,v(o cp 9'Syyoj/ivY] GTo'ij.a.Tt, 
Baxyjou jtal Mo'j<7£(ov iAap-q Xaxpi Ku&spefa]?, 

•/jouysAto;, Tsp-v/j <jup. ( SoAi>uov Taf/ivj, 
Tt-pO' OTroTav vz-oo) y.sOuei? gu [aoi, v^v Ss {/.s9-u<t0<o 
S/Cvr^si^ ; xoixsXc, gu;j.-otix.7jv <ptA»jv. 




Oivo-oTa; Hsvocptov /.sveov 77u9ov av9sTO, Baxye* 
osyyuao S' £'jy.ev£(o; - oaao yap ouosv sysi. 


KwfAsLlO, /_p'J(j£lOV S? S<T7TSpi<i)V /OOOV (XCTOWV 

Xsuffffwv, ouo' kaawv Xa£ s(3apuva yopouc, 

clad men ; then it was buried alive, clad in Pierian earth. Let 
a share of it be mingled for me ; for it is not seemly to bear a tepid 
draught to a friend. 

Round-bellied, deftly-turned, one eared, long-throated, straight- 
necked, bubbling in thy narrow mouth, blithe handmaiden of 
Bacchus and the Muses and Cytherea, sweet of laughter, delightful 
ministress of social banquets, why when I am sober art thou in 
liquor, and when I am drunk, art sober again 1 Thou wrongest 
the good-fellowship of drinking. 

Xenophon the wine-bibber dedicates an empty jar to thee, 
Bacchus ; receive it graciously, for it is all he lias. 

I hold revel, regarding the golden choir of the stars at evening, 
nor do I .spurn the dances of others ; but garlanding my hair 

230 GKEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, io 

—-ilv; o &v8d(3oAOV x.paro; Tpiya, twv xeXaosivrv 
7njXTWa y.ouoro— o/.oi; ytzn\v STrnpE&iaa" 

\\y\ rads opuv sujcogjaov I/to [iiov ouos yap auTO§ 
x.oTp.o; dtveud-e Xup>j? SicXero Jtal ffreqpavou. 



Kvjv -p'jy.v/) Ay.yi-oi u.z ~ot£ <j~\[iy.z, «.'( &' urap ow-rife 
if/vZay.i (J/axaocov TUfmart oi<p9-spu)S£, 

Kai 77Up £X. (/.UAOCJCWV pe,St7JJA£VOV, 7j t' £~l TO'JTtoV 

/'jto'/j, xsveo? Troy.ooA'Jytov d-dpu{3o;, 
ai xps s~ovt £(Jtoot(/.t oiTixovoVj >jos Tpa~£.,a 

£<TTtO [7-01 GTGCOTTj V*/jd? {i~ £p0£ CTavU' 

A6? ).a'j4, duO-upitfjAa to vairaxdv £i/£ to/vj ti; 
Tupor/jv TOtauTV] tov ©iXdjtotvov syi. 




'Ho*£a wavra JCSAeu&a a<xysv fjior a<7T£'i [virjTco 

suyo; sratpetai, x.pu-fa od(/.otffiv ayvv 
'Aypo? T£p'|tv aysi, xspoo; ttao'oc, aXXooaTrq y.'Vcov 

yvcocta?" £x. o"s yay.<ov oix.o; ojAoppovs:'., 

with flowers that drop their petals over me, I waken the melodious- 
harp into passion with musical hands ; and doing thus I lead a 
well-ordered life, for the order of the heavens too has its Lyre and 

Mine be a mattress on the poop, and the awnings over it 
sounding with the blows of the spray, and the fire forcing its way 
out of the hearth-stones, and a pot upon them with empty turmoil 
of bubbles ; and let me see the boy dressing the meat, and my 
table be a ship's plank covered with a cloth; and a game of pitch 
and toss, and the boatswain's whistle : the other day T had such 
fortune, for I love common life. 


All the ways of life are pleasant ; in the market-place are goodly 

companionships, and at home griefs are hidden ; the country brings 

pleasure, seafaring wealth, foreign hinds knowledge. Marriages 

make a united house, and the unmarried life is never anxious; 


Toi; <>' ayay.oi; a^ppovTi; asi pio;" spico? STuyjly; 

Trarpl tsko; - <ppo'jo"o; toI'; ayovoicri <pofio?' 
'Hvoo£-/jv vsottj:, -o7.'//) <ppsva; otosv <j-y.Gr>y.<.. 

sv[)sv 8-apcro? B^tov (ok, <p'jts'js ysvo;. 



"Ec topat u.o/0oi; Ix.avtoTXTy.i - al 5s [/.ST* au-ra; 
vpau.|/.afft o*s»tvu[/.£vat Q-Sj-8-t Asyo'jai ppoTOt?. 



Ei ti; arcaE vijjia; xaAi o*sur£px AsV.Tpa oiwxsi 
vauviyo: TsXtoSi Si? [i'J#ov apyaAsov. 




*Av — avu >C0Li7ca£»i<; TrpoaTay^aai »a^ UTOOtoustv 
vij<; ya|7.£T^?, Xyjpsfc;' ou yap arcd ftpuo? si 

O'jS' aTro TrsTp-/jc, <pv]GiV o &' ol tzoKKoX scorr' avayx.Yjv 
toxgyousv r ( ~ kvts;, seal <j'j YuvaucojcpafJj' 

a child is a bulwark to his father; the childless are far from 
fears ; youth knows the gift of courage, white hairs of wisdom : 
therefore, taking courage, live, and beget a family. 

1 1 

Six hours fit labour best : and those that follow, shown forth in 
letters, say to mortals, ' Live.' 

Whoso has married once and again seeks a second wedding, is 
a shipwrecked man who sails twice through a difficult gulf. 


If you boast high that you are not obedient to your wife's 

commands, you talk idly, for you are not sprung of oak or rock, 

as the saying is ; and, as is the hard case with most or all of us, 

you too are in woman's rule. But if yon say, ' I am not struck 

232 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 10 

Ei a, ou aavoaXko, 97-;, tu7Ptou.«i, ouS 1 xxoXaorou 
ouovj? [i.ot yaf^STi)? /a/] [7.s f/.u<raVTa rpspeiv, 

AouXeustv crs X£y w pterptcoxspov, s'i ys ~£—oy.ny.i 
<ro)<ppovi oearcoivi] f/.7jSe XCav yyXz— 1\. 



Ta; Tpiyac, to NfctUAAa, tivs: fia.-TSiv (76 ^iyo'jciv 
kc tO ;7.sAatvoT7.Tac £C ayopa; errpioi. 




Nuxirtxopac; aSsi {J-avamj^dpov aXX' otocv a<r/j 
A"/}[/.o'<piAo;, (hrqcxsi x.aOTOc 6 vuxTixdpa^. 



Aacpvvjv Nio^rv wpjpjcaTO Mif/.<pic. 6 atao'c, 
(oc c/jaivo: Aacpv/jV, to? AiOivoc. Nio^tiv. 

with a slipper, nor my wife being unchaste have I to bear it 
and shut my eyes/ I reply that your bondage is lighter, in that 
you have sold yourself to a reasonable and not to too hard a 

.Some say, Nicylla, that you dj e your liair : which is as black as 
can be bought in the market. 

The night-raven's song is deadly ; but when Demophilus sings, 
the very night-raven dies. 


Snub-nosed Memphis danced Daphne and Niobe ; Daphne like 
a stock, Niobe like a stone. 

14-19] THE HUMAN COMEDY 233 




EXxoai yevvTjda? 6 (<oypacpo; Eutuyo? ulouc, 

O'jo' a~0 T(OV TSJCVWV OUOSV 0I/.010V £/£'-. 



TTevts |xst' kXXwv Xapf/.o? £v 'Aoxaota ooai/eumv, 
&au{/.a [7.£v, aXV ovtco; s^^oy.oc ecsttsgsv. 

" Re ovtcov, Ta.y' spsic, 77<o<; Epooao? ; si? cpiAo; auTOU, 
■9-ap<j£t, Xap(/.s, asycov, yJX9-sv £v lp.aTtq>" 

' Efiooy.o: o'jv o'Jt(o 7capayivSTaf si S' eti ttevte 
£',/£ O'Iao-j:, r^O' av, ZcotfXs, StoosxaTO?. 




NuXTOC [/.SffTJV £770l7]<j£ TpSYWV 7T0TS Map/.O? OrXlTYJS 

(OdT 1 KTCO/cXsic^nvac TravTofts to gtocSiov, 
Oi yap o^oaioi Ksux&ai Tiva toxvts? s&ocav 

6— aitvjv eivexa tmv ai9ivcov 
Kai ti yap ; si; copy.; igvoiySTO, xal tote Mapxo; 

vjaS-e, 7cpo«>sXXsi7rt«>v tco UTaoito ara&ov. 

Eutychus the portrait-painter got twenty sons, and never got 
one likeness, even anions his children. 


Charmus ran for the three miles in Arcadia with five others; 
surprising to say, he actually came in seventh. When there were 
only six, perhaps you will say, how seventh % A friend of his 
went along in his great-coat crying, 'Keep it up, Charmus!' and 
so lie arrives seventh ; and if only he had had five more friends, 
Zoilus, he would have come in twelfth. 

Marcus once saw midnight out in the armed men's race, so that 
the race-course was all locked up, as the police all thought that 
he was one of the stone men in armour who stand there in honour 
of victors. Very well, it was opened next day, and then Marcus 
turned up, still short of the goal by the whole course. 

234 G It E E K A N T II L O G V [sect, io 



'O 'j~sj:p% ' Ep[7.oy£v7jc, otocv S)c(3aAY] si? to yy\^ fi, 
s7asi ttoo; ra xa-ro) touto oop'jop£— avu>. 



Taio; sx.TT/S'jfja; to 7cavuffTaTOV eyftic 6 AS7CTOS 

si? TVjv eVx.0[/.to7jv ouoev acpvj/csv oXoj; 
Kal TTspa? si; 'A'i&tjv y.a.Tafia: 6'aoc oio; 6V £^7] 

Ttov ux6 yyjv g/.eaetcov Ae7PTOTaTO? 7CSTaTai" 
T/jv o*£ x£vr ( v JtXiVTjv oi <ppa.Top£; r t py.v £~' iof/.tov 

£yypa<];avT£; avo), Taioc £/.O£0£T7.'.. 



T6v |/.ix.pov MaV.pwva &spou? >coip.o>(/.£vov suptov 

£i; TpwvXTjv y.i/.pou tou 770S0; siajcugs |a0?" 

"O; 0*' £V TV] TptoyAV) vj^tAO? TOV fAUV a7C07CV^a?, 

Z£'j 7C0CTSO, £i~£v, £/£'.: oeuTSpov ' HpaxXla. 


Little Hermogenes, when he lets anything fall on the ground, 
has to drag it down to him with a hook at the end of a pole. 

2 I 

Lean Gains yesterday breathed his very last breath, and left 
nothing at all for burial, but having passed down into Hades just 
as he was in life, flutters there the thinnest of the anatomies 
under earth ; and his kinsfolk lifted an empty bier on their 
shoulders, inscribing above it, 'This is Gains' funeral.' 


Tiny Macron was found asleep one summer day by a mouse, 
who pulled him by his tiny foot into its hole ; but in the hole he 
strangled the mouse with his naked hands and cried, 'Father 
Zeus, thou hast a second Heracles.' 

20-25] THE HUMAN COMEDY 235 




T'/jv [/.ocprjv 7TCCic[ou<Tav 'Epomov y-p-aas j«i)vw<|r 
yj 5s, ti, 9'/]Gt, f^pto, Zs'j w.tso, st p.' s-9sasi<; ; 




'PiTTt^tov sv uxvot; Avjjzy-Tpto; 'ApTSf/.towpav 
tt)v as~ttJv, iv. to'j o\ov.xto; s£s(3aAsv. 



'EE aTOtMOV 'E:7ix»oupo; 6'aov t6v /.o'giaov sypx<j/sv 

sivat, touto rW.wv, "Aa/.^as, ASTCTOTaTOV 
Et S£ tot' inv Ato'<py.vTo;, sypa^sv av sV. AtocpxvTOu 


*H xa. [/.sv ocaa' sypays cuvscTavat s<; aTO'AGiv av, 
sx. toutou 5' aurac, "Aa3CI|/.s, xa? a.TOp.O'j?. 

Small Erotion while playing was carried aloft by a gnat, and 
cried, ' What can I do, Father Zeus, if thou dost claim me V 


Fanning thin Artemidora in her sleep, Demetrius blew her 
clean out of the house. 


Epicurus wrote that the whole universe consisted of atoms, 
thinking, Alcimus, that the atom was the least of things. But if 
Diophantus had lived then, he would have written, 'consisted of 
Diophantus,' who is much more minute than even the atoms, or 
would have written that all other things indeed consist of atoms, 
but the atoms themselves of him. 

( 1 R E E K A NTHOLOGY [sect, i o 




'ApS-ei? zi y.'j'pvj; ~).t-~r^ £— otxto oY al'Opj; 

Xxipv-acov a/'jpou ttoXXov £XaqppoTspo?, 
Kxl tz/' av eppoi^TjTO cV aittipo;, si (7.7j y.oy.yyq 

to'j; ~ooV.; s;x-Ao/!) si; utttio; s/.psy.axo. 
Auto'j f^yj vuxTa? ts >cat wata —£wz x.peu.a<jSs\? 

ejctocToc y.a.Tsfiv) v/jv.aTi ttc apy.yv/j:. 



Tou Xi8-ivou Aio; c/Oi; 6 -/Jaivuco; yjtJ/aTO Mapxo?' 
jtai 7iuoc (ov, Jtal Zsuc, cy^j.zzov &c<pspeTai. 




'Epi-toysV/j tov laTpdv 6 aaTpaXoyo? AiooavTo; 

si— £ y.ovou; C (, >'/j? £vvsa [J.r^xc Syetv 
Ka/.sivo; yeXaca?, ti uiv 6 Kpovo; evvsa pvyjvwv 

(priori, Xsvet, g'j vo£t, - xa[/.a o*i auvTO[/.a <jol. 
Ei77£, 5tal sV.T£iva; y.ovov vyyaro, y.vX Ato^avro; 

aXXov K7reX7ki?,tov, a.'jTo; swcsotapMXSv. 

Borne up by a slight breeze, Chaeremon floated through the 
clear air, far lighter than chaff, and probably would have gone 
spinning off through ether, but that he caught his feet in a spider's 
web, and dangled there on his back ; there he hung five nights and 
days, and on the sixth came down by a strand of the web. 

Marcus the doctor called yesterday on the marble Zeus ; though 
marble, and though Zeus, his funeral is to-day. 

I Muphantus the astrologer said that Hermogenes the physician 
had only nine months to live; and he laughing replied, 'what 
Cronus may do in nine months, do you consider ; but I can make 
short work with you.' He spoke, and reaching out, just touched 
him, and Diophantus, while forbidding another to hope, gasped out 
his own life. 

26-32] THE HUMAN COMEDY 237 




-' Ep[/.oysvvj tov larpov Locov AiocpxvTo; sv 'Jttvoi; 
oujcsV avvjysp O-vj, seal —spia^na <pspiov. 



"Hv tiv' £/vj; syflpov, Aiovocts, fjt/q JcaxapaGy] 
TVjv 'Iatv tgotco paSs tov 'Apwoxpa-nnv, 

M*/jf)' si ti? TixpAou; ttoisi &zoc, aXXa Siy.cova' 
scat, yvcoT/j ti &eoc xai ti 2iy,«v ouvaTai. 



Xsipoupytov EGCpaEsv 'AjcsffTopCovjv 'AysXao?" 
£<3v yap YjCOASUSlV, cpvjciv, EfAEAAS raAac. 



Tco Traxpi {/.on tov a^EAcpov 01 a.GTpoAoyoi [/.axpoyTjpcov 
7cavTS£ £;j.avTE'j<77.v9-' co; a<p' sv6; GTOaaTo;, 

Diophantus, having seen Hermogenes the physician in sleep, 
never awoke again, though he wore an amulet. 

If you have an enemy, Dionysius, call not down upon him Tsis 
nor Harpocrates, nor whatever god strikes men blind, but Simon ; 
and you will know what God and what Simon can do. 

Agclaus killed Acestorides while operating; for, 'Poor man,' he 
said, ' he would have been lame for life.' 

3 2 
All the astrologers as from one mouth prophesied to my father 
that his brother would reach a great old age; Hermocleides alone 


'AaV 'Epy.oy./.sirv/;; ocutov y.o'vo; sirs — poy.oipov 
si— r o, ot' z.'jtov s«j(>) ve/.pov ex.o~Toy.sf) y.. 




Eic'Poftov si 7tXsu<7St ti; 'Oaov.-'./.ov -rXflsv epcoTtov 
tov y.y.vTiv, seal ~w; ~ XsuasTat dcG^aXsG)£' 

Xco v.avri;, — pcoTOv j/iv, Sqnj, jcatv^v s^e ttqv vauv, 
/.at ptr ysty.tovoc, too oi -Ospou; avayov 

Tooto vac av ~oir:, flEetc Jwbcetas xai aide 
av y//j — sipy.T'^c ev TreXavei ere \v.'yr { . 




KaAAtysvyj; aypot/.o: ots tnropov vj.'yjj.z yy.ivj 

oi/.ov 'AptTTOCpavov; Tp.Qsv e; acrpOAoyou 
Hltss o ecspeetv strap -nspo; atctov aurai 

sctxi /.at GTa/'jojv a<p9ovo; sum-pro. 
"O; o*s Xa(3o>v tta^pioa?, u~sp 7nva/.o; ts Trv/.a&ov, 

oV./.TuAa ts yv7.y.~Tcov <p9sy£aT0 KaXXiysvsi' 
E'i~sp s-oy-fip'/jf)-/] to apouptov ocrcrov a~o/p'/j 

pLTios tlv' uXatvjv liberal avB-ocov/jv, 

said he was fated to die early ; and he said so, when we were 
mourning over his corpse in-doors. 

Some one came inquiring of the prophet Olympicus whether he 
should sail to Rhodes, and how he should have a safe voyage; and 
the prophet replied, ' First have a new ship, and set sail not in 
winter but in summer ; for if you do this you will travel there and 
back safely, unless a pirate captures you at sea.' 

Calligenes the farmer, when he had cast his seed into the land, 
came to the house of Aristophanes the astrologer, and asked him 
to tell whether he would have a prosperous summer and abundant 
plenty of corn. And he, taking the counters and ranging them 
closely on the board, and crooking his fingers, uttered his reply to 
Calligenes : ' If the cornfield gets sufficient rain, and does not 

33-36] THE HUMAN COMEDY 239 

Mvjo's Troyo; py]^7] tqv auXooca [xtjos yz>.a£y] 
abcpov KxoopucS^ opaYttaTOS dpvuuivou 

Mnoe xs{/.a? xeipTjci ra ATj'ia [/.yjos tiv' kaavjv 
r^SPO? r ( yah]? 0<{/STai ay.Trlax.ivjv, 

'KtDaov croi to flioo: LtavTSuottat, so <)' airoxdJ/etc 
to'jc GTa/'ja;" {/.ouva? oet&i&i tx; dbtp&ag. 



XaipST 'Api<7T£iSo'j toO gVtooo; sztx y.atSvjTai, 
TSGtrape? oi toX'/oi v.vX rpia (7uvLs7,ia. 




Auencwcpw o\jg/.ol>oo; s/.oivsto, ttoa'j lioaaov 

r,v 6 /COitt: to'jt<ov twv o'jO JCCOffiOTSpoc" 
flv 6 piv avTSAsysv to svoi;uov aurov 6<petAeiv 

[XVjVOiV T7£v9'' 6 6' £«p7J VUX.TO; KATJASJCSVai" 

'lv;.j}i^ac o" auTOi? 6 xpirrfi Asyei' s; rt [/.a^ea&s; 

y/JTTjp oVi)'' ''y.tOV K(/.<p0TSP0t TpS^STS. 

breed a crop of flowering weeds, and frost does not crack the 
furrows, nor hail flay the heads of the springing blades, and the 
pricket does not devour the crop, and it sees no other injury of 
weather or soil, I prophesy you a capital summer, and you will 
cut the ears successfully : only fear the locusts.' 

All hail, seven pupils of Aristides the rhetorician, four walls 
and three benches. 

A deaf man went to law with a deaf man, and the judge was a 
long way deafer than both. The one claimed that the other owed 
him five months' rent ; and he replied that he had ground his corn 
by night; then the judge, looking down on them, said, 'Why 
quarrel 1 she is your mother ; keep her between you.' 



[sect, io 




'Hyo'pa<7y.: j^aXxouv pitXiapiov, 'HXtoocope, 

toO 7CSOt T'/jv @py./„yjv y'jypoTipov Bopsou" 
M'/j (puffa, |7//j /.aavs* {/.aTlfjv t6v xoucvov eys-'ps!.?' 
ei; to Sipo; yy.Ax.yjv (3auxaAtv vY/opaaa?. 




®E(7(7aXov 17T7COV sysi:, 'EpactcrpaTe, aAAa aaXsuaou 
O'j o\>va.T' auTOv oatjc <pap;Aax.a ©eaaa-Ahj? 

"Ovtco; f^o'jpiov I'ttttov, 6v ei <J>puyss si.Ax.ov rcrcavTSS 
gov Aavxotc, Sxzii; oOx. av effvjA&s 7tuAa< 

"Ov GTVjaa; avaxVvjaa 9-SOU tivo;, si -zoniyzi^ jaoi, 
xa: xptS-a; ~ oist, toic tsxvioi; 7Friffav7jv. 


a mysterious disappearance 


EicriSsv 'Avrio/o; thv Aui7i|j.a/0'j ttots tuA'/jv 
xo'jx.sti tvjv tua>jv sfeios AuTijxayo;. 

You have bought a brass hot-water urn, Heliodorus, that is 
chillier than the north wind about Thrace ; do not blow, do not 
labour, you but raise smoke in vain ; it is a brass wine-cooler 
you have bought against summer. 

You have a Thessalian horse, Erasistratus, but the drugs of all 
Thessaly cannot make him go ; the real wooden horse, that if 
Trojans and Greeks had all pulled together, would never have 
entered at the Scaean gate ; set it up as an offering to some god, 
if you take my advice, and make gruel for your little children with 
its barley. 

Antiochusonce set eyes on Lysimachus' cushion, and Lysi.nachus 
never set eyes on his cushion again. 

37-43] THE HUMAN COMEDY 241 




Havre; (7.£v KD.r/.s; Jtaxoi avsps;" ev o*£ KiaiEiv 
ei? aya&o; Ktvopyj;, xai Kivupvj; &£ KiAi£. 



'A<7— wa, (ppuvov, ocpiv, jcal; Trepicpsoye, y.uva augct/jt^v, -/.at 7:aXi Aa.oV.£a<;. 



Ei^s <l>iAtov Asy-jSJov ScOTT^piOV oXa' £V eV.sivco 
Gto8y;v' ouoe Zeu; auxd? I'cco; Suvaraf 

Ouvoaa yap [7.ovov r^v ScoT'^pio;' oi S' £7:i[3avTs; 
£— Asov v] Trapa. y/jv vj ^apa <3>spG£<po'v7jv. 



Muv 'AfncAijwiaoTjs 6 cpiAapyupo; £ickv sv ol'/.w, 
x,ai, ti 7C0teT?, cpvjciv, cpiATaxs j/.u, xap' ejj.oi ; 


All Cilicians are bad men ; among the Cilicians there is one 
good man, Cinyras, and Cinyras is a Cilician. 

Keep clear of a cobra, a toad, a viper, and the Laodiceans ; also 
of a mad dog, and of the Laodiceans once again. 

Philo had a boat, the Salvation, but not Zeus himself, I believe, 
can be safe in her; for she was salvation in name only, and those 
who got on board her used either to go aground or to go under- 

Asclepiades the miser saw a mouse in his house, and said, 'What 
do you want with me, my very dear mouse V and the mouse, 




[sect, io 

'HSu ft' 6 (jlu; ysXa<7a$, [M)Sev, (pile, epv;ci, ^po.Svjfly);, 
ou/l Tpoovj; wapa col jfpvj^, aXXa p.ovvjc. 




Too Tcioywvocpopoo Kvvucou, to O fJastTpowpOffaiToy 
etooasv sv Ssittvw t/jv (jtsvaXw cooiav 

©fpy.ov [y.£v yap TrpwTOv a— sg/sto seal pacaviStov 
(atq o*£iv oVjaeuew yy.CTpl Isywv aper^v' 

Euts S' sv 699'aXu.oiTtv I'Ssv yiovcoSsa pOApav 


"Hmjo&v ftapa TrpocoV/.iav stal srpcoysv a).7j8to:, 
x.ouSsv £<pyj |3(ft(3av tvjv apsT/jv aoV.siv. 



Ou [j.o'vo; sy.J/u/cov a77S/s; /spa;, aX).a ical ^(/.et;* 
tl; yap 6? ey.J/v'/tov ?j«|«jcto, HuSayopa ; 

'AaV oTav £^-/]9t] ti seal o-Tvjflv] aXwrS'i], 
S^ tots scat ^'J^V O'JX £/GV £<x8 ioy.£v. 

smiling sweetly, replied, ' Do not be afraid, my friend ; we do not 
ask board from you, only lodging.' 

We saw at dinner the great wisdom of that sturdy beggar the 
Cynic with the long beard; for at first he abstained from lupines 
and radishes, saying that Virtue ought not to be a slave to the belly ; 
but when he saw a snowy womb dressed with sharp sauce before 
his eyes, which at once stole away his sagacious intellect, he 
unexpectedly asked for it, and ate of it heartily, observing that 
an entr6e could not harm Virtue. 

You were not alone in keeping your hands oft' live things ; we do 
so too; who touches live food, Pythagoras 1 but we eat what has 
been boiled and roasted and pickled, and there is no life in it then. 

44-48] THE HUMAN COMEDY 213 


nicon's nose 


Tou ypu7Tou Ntatovo? opto t^v pivot, Msvwnre, 

auro; o' ou [/.axpav <podv£Tai eivai Iff 
n^yjv rj^ei, [ 6'; - si yap tcoau, ttsvts 

tSj? pivo; (TxaSiou? ol'ofJLai oujc a~£yzi. 
'Aaa' auT^ piv, 6p£;, TrpoTTopeueTaf -qv S* sVi (louvov 

u^vjaov OTtop.ev, jcaurov eco^dp.eO-a. 




II iv' 'A<J>iA7]7ttao7}' ti ia oV'xpua xaura ; Tt ftacYSig ; 

ou cs p.o'vov ^aA£7r^ Kuxpt; SA7]fcaTO, 
Oua S7tl crol {/.ouvco jcaTsfl-vj^aTO roEa seal tou? 

ttucpd? "Epto; - t£ C<3v sv <t7too\yj ti#£gc« ; 



'Ev ttocgiv (/.eO-uougiv 'AxivSuvo? tj-9-sas vrj<psiv" 
TOuvexa jcal fA£&uav auro? s&o^e p.dvo?. 


I see Nicon's hooked nose, Menippus ; it is evident he is not far 
off now; oh, he will be here, let us just wait; for at the most his 
nose is not, I fane}', five stadia off him. Nay, here it is, you see, 
stepping forward ; if we stand on a high mound we shall catch 
sight of him in person. 

Drink, Asclepiades ; why these tears'? what ails thee? not of 
thee only has the cruel Cyprian made her prey, nor for thee only 
bitter Love whetted the arrows of his bow ; why while yet 
alive liest thou in the dust 1 


In a company where all were drunk, Acindynus must needs be 
sober ; and so he seemed himself the one drunk man there. 





'HpacOr^v t(; S' ouyi ;" ti; S' aiy.urj-ro; 

jciop.tov ; a.TJX' ejxaV/jv ex. tlvo? ; ouyl i)soo ; 
'Eppi(p9co* tto'Xit] yap £7VEiy£Tai avrl p-elaiw]? 

£pi£ 7-Sv], Oliver?]? ayyslo? yjjXixfa]£. 
Kat, Trai^eiv ote y.atpoc, exatQap.ev vjvix.a xat vuv 

ouxixt, ^wiTspy]? (ppovriSo; a^o^eO-a. 

I was in love once ; who has not been 1 I have revelled ; who 
is uninitiated in revels ] nay, I was mad ; at whose prompting 
but a god's? Let them go; for now the silver hair is fast re- 
placing the black, a messenger of wisdom that comes with age. 
We too played when the time of playing was ; and now that it is 
no longer, we will turn to worthier thoughts. 




Tcv.x y.od EiXvjSuia, cu piv tejce;, yj &£ xaXuirrsig' 

^aipsTOV ap.cpoTEpa? rjvuca to r>Tao\ov 

Eip.i Se, fAVj voewv 7t6$i vEicojxaf ouSe yap upia? 

7] tivoc, v] Tt; ecov, otSa tco&ev [/.eteJjyjv. 



My] p.'jpz, [.///) CTECpavou? Ai9ivai:; arrAaun ^apiCou, 
[/.yjOS to 7uup cpAs^vj?' ic, y.svov V] Saravyj - 

Zojvti f/.oi si ti Qeaei; yaptcar/ rscppyjv o*e u.&&u<nc<ov 
7w?jAov 7rotr.ff£t?, ttou^ 6 &avcov xtSTai. 

Earth and Birth-Goddess, thou who didst bear me and thou who 
coverest, farewell ; I have accomplished the course between you, 
and I go, not discerning whither I shall travel ; for I know not 
either whose or who I am, or whence I came to you. 

Pay no offering of ointments or garlands on my stony tomb, 
nor make the fire blaze up ; the expense is in vain. While I live 
be kind to me if thou wilt; but drenching my ashes with wine 
thou wilt make mire, and the dead man will not drink. 




[sect. 1 I 



'Apxsl p.oi yaivj? [j.v/.o'q xdvi; - -q o*£ "piccrq 
a'XXov £77tO-Xipoi TrXoucrta x.E*A!.[/ivov 

St^avj, to <r>iA7jp6v vexpwv papo;, oi' [A£ •9-avdvTX 
yvtocovr', "AA/cavSpo; toOS-' oti Kocaaiteae'j;. 



TaTa <piAvj tov upscrpuv 'Ap.'jvxi^ov evOso xoa7:oi? 

TTOAAtoV [AVVJCaj/iv/J TCOV sVl COl X.a[7.a.T(OV 

Kal yap ael xpsjAvov croi svscT/jp^ev dXaiyj;, 
TOAAaxi xai BpojAiou jtATjj/.aGiv iqyAaicfSv, 

Kal Atjou? e— at]<7£, jca.1 CoVro; auXasta? ea/.cov 
&7j/.£ t/iv suAa^avov, {Hjxs &' O7ro)po(po'pov 

'Av&' cov <xu TrpvjeTa jcaxa /cpoxa<pou xoaioTo 
)ce?<ro, xal siapiva; av&oxd[A£i poxava;. 


IIpvjuTSpov y/jpa? c£ ou xoctx vouco; ajxaupy; 

E(7p£<7£V, £'JV7-iS7j? O U77VOV 6<p£tAO[7.£VOV 

A little dust of earth suffices me ; let another lie richly, weighed 
down by his extravagant tombstone, that grim weight over the 
dead, who will know me here in death as Alcander son of Calliteles. 

Dear Earth, take old Amyntichus to thy bosom, remembering 
his many labours on thee ; for ever he planted in thee the olive- 
stock, and often made thee fair with vine-cuttings, and filled thee 
full of corn, and, drawing channels of water along, made thee rich 
with herbs and plenteous in fruit : do thou in return lie softly 
over his grey temples and flower into tresses of spring herbage. 

A gentler old age and no dulling disease quenched thee, and 
thou didst fall asleep in the slumber to which all must come, O 

S-7] DEATH 247 

' [/.epif/.vy,(ja? 'EpaTocOsvs;* ouSs Kupvjvvj 
uaTa <rs 7raTptowv svto; sos/.to Tacpcov, 

'AyXaou uis, 91X0; Si xat ev Esivy) scsx-aXu^ai 
Trap toSs IjptoT/jo; x.pacTrsoov aiyiaXou. 



"A|7.7T£Ao; oi; vjo*t] &ap.coci <jTVjpi£oj/.ai auw 

0*7}— aviar xaXssi (/.' si; 'A'ur/jv S-avaro;* 

Auoxciitpei [avj Fo'pys - ti toi ^apiscxspov si TpsT; 
vj TCicupa? —oia; SaX^yj utt' v^sXito ; 

'X)S' siTra; ou x.d|/.7ca>, a~6 ^w>jv 6 TraXaio; 
toaaTO, XTjs ttXsovwv vjX-Os [/.STOiy.scrr/jv. 



"HvoV.vsv avSpwzoi;, 6 0" s— it:Xsov 7j'voV.vs Moucai? 

KpavTcop, seal yvjpto; 7jXu9sv outi TCpo'crco* 
1 7], cu os TSUvsuoxa tgv ispov avop U7csos<;to 

7j p° oys scat ^o)Si x.sTah ev eucppocuvvj ; 

Eratosthenes, after pondering over high matters; nor did Cyrene 
where thou sawest the light receive thee within the tumb of thy 
fathers, O son of Aglaus ; yet dear even in a foreign land art thou 
buried here, by the edge of the beach of Proteus. 

Even as a vine on her dry pole I support myself now on a staff, 
and death calls me to Hades. Be not obstinately deaf, O Gorgus ; 
what is it the sweeter for thee if for three or four summers yet 
thou shalt warm thyself beneath the sun 1 So saying the aged 
man quietly put his life aside, and removed his house to the greater 

Crantor was delightful to men and yet more delightful to the 
Muses, and did not live far into age : O earth, didst thou enfold 
the sacred man in death, or does he still live in gladness there 1 

248 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 1 1 




Nrjiao's; xa% 6'jypa poauAta Taura ueXiaaais 

oijxov £— ' siaptvqv Is^axs viffffoptivatg, 
'fi; 6 ysptov Aeuxt7nro? ex' apTiTro^s^m Axywoi: 

£<pOiTo ysty.epivj vujcu AOTOcraixevo;, 
Sp.vjvea o" ou/.eti oi X0[iisiv <piAov ai Ss tov ax.pyi; 

ysirova xoij/iviat izoKkv. 7to9o0<7i vowrat. 



ITotyive; ot TauTTjv Speo? p'a/iv oloxoXeiTe 

aiya? x.susipou; e^SaTsovrs? 015, 
KletTaycpv], 7:po; P/;?, oAiyvjv jjapw aXXa 7rpo<n)vfj 

tivoits /flovivj; stvsxoc ^spffeodw]?' 
BXTfjjpjffaivr 1 ois; [7.01, £~' oc^sctoio 5e ttoija^v 

TCSTpvj; cupiCoi xpyjsa poerxousvai?, 
E'iapt §*£ 7rp(0TC0 >.£ii7.ti)viov av9o; af/ipca? 


Kat T15 owe euapvoio xarappaCvoiTO yaXaxTi 

oio?, a(JL6XyaTov (juxotov avac/dy.svo;, 
Kp^-iS' uypaivcov STUTup.fiiov eiffi -OavovTtov 

etclv ap,oiPaiat jcav cp9ty.£voi; yapiTEc. 

Naiads and chill cattle-pastures, tell to the bees when they 
come on their springtide way, that old Leucippus perished on a 
winter's night, setting snares for scampering hares, and no longer 
is the tending of the hives dear to him ; but the pastoral dells 
mourn sore for him who dwelt with the mountain peak for 


Shepherds who pass over this ridge of hill pasturing your 
goats and fleecy sheep, pay to Clitagoras, in Earth's name, a small 
but kindly grace, for the sake of Persephone under ground; let 
sheep bleat by me, and the shepherd on an unhewn stone pipe 
softly to them as they feed, and in early spring let the countryman 
pluck the meadow flower to engarland my tomb with a garland, 
and let one make milk drip from a fruitful ewe, holding up her 
milking-udder, to wet the base of my tomb : there are returns for 
favours to dead men, there are, even among the departed. 

8-i2] DEATH 249 



'Ay.Tzy.uozi y.y.l t?jo*s -Ooov wrepov Lepo? opvis 

TacS' u7T£o aosCag £^g;a£vo? 7rXaTKvou, 
"Oaeto yap IIoi[/.avo*po; 6 MaXio?, ouo" Its veitou 

l^ov £77* aypEUTai; YjEuaf/.evo; x.aAajxoic. 



A'jtou col 7cap' a).covi, oV/jiwcfli; Epyara [/.up(«j£, 

yjpiov sx ^coao'j oVl/afto; &m<ja|x.av 
v O<ppa G£ xal <p9iv.£vov A'/jou; <JTayu7]Tpo<jpo? auAa£ 

■8iAyY) apoTpaty] jceijasvov ev S-aXa^Tj. 



SIMMIAS av uAvjsv opio; euemov, aypora 7repot^ 
jjYrecffav wj? viipuv axo gtojaoctcov, 

©vjpE'jcov (3aXiou; GUVOfATjAtxa? sv uatjc" 
toyso yap 7Cup.aTav ei? 'AyipovTQ? 66ov. 


Even here shall the holy bird rest his swift wing, sitting on this 
murmuring plane, since Poemander the Malian is dead and comes 
no more with birdlime smeared on his fowling reeds. 

1 1 

Here to thee by the threshing-floor, toiling worker ant, I rear 
a memorial to thee of a thirsty clod, that even in death the ear- 
nurturing furrow of Demeter may lull thee as thou liest in thy 
rustic cell. 


No more along the shady woodland copse, hunter partridge, 
dost thou send thy clear cry from thy mouth as thou decoyest thy 
speckled kinsfolk in their forest feeding-ground ; for thou art gone 
on the final road of Acheron. 





"Opvsov to ~Xv.piciv [xe(AeXi](/.£vov, to Ttapdy.oiov 

aXxooaiv tov gov cpudyyov iawGay.svov, 
'HpiWMrfhj?, <piV eascis' ca &' rjSea to gov rjo'u 

Twvsuy.a. Gito~/]pal vux»t6; s/ouatv 6001. 




Ou/tSTi Svj cs Xtyeia x-oct' acpvsov 'AX/ciSo; oi/.ov [/.eXt^opivav oUsrat a.sTao: - 
"Hrr/j yap XeifAcovag sVi KXuf/ivou TreTrcT^Gai Sfpoffspa ^puGsa? avOsa IlepffS^dvas. 



'fl SeCXaie tu ©upcri, ti toi ttasov el xocTOCTa^Eft; 

oV.y.ouGi StyA^vco; <.6~a; do\>pd[/.svo; ; 
Ofyerai a ^taapo;, to y.alov tsx.o;, oI'/et' s; "AiSav, 

Tpa/u? yap yyXyXc, ay-Cpsxia^e Tajy.o?, 
Ai Ss x.uvs; yJXayys'jvTf ti toi ttXsov, avilta TTjva; 

ogtsov o'jSs Tscppa Xsi-st' a7:ot/oyivac ; 

O bird beloved of the Graces, rivalling the halcyons in likeness 
of thy note, thou art snatched away, dear warbler, and thy ways 
and thy sweet breath are held in the silent paths of night. 

No longer in the wealthy house of Alcis, shrill grasshopper, 
shall the sun behold thee singing ; for now thou art flown to the 
meadows of Clymenus and the dewy flowers of golden Persephone. 

l S 
Ah thou poor Thyrsis, what profit is it if thou shalt waste away 
the apples of thy two eyes with tears in thy mourning ? the kid is 
gone, the pretty young thing, is gone to Hades ; for a savage wolf 
crunched her in his jaws ; and the dogs bay ; what profit is it, when 
of that lost one not a bone nor a cinder is left 1 

I3-I8J DEATH 251 



©vjpe'jT^v Aajj.~cova M&ou "/.uva o'tya xars/.Ta 
Jtahrsp oTrsp ^/-/j; TroXXa Tirovvjaay.evov 

HoggI yap topucrcsv voTSpdv tcs^ov, aXXa to vw&ei; 
ttioV./co; £/- Tu<pA-?j; oux stoc/uvsv uScop, 

IIixts S' axauoV^a; - /j S' sfiAucsv. y} apa, Nuf/.<pai, 
AajATCiovi x/rafASVcdv fr/jviv eOsa^' £Xa<pwv. 




AbTOjzaTai SsiXrj ttoti rau^tov ai pos? y^&ov 

e£ opso; tuo^atj vicpo^evat ywvr 
Aiat, ©-/jpiij-a^o; Ss wapa Spot tgv euSst 

u7tvov* exotf/.7]ib] S' £/- 7rupo? oupavtoo. 



Oux. olS' si Aiovucov ovoccroij-at y, Ato? o^Spov 
iaIi/aLou,', oXtcfSvjpol 5' si? 7TOo\x? ap.cpOTspoi* 

'AvpdOe yap xaTiovTa. IToau^svov zv, tcots oV.it6; 
Tup.po? iyt\ yAic/ptov e^spiTrovxa 'Xootov, 


Thirst slew hunter Lampo, Midas' dog, though he toiled hard 
for his life ; for he dug with his paws in the moist flat, but the 
slow water made no haste out of her blind spring, and he fell in 
despair; then the water gushed out. Ah surely, Nymphs, you 
laid on Lampo your wrath for the slain deer. 

Unherded at evenfall the oxen came to the farmyard from the 
hill, snowed on with heavy snow ; alas, and Therimachus sleeps 
the long sleep beside an oak, stretched there by fire from heaven. 

I know not whether I shall complain of Dionysus or blame the 
rain of Zeus, but both are treacherous for feet. For the tomb 

252 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, n 

KetTai S' AioAiSo: Sfiwpvij? fccflfe deXXoe ti? op^vij? 
SeujuxCvot [/.e&utov aTpa~6v uetl-^v. 




Mr ffOi touto, cfrtAaivi, Xhjv imxalptov £<7tio 

ei p-v; -rrpo? NeiXw y^S r«>phjS stu/£:, 
'Ally, g 'EAeu^spvrj; 6'S' £/£t. Taqpos" &m yap to] 

::avTO&£v si; 'At&fjv dpyoasvoicitv oSd:. 



Swp.a p-£v aAAoSa— /j /.£'j&£i /.ovi; - ev <!>£ at ttovtw, 
K").£tG&£v£;, E-j;£ivto [j.oio ixiyp S-avaTOu 

ID&^oasvov, yXuxspou 5s [xeX(<ppovo? oftcaos vogtqu 
jjpcXaxeg, ouS' oteu Xtov £7:' aij.cptp'jTTjv. 



AeCXatoi, ti xevaunv aXto(jisSa O-apOTjaavre; 
£X7r((nv, amipoO avj9-g[/.svoi 8-avaTOu ; 

holds Polyxenus, who returning once to the country from a feast, 
tumbled over the slippery slopes, and lies far from Aeolic Smyrna: 
but let one full of wine fear a rainy footpath in the dark. 


Let not this be of too much moment to thee, O Philaenis, that 

thou hast not found thine allotted earth by the Nile, but this tomb 
holds thee in Eleutherne ; for to comers from all places there is an 
equal way to Hades. 

Strange dust covers thy body, and the lot of death took thee, 
O Cleisthenes, wandering in the Euxine sea ; and thou didst fail of 
sweet and dear home-coming, nor ever didst reach sea-girt Chios. 

Alas, why wander we, trusting in vain hopes and forgetting 
baneful death ? this Seleucus was perfect in his words and ways, 

19-23] DEATH 253 

'Hv oo*s xal |/.u&ot<Tt jcai ffizai ~avra 2sas'jx.o; 

apxio;* ocaa' 7)pvj; paiov £7uaupd[v.svo;, 
'Ttto-tioi? £v "I^vjpci, TOGOV Si^a TVjAOtH AsffpO'J, 

xeirat a^erprJTcov Eslvo? st' atytxA(5v. 




"Ho*yj uou uocTpyj; Trs^aca? c^eSov, aupiov, si— ov, 

•q [/.axpyj x.aT* s|/.ou Sucrrvoi'Vj xoTCa<>£f 
Outtw x. £ ^°? S{i.viffe, >cal 7jV bog v A'io\ ttovto?, 

xai p.s -/.aTsrpuysv x.stvo to xou^ov stto?. 
IlavTa Aoyov TrscpuAa^o t6v aupiov ouo*s Ta [xutpa 

A*jQ-&et t^v Y"Xtocrcr7j? avTwraAOv Nsiastcv. 




Mi] 5" 6V sV avxupjg oaotj t:ic»te'js 9aAa<7<77], 
vauTiXs, p.y]S' el' toi Tzzia[j.y.Ty. yspao? syoi' 

Kal yap "Iwv op[/.q> Ivutoac — sasv, s? o*s xoAu^-pov 
voojtou rag Tayiva; oivo? Sottas /sp a ?- 

$euys /opotTu-iyjv smv»]ioy s/0-po; 'IaV.yto 


but, having enjoyed his youth but a little, among the utmost 
Iberians, so far away from Lesbos, he lies a stranger on unmapped 


Already almost in touch of my native land, ' To-morrow,' I said, 
' the wind that has set so long against me will abate '; not yet had 
the speech died on my lip. and the sea was even as Hades, and 
that light word broke me down. Beware of every speech with 
to-morrow in it ; not even small things escape the Nemesis that 
avenges the tongue. 

Not even Avhen at anchor trust the baleful sea, sailor, nor 
even if dry land hold thy cables ; for Ion fell into the harbour, and 
at the plunge wine tied his quick sailor's hands. Beware of 
revelling on ship-board; the sea is enemy to Iacchus ; this law 
the Tyrrhenians ordained. 

254 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, ii 




Kal v£kuv aTrpTpvxo? avi^asi [/.£ &aAa<7cra 

Augiv spr^aatv) xpuirrov U7i6 <j~iAabi, 
2td7jv£; ael (pcoveuca xap' ouan xal icapa x.oxpov 

avjua' ti [/.', covQ-pw— ot, t»jos TOXptoxfaaTS 
'H 7cvo£v); yr^oicz tov oux £~l <popTibi vTjt 

£y.7:opov, aXV oAiy/j; va'-mXov £ip£Tb]?, 
©yixaj/iv/] vavwjyov ; 6 a £/. 7tovtoio [/.aTSutov 

£<i>riV, £/. ttovtou xal (/.dpov slXxuda^v. 



AuGtxops Nixavtop tcoakS f/.e»Aopvj(/ive ttcvtw, 

y.zlny.1 5^ £s£v)f] y u , u - v0 ? £~' ^jSovi 
1 H<io y £ "^P^ fSTpvjW xa o" oXfiia /.£iva ptiXa&pa 

(ppodSa te xal Tracyj; satci; oacoae Tupou, 

Ou0*£ Tl <j£ X.T£avd)V SpO'JGaTO* <p£U, £7^££tV£, 

coa£o y.oyft'rpy.c, i^Qugi xal TCAayst. 


Even in death shall the implacable sea vex me, Lysis hidden 
beneath a lonely rock, ever sounding harshly by my ear and 
alongside of my deaf tomb. Why, O fellow-men, have you made 
my dwelling by this that reft me of breath, me whom not trading 
in my merchant-ship but sailing in a little rowing boat, it brought 
to shipwreck 1 and I who sought my living out of the sea, out of 
the sea likewise drew my death. 


Hapless Nicanor, doomed by the grey sea, thou liest then naked 
on a strange beach, or haply by the rocks, and those wealthy halls 
are perished from thee, and lost is the hope of all Tyre ; nor did 
aught of thy treasures save thee ; alas, pitiable one ! thou didst 
perish, and all thy labour was for the fishes and the sea. 

24-28] DEATH 255 




tf Av&po)7TS Ceo-?;; wepupetoso, [atjSs wap' topvjv 

vaimAo; tG9i* /.at, a)? ou xoau; avSpl (iio;* 

AeiAats Kas&vix.£, gu o ei; Airapvjv ©acov eXOsiv 
•q-siyeu, jtoiAvj? sy.~ opo; ex. Supivj;, 

"Et/xopo; to Kasg'vi/.s - ouglv 5' <j— 6 IlAsiaSo; owt^v 
7;ovT07:op(5v, auTrj IlAStaSt auyxaTsSus. 




OuSs v£/cu? vauvjyo? e~l y-9-ovx ®yjpi; eAaGfrel; 

y.'j|Aactv aypuTvtov A7jGO[/.ai ■qiovcov 
T H yap aAippvj/.TOt; uxo osipaaiv, ay^o'9i tuovtou 

Suffttsvsos, <;£ivwv yspGiv £/.upca Tacpo'j, 
Aisl Ss (3po[/iovT<x £v vsx.usGGt, •9-aAaGcvj? 

6 tat^acov atco oou7cov dbrsj£9-df/.svov. 



IIoija^v to jAobcap, si9-s' oupso; srpoparsuov 
xryw, TTOtvjpov toot' ava Asu/.oAcxpov, 


O man, be sparing of life, neither go on sea-faring beyond the 
time ; even so the life of man is not long. Miserable Cleonicus, 
yet thou didst hasten to come to fair Thasos, a merchantman out 
of hollow Syria, O merchant Cleonicus ; but hard on the sinking 
of the Pleiad as thou journeyedst over the sea, as the Pleiad sank, 
so didst thou. 

Not even in death shall I Theris, tossed shipwrecked upon land 
by the waves, forget the sleepless shores; for beneath the spray- 
beaten reefs, nigh the disastrous main, I found a grave at the 
hands of strangers, and for ever do I wretchedly hear roaring even 
among the dead the hated thunder of the sea. 

happy shepherd, would that even I had shepherded on the 
mountain along this white grassy hill, making the bleating folk 


Kpioi? urfflrifem 7Hm (SATfjjpjra pifJaQwv, 

•^ mx.m pa^ai vrjoyjx mjoaXuc 
"Aai/.t] - TOtyap ^'J v uiK>p£vflto§" ajAol o*s Ta-Jnfjv 

Siva p.e coipoV^ca; Eupo? a7nj(ii<raTO. 



'Ox-tco ]j.vj ttt^si; dweebs Tpyj/eia Malacca 

xai xuaaive poa ■9-' ^7ix.a coi ouvagug' 
*Hv Ss tov Euu.apsco -/.xdzkr^ xa.apov, ixaao [/iv ooSev 

Kpvjyuov, Bupijaet? o" ocrsa <jt:ooY/}v. 



"DcpSAS p.7jS' eysvovTO -Ooal v£e; - oO yap av ^iasi; 

xaloV. Aio/.aeio*o'j 2co7toaiv earsvoy.ev. 
Nov S' 6 [/iv eiv aAi 770'j ospSTat vsxu;* avxl <)' exsivou 

ouvo|7.a xal y.eveov (rij[xa Trapepyoy.e&a. 




Kal 770T£ oivtjsi? acpopo; 7rdpo;, sItts, fl-aAacca, 
ei jcal ev a.Ay.uovwv mace JCAauffdfAS&a, 

move after the leader rams, rather than have dipped a ship's 
steering-rudders in the hitter brine: so I sank under the depths, 
and the east wind that swallowed me down cast me up again on 
this shore. 

Keep eight cubits away from me, rough sea, and billow and 
roar with all thy might; but if thou pullest down the grave of 
Eumares, thou wilt find nothing of value, but only bones and dust. 

Would that swift ships had never been, for we should not have 
bewailed Snpolis son of Diocleides; but now somewhere in the 
sea he drifts dead, and instead of him we pass by a name on an 

empty tomb. 

And when shall thy swirling passage be free from fear, say, 
sea, if even in the days of the halcyons we must weep, of the 

29-33] DEATH 257 

'AAjajo'vuv, ai; tto'vto; asl trrap^aTO xup.x 
vr j v£[/.ov, to; x.ptvai yfpcrov ariGTOTspvjv ; 

'Aaaoc xal Yjvtx.a p.afa oj&vsctftv amnuow 
auyeic, guv <po'pT(0 ou<ra; ' 



Kal gs, KAsyjvopiSvj, — oSo? ioascts TraTpto'o; al'vj; 

-S-apcr/^avTx Notou AaiAaxt ^etuepiin' 
"fipvj yap <*s 7TSOTf]5SV avsyyuo?' uypa Ss ttiv trnv 

/tujAaT 1 a.©' iu.sprY}v IxXuasv vjaucikjv. 



O'j7uio tol ~"koy.y.[j.oi TSTij.vjp.svot, ou&k ce/\ava? 

toI Tpisret; [/.rvcSv avioysuvTO &po'[/.ot, 
KXsuoixs, Nutacl? 6'ts cav rspi Aapvax.a [Mmjp, 

t7,k(j.ov, sV aia/CTto Tuo'aV sfJoaas Tacpco 
Kal ysvsTa? IIspWAeiTO;" sV ayvtoTto rV 'A/soovti 

^PaffSt? vjpav, KXsuouc', xvocrTOTaTav. 

halcyons for whom Ocean evermore stills his windless wave, that 
one might think dry land less trustworthy ? but even when thou 
callest thyself a gentle nurse and harmless to women in labour, 
thou didst drown Aristomenes with his freight. 

Thee too, son of Cleanor, desire after thy native land destroyed, 
trusting to the wintry gust of the South ; for the unsecured season 
entangled thee, and the wet waves washed away thy lovely youth. 


Not yet were thy tresses cut, nor had the monthly courses of 
the moon driven a three years' space, poor Cleodicus, when thy 
mother Nicasis, clasping thy coffin, wailed long over thy lamented 
grave, and thy father Pericleitus ; but on unknown Acheron thou 
shalt flower out the youth that never, never returns. 


258 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, ii 



H —ai; w/st atopo; ev spoojAO) rp £vi7.'jtw 
ei; 'AiSyjv, 7toXayjs iqaixCti? wporlpij, 

AsO.ata ~ ofrsouca tov sbcoaau.invov aosAmov 
vwcrov acTopyou ysiKTav.svov ■O-avarou. 

Aiai, Auypa TraOouca IIspMJTSp£, tog sv ETOiy.o) 
avftpco^ot; oV.i»v.tov %vpj& Ta SstvoTXTa. 


Persephone's plaything 


'AiSvj aAAtTavsuTE seal arpo~e, ti~ ts toi outw 

KoAAaia/pov £ioa; vvj—iov topcpaviay.? ; 
"Ecrxat (7.av o ys ~ y -t? & v oco{/.a<yt < J ) sp<7s<povEiot<; 

ircciyvtov aXX' ol'xoi Xuypa asaoitts to*9i]. 




'A Xsia' 'AvrucXei?, Seia-^ o" syto •q tov ev rptfi 
ax[/jj (/.oOvov roxtoa Truptoaajv.Evv], 

This girl passed to Hades untimely, in her seventh year, before 
her many playmates, poor thing, pining for her baby brother, who 
at twenty months old tasted of loveless Death. Alas, ill-fated 
Peristeris, how near at hand God has set the sorest griefs to men. 

Hades inexorable and inflexible, why hast thou thus reft infant 
Callaeschrus of life 1 Surely the child will be a plaything in the 
palace of Persephone, but at home he has left bitter sorrows. 

Ah wretched Anticles, and wretched I who have laid on the pyre 
in the flower of youth my only son, thee, child, who didst perish 

34-38] DEATH 259 

'OjCTWJcaiSsjcsTH)? o: a-toAso, tsV.vov syto Se 

6o<potviov xXaCco "pjp*S do\>po;/ivyj. 
BatTiv si; "A'iSo; axiepov So'y.ov outs f/.oi r^q 

r ( o£'. , out ax.Ti:; '/jeAiou 
'A SstV 'AvTt/.A£!.:, v.saop-^yivs, -£v9so; &1'yj; 

ivjT^p, *C<o'/;; zv. u.s *0[U(J<7a[/.EVO<;. 


fate's persistency 


'H Trupi TCavxa TSJtoGffa $iAaivtov, v; f3apy-£v8"/j<; 

{JLTTKlp, 7) TS3CVCOV TplSadv lOO'JTa TaCpOV, 

'AXXoTpiai; coSiciv socopy.'.ay.' yj yap £w)-£iv 
TravTco; p.o>. Cr^zvj toutov Sv 0'jx. etskov, 

'H S' suTCai? #£tov uidv avvjyayoV dftXa p.£ 07.1u.wv 
v;9£>.£ fJLTjS' aXX>]? pppd; £/£iv j^aptTa, 

Ka7)&sis yjusTspo; yap axs^O-iTO' vuv Si TS/COuaai? 
yv/) Jtai AotTOxEs -£v9x>; £yw ysyova. 



Ilavra Xaowv axATQGTS, ti tov v£ov vjp-aca; aurw; 
v Att7.7vOv; ou go; £-/jv, >cav fravs y^jpaXso? ; 

at eighteen years ; and I weep, bewailing an orphaned old age : 
fain would I go to the shadowy house of Hades ; neither is morn 
sweet to me, nor the beam of the swift sun. Ah wretched Anticles, 
struck down by fate, be thou healer of my sorrow, taking me with 
thee out of life. 

I Philaenion who gave birth but for the pyre, I the woeful 
mother, I who had seen the threefold grave of my children, 
anchored my trust on another's pangs ; for I surely hoped that 
he at least would live, whom I had not borne. So I, who once 
had fair children, brought up an adopted son ; but God would not 
let me have even a second mother's grace ; for being called ours 
he perished, and now I am become a woe to the rest of mothers too. 

Ever insatiate Charon, why hast thou wantonly taken young 
Attalus 1 was he not thine, even if he had died old ? 




<l>y) 7UOTS I lptoTOu.ayo:, ttztoo; -sol '/zXzx; Sjjovto;, 

vjvix.' ao' if/.ep'rqv £-v£Sv yjXocfajV 
'12 Ttu.invoptS'/j, 7caiS6? <piXou outcots XijffY] 





HoV, ' xpoxdeic IIiTavaTioi Trtrvairo vuu.<pa 

Ka$S[/.ovs£ S' rp.TTOvTO ouoasviov oAoya 7C6U3ta? 

a^stv ap^OTSpai? avcyoy.svoi 7caXa[/.ai£ 
A^y-w jtal Ni/.trrzo; - a<paprcai;affa Ss vo'jio; 

Troca&svucav, Aa&a; ayxysv e; TrsAayo;' 
'AXvstvai S' exaf/.ovTo aovaXucs^ ou/l D-opsToov 

dcXXa tov 'Arasco CTepvoTU7rij ~ ocTayov. 




O'j yauov aXX' 'AiSav £mvu|/.<pioiov KAsapicnra 
XscaTO 7cap$sv£ae aaaa-z Xuot/iva* 

I'rotomachus said, as his father held him in his hands when he 

was breathing away his lovely youth, ' son of Timenor, thou 

wilt never forget thy dear son, nor cease to long for his valour and 

his wisdom.' 


Already the saffron-strewn bride-bed was spread within the 

golden wedding-chamber for the bride of Pitane, Cleinareta, and 

her guardians Demo and Nicippus hoped to light the torch-flame 

held at stretch of arm and lifted in both hands, when sickness 

snatched her away yet a maiden, and drew her to the sea of Lethe \ 

and her sorrowing companions knocked not on the bridal doors,. 

hut on their own smitten breasts in the clamour of death. 

Not marriage but Death for bridegroom did Clearista receive 
when she loosed the knot of her maidenhood : for but now at even 

39-43] DEATH 261 

"ApTi yap ia~£y.oi vuf/.<pa? e::1 otxJXiciv k^euv 
acotoi, xai S-ocXajAtov ewAaTayeGviro i)upaf 

'Hwot S' OAOAuyiAOv Kv£x.payov, ex S' 'Tfytivato? 
ciyaQslc yosoov oDiy^.a [/.sfrapy.ocaTO, 

Ai S' auTal cpsyyo; soV.ftouyouv xapa —acTttJ 
— S' >cat ©Qiy.svr. vspOsv s<paivov 600 v. 



"flpio; siys cz racTa?, atopio? sIas as t'j;a(3o? 

euOocascov XaciTcov avOo;, 'AvacTaci'/j" 
Sot yEvsV/jc, col 7wixpa ~o'ci? x.a.Ta oaxpua Asifiet, 

col Tayx jcal 7:oo9;v.S'j; oV./.p'jyESt, vsxjjoiV 
O'j yap oaov AUJcaJSavTa onjvucot? ay/i cuvsuvou, 

jzaa' IxxaiosKsViv, 9SU, x.v.Tzyzi c£ tt/^oc. 




AfilAaiV], Tl C£ — OtOTOV £770; Tl 8s r^SUTaTOV £17TW ; 

osiAaiTV tout' ev ttocvtI /touctu stujaov 
Ol'y£y.t, co yapiscca yuvat, e; slSso; topyjv 
Ty'x.oy. jcal si? ^uj^Jte 7 j^°? sveyjcapiv?]' 

the flutes sounded at the bride's portal, and the doors of the 
wedding-chamber were clashed; and at morn they cried the wail, 
and Hymenaeus put to silence changed into a voice of lamentation ; 
and the same pine-brands flashed their torchlight before the bride- 
bed, and lit the dead on her downward way. 


In season the bride-chamber held thee, out of season the grave 
took thee, O Anastasia, flower of the blithe Graces; for thee a 
father, for thee a husband pours bitter tears ; for thee haply even 
the ferryman of the dead weeps ; for not a whole year didst thou 
accomplish beside thine husband, but at sixteen years old, alas ! 
the tomb holds thee. 

Unhappy, by what first word, by what second shall I name 
thee '] unhappy ! this word is true in every ill. Thou art gone, 

262 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, ii 

TToto-r/] col ovo;/ £7/.£v £ttjtu[aov r ( v yap y.r.yy-y. 
oYjteo' aai[/,TnT<i)v Ttov e— I col yapi-tov. 



'TiTa-uov, <J>toxaia jcXutt xoli, touto ®£xvto 
sixev £; axpuysTOv vux.Ta xaTEpyopivv) - 

O'ijAOi £yto outroivo?, 'A7:£AAiy£, ttoiov, o|/.suvs, 
770T0V £— ' obcefa] V7]t ~£py.; Trslayo; - 

AuTap GysSdO-sv [/.dpo; farxTai' to; o^sXov ye 
yeipl <piA7jv r/jv <rnv /stpa XafioOffa 9-avsiv. 


"E<p&av£v 'HAid&topo;, £<p£<7-£T0 X' ouS' 6'crov topT) 
uot£oov avSol <piAto Atovsvsta oafjwcp" 

v A;xcpto S' to; cuvEvoaov u— 6 ~Aa-/.l TU{/^suovrat 
£uv6v aYaXXd(/.svot -raoov to; SaXajxov. 

O gracious wife, who didst carry off the palm in bloom of beauty 
and in bearing of soul ; Prote wert thou truly called, for all else 
came second to those inimitable graces of thine. 


This last word, famous city of Phocaea, Theano spoke as she- 
went down into the unharvested night: 'Woe's me unhappy; 
Apellichus, husband, what length, what length of sea dost thou 
cross on thine own ship ! but nigh me stands my doom ; would 
God I had but died with my hand clasped in thy dear hand.' 

Heliodorus went first, and Diogeneia the wife, not an hour's 
space after, followed her dear husband ; and both, even as they 
dwelt together, are buried under this slab, rejoicing in their 
common tomb even as in a bride-chamber. 

44-48] DEATH 263 




Aa/.o'ja col xal vspOs o\x yflovo'c, 'HXtoocopa, 

Scopo' oropY«? ASi^avov ei; 'At'Sav, 
Aa/.pua JJuffSaxpuTa* TroAUJcXaufcp o*' £7:1, tu|/.(3oj> 

<7-£vSco vaji.a tto'Scov,;y.y. oiAocppocuva; - 
OiKTpa yap otx.rpa oiaxv ers seal ev y&i|/ivois Ms/Niaypo? 

ata^to, /.evsav ei? 'Ayspovxa '/y?w 
Aiai, 7TOU to ttoOsivov saol •8-a/\o?; ap-acsv "A10V.;, 

ap-aaev, axfxaiov 5" avBoc iqjups *o'vt;. 
'Aaaoc as youvoujAai, ya xavrpdcps, xav 7cavdouprov 

■yjpe[/.a coi; /coAXOi?, [/.arsp, svayxaAuxai. 



'A attSpoffiYisi duvsffTis ©i/VraTS MoO<jat? 
yafps siv 'Ai'^sw debase KaA/a;/.ayjs. 



"AvQzv. ~oXka. ysvotTO vsoo(av]tw s~l Tup.(3cp, 
(/.tq paTO? au/[7//jpv], [7//] -/.a/.ov aiytaupov, 


Tears I give to thee even below with earth between us, 
Heliodora, such relic of love as may pass to Hades, tears sorely 
wept; and on thy much-wailed tomb I pour the libation of my 
longing, the memorial of my affection. Piteously, piteously, I 
Meleager make lamentation for thee, my dear, even among the 
dead, an idle gift to Acheron. Woe 's me, where is my cherished 
flower? Hades plucked her, plucked her and marred the freshly- 
blown blossom with his dust. But I beseech thee, Earth that 
nurturest all, gently to clasp her, the all-lamented, mother, to 
thy breast. 


Ah blessed one, dearest companion of the immortal Muses, fare 
thou well even in the house of Hades, Callimachus. 

May flowers grow thick on thy newly-built tomb, not the dry 

264 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i i 

AaV ia y.x\ ay.y.yr/y. xai uoaTtvvj vap/.tcrcoc, 
Outfits, /.at 7repi crou Travra ysvotro poSa. 



Ouvoy.a [7.ot — ti os touto ; warpl? o£ p.ot — sc ti &£ touto;  
JtXsivou S' sip ylvou? — st yap a<paupoTaTOu ; 

Zvjffa; svSoEw; Sawtov ptov — £t yap a&d^co;; 

x,ei|/.ai o' svOaos vuv — ti? Ttvt TaCra Asyst; ; 



KaxQavov, aXAa [xsvco as* p.svst; &£ te xai ou Ttv' oXaov 
xavra; 6p.c5; -Dvvjtou; ei; 'Alloyj; oiysxca. 



'Actvjp 7uplv [j.iv £Aa ( a77£; svt £ci>o?fftv 'Ewo;, 

vuv o*£ -Oavtov Aafjwcsi? E(7~£po: ev <p9t[j.£voi?. 

bramble, not the evil weed, but violets and margerain and wet 
narcissus, Vibius, and around thee may all be roses. 


My name — Why this ? — and my country — And to what end 
this 1 — and I am of illustrious race — Yea, if thou hadst been of the 
obscurest 1 — Having lived nobly I left life — If ignobly 1 — and I lie 
here now — Who art thou that sayest this, and to whom ? 


I died, but I await thee ; and thou too filial t await some one 
else : one Death receives all mortals alike. 

5 1 
Morning Star that once didst shine among the living, now 
deceased thou shinest the Evening Star among the dead. 





Ao'j<ra;./.£voi, IIpoSiJcvj, Tru/.aatou.e^a. t6v axparov 
SAXcoptsv xuXuca^ [/.si^ova? aipof/.svoi" 

Baio; 6 yy.tpovTWv sstiv (3ios" sixa ra "kovKa. 
y/jpa? JCw'XudSi, xal to teXo; ■B-avaTO?. 



O'jx aTrcOvy-cx.stv Ssi (xe; ti p.oi f/iXet vjv ts xoSaypo'?, 
TJv ts opo(Jieu? ysyovco; si; 'At'Svjv uTOxytt ; 

IToWvOi yap [/,' apouctv soc ywXov y.s ysvsa&ai, 
twvo' svsjcsv yap I'crco; outtot' scoi -Oioccrou?. 

Let us bathe, Prodice, and garland ourselves, and drain un- 
mixed wine, lifting larger cups ; little is our life of gladness, then 
old age will stop the rest, and death is the end. 

Must I not die 1 what matters it to me whether I depart to 
Hades gouty or fleet of foot 1 for many will carry me; let me 
become lame, for hardly on their account need I ever cease from 

266 GKEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 



^/.©iCst?, >cootoSai(JLOv, 6 Si ypovo; co; tokov outgj 

xai -oaiov tCjctsi yrpa? erepx,o'[ASvo;, 
Koirs TTitov out' av9o? sVi JtpOTa<pot? avaSv-ca;, 

ou [A'Joov, ou yXacpupov yvou; tcot' spwu.sviov 
Te8vT^v], TTAOUTOucav d^el; p,syaAY)v cHa&vy/.yjv, 

sx, ttoaacov 6(3oa6v jaouvov svsyx.ap.evo;. 



Ilaci &avsiv [j.zoo-Kzaaiv d'-psiASTat, ouSs ti? sctIv 

au'piov si 'Cv-gsi S-vvjto; S7U(jTa;xsvo;* 
Touto Ta<pa>(;, av0-po)7is, p^wv su'cppatvs gsocutov, 

A7)ib]v tou &avaTOu tov Bpop.iov xaxs/wv, 
TspTrso xal Ilafpiv], tov sovjaspiov ptov sAx.tov, 

TaAAa Ss wavra Tuy/) 7i;pay|AaTa So? o\s~siv. 



ITivs seal suopaivou, ti yap aupiov tj ti to u.saaov ; 
ouoYi; yiyvtoG/tsi* [/.-/) Tpsys, p.V] x.o::ia - 


Thou reckonest, poor wretch; but advancing time breeds white 
old age even as it does interest ; and neither having drunk, nor 
bound a flower on thy brows, nor ever known myrrh nor a delicate 
darling, thou shalt be dead, leaving thy great treasury in its 
wealth, out of those many coins carrying with thee but the one. 


All human must pay the debt of death, nor is there any mortal 
who knows whether he shall bo alive to-morrow; learning this 
clearly, man, make thee merry, keeping the wine-god close by 
thee for oblivion of death, and take thy pleasure with the Paphian 
while thou drawest thy ephemeral life ; but all else give to 
Fortune's control. 


Drink and be merry ; for what is to-morrow or what the future 1 
no man knows. Run not, labour not ; as thou canst, give, share, 

3-7] LIFE 2G7 

'fi<; $uva<rat jrapwrai, (/.STaJto?, (pays, Ov/jxi Aoyi'(o>y 

to £-/jv TOO p/Pj "0?jv ouftsv OAto; y~£yzi, 
Ha? 6 (ito; toiogSs, poTrvj [aovov av rpoAafJflc, go'j, 

av Ss t>av/j<;, ETEpou TCavxa, tj o" ouoev e/e'.;. 



"H(3a (xoi, cpiXs &u|/i* ray' av tivs; aAAot Effovrat 
avftosc, syto o*s 8-avtov yaia (/iXouv' EC70f/.at. 



Hsvts 0-xvtov x.sifj'/] /caxsycov xooV.c, ouos tx TspTrva 

Qw/j; our) a'jya; oysai •/jsaiou 
tf f}<rrs Aa,8tov Bobcyjou £topov fts-ac baxs ysyvjiko;, 

Kiyjus, /caAAiTT'/jv ayxa? e/cov aXoyov 
Ei Ss goi aQavaxo; t»o<pi7]? voo;, &rfh KAsavi)-/j; 

scat Zvjvtov 'AtSyjv tov 3z9-'jv toe EfxoAOv. 




'Tttkoei;, co 'Tatps" to <$s <ncu<po; au-ro Boz te - 

EypEO, l//^ TSOTTO'J [/.OtpiSlV) (/.SAST7J' 

consume, be mortal-minded ; to be alive and not to be alive are 
no way at all apart. All life is such, only the turn of the scale ; 
if thou art beforehand, it is thine; and if thou diest, all is 
another's, and thou hast nothing. 

Be young, dear my soul : soon will others be men, and I being 
dead shall be dark earth. 

Five feet shalt thou possess as thou liest dead, nor shalt see the 
pleasant things of life nor the beams of the sun ; then joyfully lift 
and drain the unmixed cup of wine, Cincius, holding a lovely 
wife in thine arm ; and if philosophy say that thy mind is immortal, 
know that Cleanthes and Zeno went down to deep Hades. 

Thou slumberest, comrade ; but the cup itself cries to thee, 
'Awake; do not make thy pleasure in the rehearsal of death.' 

268 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 

My) ipeiCY], Ato&ope, Axfipo; o" si; Bx/.yov oaitOcov 

aypi; em <J<paXspoCi 'topo~OT£i yovaTO? - 
Kcts!)-' 6't' o'j\)x Ttokvc, — oauV aXk' ay' s-siyou* 

T C'JVcT'/] X.00T7OO)V a— TETat 7)f/.ET£p(<)V. 




'I2x.up.opov p.£ Asyouai oV/]|j.ovs; avsps; aGTpoW 
eiu.1 u.£v, x.aa' o'j [j.oi to'jto, SsXsujcs, [/.sXsi* 

El; 'Ai&zjv [jia ttogi scaxatfJaffis" si o*s Tayiov 
•/jy.£T£p7j, Mtvco #acrc>ov s-o^op.sOa - 

E[ivo)i/.£V xal f^vj yap eTrm>[/.ov si? ooov i7C7TO$ 
oivo;, sttsi —z'CoXc xxoa/Koq si? 'Awtjv. 



Kal ~'.£ vjv jtal spa, Axy.d/.paTEc, ou yap s; aisi 

-ioij.Ei)-' ouo*' asi TSp4»io? fcop.ElOa* 
Kal OTTSipavot? y.scpxAa; 7cuxa<;a)[x.&9'a )cai p.upicto{ 

auTO'J?, uplv T'jafioi? TauTa <pspsiv srspou;. 

N'JV £V £|7.0l 771ST10 |AS#U TO TiTASOV OCTTSa TV.U.7, 

vs/cox Si AsuxaXiov aura x»aTxx.Au<7XT0j. 

Spare not, Diodorus, slipping greedily into wine, drink deep, even 
to the tottering of the knee. Time shall be when we shall not 
drink, long and long ; nay come, make haste ; prudence already 
lays her hand on our temples. 

Men skilled in the stars call me brief-fated ; I am, but I care 
not, Seleucus. There is one descent for all to Hades ; and if 
ours comes quicker, the sooner shall we look on Minos. Let us 
drink ; for surely wine is a horse for the high-road, when foot- 
passengers take a by-path to Death. 


Drink now and love, Damocrates, since not for ever shall we 
drink nor for ever hold fast our delight; let us crown cur heads 
with garlands and perfume ourselves, before others bring these offer- 
ings to our graves. Now rather lot my bones drink wine inside 
me ; when they are dead, let Deucalion's deluge sweep them away. 

8-i 4 ] LIFE 269 




IIIvwulsv Ba/./ou (topov Trojy.a' day.T'jXo; ato;* 
?] 7ra>i xoi[/.MSrav auyvov i^siv |/ivo|/.sv ; yy.AEpco;' pxia toi yjjovov °u*STi tcouX'jv, 
cystXis, ttjv |/.a/.pav vuxt ava7rauco{/.&8-a. 



LTo>Aa>a j^iv too" aewya, ex, tu[/.(3ou §s (io^crco* 
tcivsts, Tcplv TauTTjv a[/,<pt(3aX7]<j$e y.oviv. 




Ao? p.ot. toux. Y a ''" / ]? TwSTrov/ji^svov add x.ut:saaov, 
a? yevo|AV]v, jcal u<p' a JtsCffOf/.' a7vo<pQi[/.£vo;. 




"HftsXov av TzkovTZiv mc, izkouatoq v;v tcots KpoiTO? (BaatASu? sivat trfi p&ydikvfi 'Agwjs, 

1 1 

Let us drink an unmixed draught of wine ; dawn is an hand- 
breadth ; are we waiting to see the bed-time lamp once again ? 
Let us drink merrily ; after no long time yet, luckless one, we 
shall sleep through the long night. 


( )t'ten I sang this, and even out of the grave will I cry it : ' Drink, 
before you put on this raiment of dust.' 

Give me the sweet cup wrought of the earth from which I was 
born, and under which 1 shall lie dead. 

I would have liked to be rich as Croesus of old was rich, and to 
be king of great Asia ; but when 1 look on Nicanor the collin- 

270 GEEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 

'Aaa' otocv ip$kltytd Nucavopa tov cropo-vjydv, 

xai yvco rrpo; Tt TTOist TauTa xa yAtoTGdxou.z, 
Vxnnv rro-j T.y.nny.'. xal Tai; xoTUAai? uwoPpsqa? 
rnv 'Affiijv TrwAto rcpo? pwpa xai crrs^avou?. 



"HSr xal pd^ov £«7ti, xal axy.aTiov ep^iivSloc, 

xal xauAol xpau.^y];, Scoguas, rptoTOTdy.ou, 
Kal Ltaivr (ay'Xays'jca xal aprwray?)? aAiTupo? 

xal 8-pioaxtov ouXtov appocpovj —£TaAa. 
' Haei? S' out' axTTJ? a ivou.£v out' £v aTrd^Ei 

yiyvd|/.eQ-' co? aisi, Scoguae, to 7rpoTspov ; 
Kal [xtqv 'AvTiysvvj; xal Baxyio; £/j)e; ettzc'Cov, 

vuv f^' ocutou? &a\j/ai ff^[/.spov £x'.p£pou.Ev. 




Ka7T7vaSdx.o)v e'Vvou; TroAuavfiia; oMar' apoupac; 

xeuOev £yco ipuojjwjv ex toxscov aya-9-tov 
'E^ots too; Xcftdpnv, Xuaiv vjau-9-ov rfii xal rjco' 

ouvoua |7.oi TAacpupo; xal <pp£v6; eKxsaov tjv 
' E^VJXOGTOV £T0? "XV$A£'J i)spov £C£,Suorra - 

xal xaAov to tu/vj; xal raxpov 010V. piou. 

maker, and know for what he is making these flute-cases of liis, 
sprinkling my flour and wetting it with my jug of wine, I sell all 
Asia for ointments and garlands. 

Now is rose-time and peas are in season, and the heads of early 
cabbage, Sosylus, and the milky maena, and fresh-curdled cheese, 
and the soft-springing leaves of curled lettuces ; and do we neither 
pace the foreland nor climb to the outlook, as always, O Sosylus, 
we did before 1 for Antagoras and Bacchius too frolicked yesterday, 
and now to-day Ave bear them forth for burial. 

Know ye the flowery fields of the Cappadocian nation 1 thence 
I was born of good parents : since I left them I have wandered 
to the sunset and the dawn ; my name was Glaphyrus, and like 
my mind. I lived out my sixtieth year in perfect freedom; I 
know both the favour of Fortune and the bitterness of life. 

15-20] LIFE 271 




03to? 6 jj.-qMv, 6 aitoc, 6 v.y\ AaTpi;, outo? epaxai 
y.acTi tlvo? ^u/v;? x.upio; aAAOTpfoj;. 




"A<ppove; av^ptoTroi xai vr]77iot oits -ftavovTa? 
jcXafouff', ouo" "yjpii]? av-9-o; a-o^AU|./.£vov. 




Too? /.axaAstyavTa; yAuaspov <pao; oujcsti 8pjv<3, 
too? o" stcI xpo<7o*ox,i7] 'CwvTa? ael -8-avaTOu. 



ITooctSoxiT] i>avaTOu tcoauwouvoi; £<mv avivj, 
touto Si JCSpSaivei S-vtjto; dwroAAUftsvos" 

Mvj toivuv >tXau<JT)? tov aTzsp/o'p.evov Piotoio, 
O'jSev yip -O-y.vaTOu Ssutsogv s<jti toz&o?. 

This man, inconsiderable, mean, yes, a slave, this man is loved, 
and is lord of another's soul. 

Fools and children are mankind to weep the dead, and not the 
flower of youth perishing. 

Those who have left the sweet light I bewail no longer, but 
those who live ever in expectation of death. 


Expectation of death is woful grief, and this is the gain of a 
mortal when he perishes ; weep not then for him who departs from 
life, for after death there is no other accident. 

272 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 




O-j xXatco Eoivcov at <piXatT«Te' ttoaao. yap syvto? 
xaXa' y.a*(ov S' au col {/.olpav £vsip£ &eo;. 




ITao'j; ccpaAspo; to '(vjv y£i;./.a'(o;/.£vot, yap £v a.ikw 

xoAAaV-i vauvjywv 7TTaiop.£v oix.TpoTspy." 
Tr.v &E Tuyyjv fiiiOTOto xupepv/JTEipav syovTe: 

40? £771 TOU 77£AayO'J? a'ACpipOAOt 7TA£Oy.£V, 

Oi uiv eV suttaoiVjv, oi S' £(j,7raAiv all' ay.a TravrE? 
£t; sva tov xara yyj? opaov aTiepyo'ry.sSa. 




Nu/.to? v~zp/(j\j.iv/}C, y£vvco[7.£J)a v^J.ap sV -^[v.ap 

TOU 7700TSpOU plOTOU [/.7JOSV £^OVT£: BTt, 

'A>.AOTpito8ivTE; tvJ; iyQzGivrfi oiccyvrprfi 


My) toivuv A£y£ crauTOv etcov, Trpsapura, 7r£pwjcov, 
T(ov yap a-sXftovTiov cv^y.Epov ou ^.zriyziq. 

2 1 
I weep not for thee, dearest of friends; for thou knewest 
many fair things; and again God dealt thee thy lot of ill. 

Life is a dangerous voyage ; for tempest-tossed in it we often 
strike rocks more pitiably than shipwrecked men ; and having 
Chance as pilot of life, we sail doubtfully as on the sea, some on a 
fair voyage, and others contrariwise ; yet all alike we put into the 
one anchorage under earth. 

Day by day we are born as night retires, no more possessing 
aught of our former life, estranged from our course of yesterday, 
and beginning to-day the life that remains. Do not then call 
thyself, old man, abundant in years ; for to-day thou hast no share 
in what is gone. 

21-26] LIFE 273 




Nuv au.u.s?, xpocO-' aAAOi eOoaaeov, a'JTi/.a S' ocaaoi 
cov a[/.u.s; ysvsav' £— o^o[A£$oc. 



'Hspa ASTrraXsov [/.uxTTjpO'&ev ajjwrveiovTSs 

£wo[/.ev r^Aiou AajAxa^a Sep/.op.svot 
IlavTS; ocoi *Ci3[aev y.aTa tov ptov, opyava S' e<7[/iv 

a'jpat; ^(ooyovot; xvsup.a.Ta Se^vu^.svoi. 
EL Ss ti? ouv oAtyvjv TCaXap.7] ccpiyceiev auT'Avjv, 

t]/uyyjv GUATjCai; si; 'Aufyv /CaTaysi* 
OuTto; ouSiv eovTS;, ayvjvopiT] TpEcpo^scrS-a 

7CV01YJ? £^ OAiy7]; '^Epa pOGX.G[A£VOl. 




Mupio; vjv, a>'v$po)~£, yfiovoc, xpoToO, a^pi Trpo; '^<3 
t^a^s;, jrw aoittoi; [Aupioi; sic, 'Ai'Svjv 


Now we flourish as before others did, and soon others will, 
whose children we shall never see. 


Breathing thin air in our nostrils we live and look on the torch 
of the sun, all we who live what is called life ; and are as organs, 
receiving our spirits from quickening airs. If one then chokes 
that little breath with his hand, he robs us of life, and brings us 
down to Hades. Thus being nothing we wax high in hardihood, 
feeding on air from a little breath. 


Infinite, man, was the foretime until thou earnest to thy 
dawn, and what remains is infinite on through Hades : what share 
is left for life but the bigness of a pinprick, and tinier than a pin- 


274 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 

Ti; u.oipx '((•)'/;; uiroXelxeTai 73 ocov ocrvov 

tmypj, >cai <my|rijs ^ Tt X a t t1 J^° Te P ov > 
Motor cs'j £coTj Te&XijAfiivij' ouSs yap ocurq 

rfizt, vlV e/p-pou aruyvoTepi] ^avaxou. 



Kav yi/pi? ' Hpa/.Aeou? <7ttj7,<3v sa&t]? wapop&ov 
yfo f/ipo; av0poj7:oi; 7taffiv icrov ts f/ivei, 

Keur/) S' "Ipto 6'jAOto;, sywv 6j3oaoO tcasov ouSsv, 
et; t^v ou/.STi oirjv yvjv avxA'jO[/.svo?. 



IIao'jtsic, ti to aol-gv ; a~spy6|zevo? p.£Ta aauToO 


Tdv icXoutov ouvaysi? SowcaveSv ypovov ou ouvxaai o£ 
£w?js aapsuaat [/.stcx rcspiffffOTspa. 

prick if such there be ? Little is thy life and afflicted ; for not 
even so it is sweet, but more loathed than hateful death. 


Though thou pass beyond thy landmarks even to the pillars of 
Heracles, the share of earth that is equal to all men awaits thee, 
and thou shalt lie even as Irus, having nothing more than thine 
obolus, mouldering into a land that at last is not thine. 


Thou art rich, and what of it in the end 1 as thou departest, 
dost thou drag thy riches with thee, pulling them into the coffin 1 
Thou gatherest riches at expense of time, and thou canst not heap 
up more exceeding measures of life. 

27-32] LIFE 275 



'Hio; ic, Vjou; 7;y.ox~£u~ btoci, sit', ajz-SAouvTcov 

T^.tov, eEaiov/j; v;Esi 6 ttoo^uoso;, 
Kal too? [yiv Tr,£a?, tou? o° drTv-ca;, eviou; Ss 

<pu<j-/-<73t?, aqst 7ravTa? s? sv papaS-pov. 



P/js etteP'/jv yuixvo?, yujAvo? •9-' u—6 yaiav a~si[/.&, 
*al ti {/.arvjv [/.ojr&w, yup.vov 6po3v to teao? ; 




©vTjxa Ta tcov ■8-vyjTcov, Jtai roxvxa TOxpspysrat >j[Aas' 
t]v o*s [/.vj, aXk' tj[/.si; auTa 7rapspyo[/.s&a. 




Oil* ^(ATJV, yEVOJA^V Vj|-/-V)V, OUJC £1(7-1" TOGXUTOL' 
El 0*S Tl? aAA* EpSSl, (j/EUGETaf OUX. 

2 9 

Morning by morning passes ; then, while we heed not, suddenly 
the Dark One will be come, and, some by decaying, and some by 
parching, and some by swelling, will lead us all to the one pit. 

Naked I came on earth, and naked I depart under earth, and 
why do I vainly labour, seeing the naked end 1 


Mortal is what belongs to mortals, and all things pass by us ; 

and if not, yet we pass by them. 

I was not, I came to be ; I was, I am not : that is all ; and who 
shall say more, will lie : I shall not be. 

276 GllEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 



IlavTy. ysAto; xa\ 7uavra /covt; )cal xavra to [/.tjSsV 
ravTa yap sc, aAoytov ecm Ta yiyvojv.sva. 



11(3; yevoy.vjv ; 770 8ev stai ; tivo; jfapiv tjaOov ; a7TSA9etv. 

tuo; ti p.aQeTv, p.TjSsv £— igtkv.svo; ; 
OuSiv £a»v ysvo|A*/jV tzvJKiv ecGO[Aai to; rcapo; >ja" 

o'jSsv jcat (/.Tjoev twv p.epo— wv to ysvo;. 
'AaV ays f/.oi Basedow <piA7]o\>vov svtus vau.a' 

toOto yap ecxi /tax.<3v (papy.ajcov avxiSorov. 




IlavTS; tw -9avaxo) TVjpouy.eQa gal Tpscpoi/.SG&a 
to; aysATj ^oipwv c^a'CojASvcov aAoyw;. 


All is laughter, and all is dust, and all is nothing ; for out of 
unreason is all that is. 


How was I born 1 whence arall why did I come 1 to go again : 
how can I learn anything, knowing nothing ? Being nothing, I 
was born ; again I shall be as I was before ; nothing and nothing- 
worth is the human race. But come, serve to me the joyous 
fountain of Bacchus ; for this is the drug counter-charming ills. 

We all are watched and fed for Death as a herd of swine 
butchered wantonly. 

33- 3 8] LIFE 277 




Aaxou^swv yevo'ayjv seal Scotpbffdc? aTroSvy-G/.to 
Sa/.ouci S' £V ttoaaoi; TOV plOV SUpOV OAOV. 

Tl ysvo? avOpcoxwv 7roAuoV.x.puov, a<x9£vs;, olxipdv, 
cupo|ASvov xara y*?j? xal <W.auo|asvov. 



Hw; ti? avsu 8-avaTOU cs <puyv], pis ; [xupia yap gsu 
Auypa, outs <puys?v euf-iaps; outs cpspsiv 

'HSsa [ yap cou toc (pucst xaXa, yata, fraAacca, 
a'aToa, csA-/jvai7]; scuVJAa >cal ^eaiou, 

TaAAa Ss xavTa ©opoi ts seal aAysa" )djv Tt 7ra#7) Tt? 
£g9agv, a[/.oi,Sai>]v iy^zjznxt. Ns[/.s<7iv. 



IlavTtov (aev [7//j cpuvat, iizr/S ovioigiv aptCTOV 

{/.vjS' sciSsiv auya; ocso; ^sAtou - 
^>uvTa S' Stud; c&curra xuAa? 'Ai'Sao rcepviffai 

/.y.l 7.ziaQy.i 7toaatjv yyjv eTrapz/jca'ASvov. 

Weeping I was born and having wept I die, and I found all my 
living amid many tears. tearful, weak, pitiable race of men, 
dragged under earth and mouldering away ! 

How might one escape thee, life, without dying 1 ? for thy 
sorrows are numberless, and neither escape nor endurance is easy. 
For sweet indeed are thy beautiful things of nature, earth, sea, stars, 
the orbs of moon and sun ; but all else is fears and pains, and 
though one have a good thing befal him, there succeeds it an 
answering Nemesis. 

Of all things not to be born into the world is best, nor to see the 
beams of the keen sian ; but being born, as swiftly as may be to 
pass the gates of Hades, and lie under a heavy heap of earth. 




Iloi'/jv ti? pioxoio Tot|A7] Tpifiov ; eiv ocyopyj piv yvXzizyX Tzprfazc; ev o*£ o6fz.ois 
4>povTiSs?" £v o" aypoT? jtajAOcrov aXi?' ev Se $-aXaffaj] 

Tap.So;- £7il ^lv7)? S', 7}v piv syjj? ti, Seo;, 
"Hv o" a7ropvj?, avnjpov e/ei.? yap.ov; oux. apipiy.vo? 

Serosal" ou yap.ssi? i £fj? ^t' epvjy.GTEpo; - 7rovof TT'/jptoai; a-at; (iio? * at vso'ttjts? 

aqjpoves' al 7toXwci 5' sp-TcaXiv aopavee?. 
'Hv apa -rotvSe Suotv ev6? aipsffi?, 73 t6 ysvEfjftai 

iMnSercoT 77 to Savsiv auTix„a;j.£vov. 



IlavTOt'/jv pioToio Tay.oi; Tpt|3ov £iv ayoprj piv 
x„<j5sa jcal rcivural Trp^as?' £v Se oo[/.ok; 

v A(/.7caup.'' £v §' aypoi? (pucto? /apt?' ev Si d-aXacai] 
■/.£pSo? - e~l £siv/]?, r ( v piv s/vj; ti, x.)io?, 

*Hv S' a~op'/]?, 1x0 vo? oioV.;* £/£t? yau.ov ; oix.o? aptcTO? 
loaeTai" o-j yajJLsei? ; £/j? £t s^.acppoTepo?* 


What path of life may one hold 1 In the market-place are strifes 
and hard dealings, in the house cares ; in the country labour 
enough, and at sea terror ; and abroad, if thou hast aught, fear, 
and if thou art in poverty, vexation. Art married ? thou wilt not 
be without anxieties; unmarried? thy life is yet lonelier. Children 
are troubles ; a childless life is a crippled one. Youth is foolish, 
and grey hairs again feeble. In the end then the choice is of one 
of these two, either never to be born, or, as soon as born, to die. 

Hold every path of life. In the market-place are honours and 
prudent dealings, in the house rest ; in the country the charm of 
nature, and at sea gain ; and abroad, if thou hast aught, glory, and 
if thou art in poverty, thou alone knowest it. Art married ? so 
will thine household be best; unmarried? thy life is yet lighter. 
Children are darlings ; a childless life is an unanxious one : youth 

39-43] LIFE 279 

Te/.vy. 7:0 Go;' acppovTt; a— at; fiio;' at veotvjte; 

p(Ou.aXeai* 7COAiat S' sa-aAtv suffeBsec' 
Oux. apa tc3v oi<jg<3v svo; alpsctc, 7} to ysvsc9-ai 

[ayjosttot' */] to S-avefv toxvtoc yap £<Ti)Aa Sua. 



Tittte [/.xttjv, avS-pw— s, tcovsi? xal toxvtoc Tapaccei? 


Toutco cauTOv a<ps; - tw rJaijAOVt jatj <piXove£)tSi" 
cvjv Ss t'j/'/jv ffTspyoiV yjGuyivjv aya~a. 



Ei to <p£pov c£ <pspst, <psps seal <pspou" el X' ayava/.TeT; craurov ai>— ei;, x,al to cpepov ae <pspet. 




Sxijvy 7ca? 6 610; xal Traiyviov r, f/.a-9-e 7cat£etv 

ty ( v C7couo^v p.£Ta8'£i;, 7} <pepe Ta; oSuva;. 

is strong, and grey hairs again reverend. The choice is not then 
of one of the two, either never to be born or to die ; for all things 
are good in life. 

Why vainly, man, dost thou labour and disturb everything 
when thou art slave to the lot of thy birth 1 Yield thyself to it, 
strive not with Heaven, and, accepting thy fortune, be content with 

If that which bears all things bears thee, bear thou and be 
borne ; and if thou art indignant and vexest thyself, even so that 
which bears all things bears thee. 

All life is a stage and a game : either learn to play it, laying 
by seriousness, or bear its pains. 

280 GEEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 




Ou to £/jv jpcpCeaffav v/z\ cpuaiv, aAAa to ofyax 

(ppOVTioV.; £/. GT£pV(OV Ta? 7TOAtOX0OTa(pO'j;. 
ITXO'JTOV ZytW S&SACO TC.V dwapjClOV, 7j &£ TCpiCTa^ 

&u[/.ov asl KaTSost /pucoy.av/j; ptfiXenj' 
"Ev&ev ev avi)pco77owtv apsiova 7TOAAcb« Srei? Ttsvhnv 77aoutou, >cal ptOTOu -O-ava.TOv. 
TauTa (?j yiyvwc/.tov xpaofarc l'9uv£ x.£>.£'J-9-0'j? 

si; lAiav suropdwv sa—ioV., ttqv eioqphjv. 



IIo'J (KH ToEov £X£?V0 777.AIVT0V0V 01 t' <Z7t6 (7610 

7T/]yv'jy-£voi [j.zny.TY^ £c Jtpaofyv Sovax.E; ; 
LTou 7Crspa ; tto'j ).ay.— a: 7COAua>$uvo£ ; s; Tt §£ TpiGnx 

<TT£[xy.aTa yspcrlv £/£t:, JtpocTi 5' £~' aXXo qjspei^ ; 
Ou* a~6 7ravo^uou, c;£v£, KuTtpioog, o'jx. a— yairc 

£t[Ai jtat, uAaivj? Sxyovo? suq>po<ruv>rc, 
'Aaa' eyw e; xad-apnv [A£po— cov cpplvx rcupcov avx-Ta> 

su[Mc<9iy]€, ^u/r ( v S' oupavov £t?avayw* 

It is not living that has essential delight, but throwing away 
out of the breast cares that silver the temples. I would have wealth 
sufficient for me, and the excess of maddening care for gold ever 
eats away the spirit ; thus among men thou wilt find often death 
better than life, as poverty than wealth. Knowing this, do thou 
make straight the paths of thine heart, looking to our one hope, 

"Where is that backward-bent bow of thine, and the reeds that 
leap from thy hand and stick fast in mid-heart 1 ? where are thy 
wings 1 where thy grievous torch ? and why carriest thou three 
crowns in thy hands, and wearest another on thy head 1 I spring 
not from the common Cyprian, stranger, I am not from earth, 
the offspring of wild joy ; but I light the torch of learning in 
pure human minds, and lead the soul upwards into heaven. And 

44-46J LIFE 281 

'Ex. S' apSTcov GTS^avo'j; maupcov 7wa£x.w (ov a^' ejcaffTVi; 

TOUGHS <p£f(OV, 7tpCi)TCp TW CTOCpiTj; GT£O0[/.Xl. 




IIoAAa AaXeii;, avO-pw— e, &£ xUbj [astx fjuxpov. 
ciya, Jtal (/.sastoc C«v eti tgv -Oavaxov. 

I twine crowns of the four virtues ; whereof carrying these, one 
from each, I crown myself with the first, the crown of Wisdom. 

Thou talkest much, man, and thou art laid in earth after a 
little : keep silence, and while thou yet livest, meditate on death. 







. 290 

Dioscorides, . 


Aeschylus, . 

. 288 




. 308 


. 308 



Alcaeus of Messene, 

. 297 




. 306 



Amruianus, . 

. 305 

Euphorion, . 



. 287 



Antipater of Sidon, 

. 299 

IT 7 

Antipater of Thessaloi 
Antiphanes, . 

lie;: . 301 
. 302 

Gaetulicus, . 


Antiphilus, . 

. 304 



Anyte, . 
ApoUonides, . 

. 291 

Hegesippus, . 



. 309 


. 305 

Joannes Barbucallus, 



. 299 

Julianus Aegyptius, 



. 299 

Julius Polyaenus, 



. 298 

Asclepiades, . 

. 293 

Leonidas of Tarentum, . 



. 306 



Automedon, . 

. 297 






. 288 


. 302 

Macedonius, . 





. 294 

Marcus Argentarius, 



. 306 




. 311 


. 300 

Crinagoras, . 

. 302 

Metrodorus, . 




Damagetus, . 

. 298 

Mnasalcas, . 


Demodocus, . 

. 289 

Moero, .... 


Diodorus of Sardis, 

. 300 




. 298 


. 305 


286 GKEEK A* 




Nicaenetus, . 

. 295 


. 296 


. 305 


. 310 

Nkias, . 

. 294 

Nossis, . 

. 293 


. 306 


. 305 


. 307 

Pamphilus, . 

. 299 
. 303 

Simonides, . 
Strato, . 

. 292 
. 287 
. 305 

Parrhasius, . 

. 289 

Paulus Silentiarius. 

. 310 

Perses, . 

. 292 

Theaetetus, . 

. 297 

Phaedimus, . 

. 292 

Theocritus, . 

. 294 


. 292 

Theodorides, . 

. 296 

Philippus, . 

. 304 


. 287 

Philodemus, . 

. 300 

Theophanes, . 

. 311 

Plato, . 

. 289 


. 305 


. 303 


. 300 

Posidippus, . 

. 295 

Ptolemaeus, . 

. 306 

Zonas, . 

. 300 

Greek literature from its earliest historical beginnings to its 
final extinction in the Middle Ages falls naturally under five 
periods. These are : — (1) Greece before the Persian wars; 
(2) the ascendency of Athens ; (3) the Alexandrian monarchies ; 
(4) Greece under Eome ; (5) the Byzantine empire of the East. 
The authors of epigrams included in this selection are spread 
over all these periods through a space of about fifteen centuries. 

I. Period of the lyric poets and of the complete political develop- 
ment of Greece, from the earliest time to the repulse of the 
Persian invasion, B.C. 480. 

Mimnermus of Smyrna fl. B.C. 634-600, and was the con- 
temporary of Solon. He is spoken of as the ' inventor of elegy ', 
and was apparently the first to employ the elegiac metre in 
threnes and love-poems. Only a few fragments, about eighty 
lines in all, of his poetry survive. 

Erinna of Ehodes, the contemporary of Sappho according 
to ancient tradition, fl. 600 B.C., and died very young. There 
are three epigrams in the Palatine Anthology under her name, 
probably genuine : see Bergk, Lyr. Gr. iii. p. 141, and the note 
on iv. 6 of this selection. Besides the fragments given by 
Bergk, detached phrases of hers are probably preserved in 


Anth. Pal. vii. 12 and 13, and in the description by Christo- 
dorus of her statue in the gymnasium at Constantinople, Anth. 
Pal. ii. 108-110. She was included in the Garland of Meleager, 
who speaks, /. 12, of the 'sweet maiden-fleshed crocus of Erinna'. 

Theogkis of Megara, the celebrated elegiac and gnomic poet, 
fl. B.C. 548, and was still alive at the beginning of the Persian 
wars. The fragments we possess are from an Anthology of his 
works, and amount to about 1400 lines in all. He employed 
elegiac verse as a vehicle for every kind of political and social 
poetry ; some of the poems were sung to the flute at banquets 
and are more akin to lyric poetry ; others, described as yv<3[/.at 
8t' IXsveta?, elegiac sentences, can hardly be distinguished in 
essence from 'hortatory' epigrams, and two of them have 
accordingly been included as epigrams of Life in this selection. 

Anacreon of Teos in Ionia, B.C. 563-478, migrated with his 
countrymen to Abdera on the capture of Teos by the Persians, 
B.C. 540. He then lived for some years at the court of Poly- 
crates of Samos (who died B.C. 522), and afterwards, like 
Simonides, at that of Hipparchus of Athens, finally returning 
to Teos, where he died at the age of eighty-five. Of his 
genuine poetry only a few inconsiderable fragments are left ; 
and his wide fame rests chiefly on the pseudo-Anacreontea, a 
collection of songs chiefly of a convivial and amatory nature, 
written at different times but all of a late date, which have 
come down to us in the form of an appendix to the Palatine MS. 
of the Anthology, and from being used as a school-book have 
obtained a circulation far beyond their intrinsic merit. The 
Garland of Meleager, I. 35, speaks of 'the unsown honey- 
suckle of Anacreon ', including both lyrical poetry (fjiAi^u.a) and 
epigrams (SXeyoi) as distinct from one another. The Palatine 
Anthology contains twenty-one epigrams under his name, a 
group of twelve together (vl 134-145) transferred bodily, it 
would seem, from some collection of his works, and the rest 
scattered ; and there is one other in Planudes. Most are 
plainly spurious, and none certainly authentic; but one of 
the two given here (iii. 7) has the note of style of this period, 
and is probably genuine. The other (xi. 32) is obviously of 
Alexandrian date, and is probably by Leonidas of Tarentum. 

Simonides of Ceos, B.C. 556-467, the most eminent of the 
lyric poets, lived for some years at the court of Hipparchus of 


Athens (B.C. 528-514), afterwards among the feudal nobility of 
Thessaly, and was again living at Athens during the Persian 
wars. The later years of his life were spent with Pindar and 
Aeschylus at the court of Hiero of Syracuse. He was included 
in the Garland of Meleager (I. 8, ' the fresh shoot of the vine- 
blossom of Simonides'); fifty-nine epigrams are under his 
name in the Palatine MS., and eighteen more in Planudes, 
besides nine others doubtfully ascribed to him. Several of his 
epigrams are quoted by Herodotus; others are preserved by 
Strabo, Plutarch, Athenaeus, etc. In all, according to Bergk, 
we have ninety authentic epigrams from his hand. There 
were two later poets of the same name, Simonides of Magnesia, 
who lived under Antiochus the Great about 200 B.C., and 
Simonides of Carystus, of whom nothing definite is known; 
some of the spurious epigrams may be by one or other of 

Beyond the point to which Simonides brought it the epigram 
never rose. In him there is complete ease of workmanship 
and mastery of form together with the noble and severe sim- 
plicity which later poetry lost. His dedications retain some- 
thing of the antique stiffness; but his magnificent epitaphs 
are among our most precious inheritances from the greatest 
thought and art of Greece. 

Bacchylides of Iulis in Ceos flourished B.C. 470. He was 
the nephew of Simonides, and lived with him at the court of 
Hiero. There are only two epigrams in the Anthology under 
his name. The Garland of Meleager, I. 34, speaks of 'the 
yellow ears from the blade of Bacchylides '. This phrase may 
contain an allusion to his dedicatory epigram to the West 
Wind, ii. 34 in this selection. 

Finally, forming the transition between this and the great 
Athenian period, comes Aeschylus, b.c. 525-456. That 
Aeschylus wrote elegiac verse, including a poem on the dead 
at Marathon, is certain ; fragments are preserved by Plutarch 
and Theophrastus, and there is a well-supported tradition that 
he competed with Simonides on that occasion. As to the 
authorship of the two epigrams extant under his name there 
is much difference of opinion. Bergk does not coma to any 
definite conclusion. Perhaps all that can be said is that they 
do not seem unworthy of him, and that they certainly have 


the style and tone of the best period. It was not till the 
decline of literature that the epoch of forgeries began. It is, 
however, suspicious that a poet of his great eminence should 
not be mentioned in the Garland of Meleager ; for we can 
hardly suppose these epigrams, if genuine, either unknown to 
Meleager or intentionally omitted by him. 

II. Period of the ascendency of Athens, and of the great 
dramatists and historians; from the repulse of the 
Persian invasion to the extinction of Greek freedom at 
the battle of Chaeronca, B.C. 480-338. 

In this period the epigram almost disappears, overwhelmed 
apparently by the greater forms of poetry which were then in 
their perfection. Between Simonides and Plato there is not 
a single name on our list ; and it is not till the period of the 
transition, the first half of the fourth century B.C., that the 
epigram begins to reappear. About 400 B.C. a new grace and 
delicacy is added to it by Plato (b.c. 429-347; the tradition, 
in itself probable, is that he wrote poetry when a very young- 
man). Thirty-two epigrams in the Anthology are ascribed, 
some doubtfully, to one Plato or another ; a few of obviously 
late date to a somewhat mythical Plato Junior (6 Nstoxspoc), 
and one to Plato the Comedian (fl. 428-389), the contemporary 
and rival of Aristophanes. In a note to i. 5 in this selection 
something is said as to the authenticity of the epigrams 
ascribed to the great Plato. He was included in the Garland 
of Meleager, who speaks, 11. 47-8, of 'the golden bough of the 
ever-divine Plato, shining everywhere in excellence ' — one of 
the finest criticisms ever made by a single phrase, and the 
mure remarkable that it anticipates, and may even in some 
degree have suggested, the mystical golden bough of Virgil. 

To the same period belongs Pakrhasius of Ephesus, who fl. 
400 B.C., the most eminent painter of his time, in whose work 
the rendering of the ideal human form was considered to have 
reached its highest perfection. Two epigrams and part of a 
third ascribed to him are preserved in Athenaeus. 

Demodocus of Leros, a small island in the Sporades, is 
probably to be placed here. Nothing is known as to his life, 
nor as to his date beyond the one fact that an epigram of his 
is quoted by Aristotle, Eth. N. vii. 9. Four epigrams of 



his, all couplets containing a sarcastic point of the same kind, 
are preserved in the Palatine Anthology. 

III. Period of the great Alexandrian, monarchies; from the 
accession of Alexander the Great to the annexation of 
Syria by the Roman Republic, B.C. 336-65. 

Throughout these three centuries epigrammatists flourished 
in great abundance, so much so that the epigram ranked as 
one of the important forms of poetry. After the first fifty 
years of the period there is no appreciable change in the 
manner and style of the epigram ; and so, in many cases where 
direct evidence fails, dates can only be assigned vaguely. The 
history of the Alexandrian epigram begins with two groups of 
poets, none of them quite of the first importance, but all of 
great literary interest, who lived just before what is known as 
the Alexandrian style became pronounced ; the first group con- 
tinuing the tradition of pure Greece, the second founding the 
new style. After them the most important names, in chrono- 
logical order, are Callimachus of Alexandria, Leonidas of 
Tarentum, Theocritus of Syracuse, Antipater of Sidon, and 
Meleager of Gadara. These names show how Greek literature 
had now become diffused with Greek civilisation through the 
countries bordering the eastern half of the Mediterranean. 

The period may then be conveniently subdivided under five 
heads — 

(1) Poets of Greece Proper and Macedonia, continuing the 

purely Greek tradition in literature. 

(2) Founders of the Alexandrian School. 

(3) The earlier Alexandrians of the third century B.C. 

(4) The later Alexandrians of the second century B.C. 

(5) Just on the edge of this period, Meleager and his contem- 

poraries : transition to the lloman period. 

(1) Adaeus or Addaeus, called 'the Macedonian' in the 
title of one of his epigrams, was a contemporary of Alexander 
the Great. Among his epigrams are epitaphs on Alexander 
and on Philip ; his date is further fixed by the mention of 
Potidaea in another epigram, as Cassander, who died B.C. 296, 
changed the name of the city into Cassandrea. Eleven epi- 


grams are extant under his name, but one is headed ' Adaeus of 
Mitylene' and may be by a different hand, as Adaeus was a 
common Macedonian name. They are chiefly poems of country 
life, prayers to Demeter and Artemis, and hunting scenes, full 
of fresh air and simplicity out of doors, with a serious sense of 
religion and something of Macedonian gravity. The picture 
they give of the simple and refined life of the Greek country 
gentleman, like Xenophon in his old age at Scillus, is one of 
the most charming and intimate glimpses we have of the 
ancient world, carried on quietly among the drums and tramp- 
lings of Alexander's conquests, of which we are faintly reminded 
by another epigram on an engraved Indian beryl. 

Anyte of Tegea is one of the foremost names amous the 
epigrammatists, and it is somewhat surprising that we know 
all but nothing of her from external sources. ' The lilies of 
Anyte ' stand at the head of the list of poets in the Garland of 
Meleager; and Antipater of Thessalonica in a catalogue of 
poetesses (Anth. Pal. ix. 26) speaks of 'Avuttj? aroyix -fbpvuv 
"Opjpov. The only epigram which gives any clue to her date 
is one on the death of three Milesian girls in a Gaulish inva- 
sion, probably that of B.C. 279 ; but this is headed ' Anyte of 
Mitylene ', and is very possibly by another hand. A late 
tradition says that her statue was made by the sculptors 
Cephisodotus and Euthycrates, whose date is about 300 B.C., 
but we are not told whether they were her contemporaries. 
Twenty-four epigrams are ascribed to her, twenty of which 
seem genuine. They are so fine that some critics have wished 
to place her in the great lyric period ; but their deep and most 
refined feeling for nature rather belongs to this age. They are 
principally dedications and epitaphs, written with great sim- 
plicity of description and much of the grand style of the older 
poets, and showing (if the common theory as to her date be 
true) a deep and sympathetic study of Simonides. 

Probably to this group belong also the following poets : 
Hegesippus, the author of eight epigrams in the Palatine 
Anthology, three dedications and five epitaphs, in a simple and 
severe style. The reference in the Garland of Meleager, I. 25, 
to ' the maenad grape-cluster of Hegesippus ' is so wholly inap- 
plicable to these that we must suppose it to refer to a body of 
epigrams now lost, unless this be the same Hegesippus with the 


poet of the New Comedy who nourished at Athens about 300 
B.C., and the reference be to him as a comedian rather than an 

Pekses, called ' the Theban ' in the heading of one epigram, 
' the Macedonian ' in that of another (no difference of style can 
be traced between them), a poet of the same type as Addaeus, 
with equal simplicity and good taste, but inferior power. The 
Garland of Meleager, I. 26, speaks of 'the scented reed of 
Perses '. There are nine epigrams of his in the Palatine An- 
thology, including some beautiful epitaphs. 

Phaedimus of Bisanthe in Macedonia, author of an epic 
called the Heracleia according to Athenaeus. ' The yellow iris 
of Phaedimus' is mentioned in the Garland of Meleager, I. 51. 
Two of the four epigrams under his name, a beautiful dedica- 
cation, and a very noble epitaph, are in this selection ; tin; 
other two, which are in the appendix of epigrams in mixed 
metres at the end of the Palatine Anthology (Section xiii.) are 
very inferior and seem to be by another hand. 

(2) Under this head is a group of three distinguished poets 
and critics : 

Piiiletas of Cos, a contemporary of Alexander, and tutor to 
the children of Ptolemy I. He was chiefly distinguished as an 
elegiac poet. Theocritus (vii. 39) names him along with Ascle- 
piades as his master in style, and Propertius repeatedly couples 
him in the same way with Callimachus. If one may judge 
from the few fragments extant, chiefly in Stobaeus, his poetry 
was simpler and more dignified than that of the Alexandrian 
school, of which he may be called the founder. He was also 
one of the earliest commentators on Homer, the celebrated 
Zenodotus being his pupil. 

Simmias of Ehodes,who fl. rather before 300 B.C., and was the 
author of four books of miscellaneous poems including an epic 
history of Apollo. ' The tall wild-pear of ►Simmias ' is in the 
Garland of Meleager, I. 30. Two of the seven epigrams under 
his name in the Palatine Anthology are headed ' Simmias of 
Thebes '. This would be the disciple of Socrates, best known 
as one of the interlocutors in the Phacdo. But these epigrams 
are undoubtedly of the Alexandrian type, and quite in the 
same style as the rest ; and the title is probably a mistake. 


Simmias is also the reputed author of several of the '{f.^oi or 
pattern-poems at the end of the Palatine MS. 

Asclepiades, son of Sicelides of Samos, who flourished B.C. 
290, one of the most brilliant authors of the period. Theocritus 
(1. c. supra) couples him with Philetas as a model of excellence 
in poetry. This passage fixes his date towards the end of the 
reign of Ptolemy I., to whose wife Berenice and daughter 
Cleopatra there are references in his epigrams. There are forty- 
three epigrams of his in the Anthology ; nearly all of them 
amatory, with much wider range and finer feeling than most 
of the erotic epigrams, and all with the firm clear touch of the 
best period. There are also one or two fine epitaphs. The refer- 
ence in the Garland of Meleager, I. 46, to ' the wind-flower of the 
son of Sicelides ' is another of Meleager's exquisite criticisms. 

(3) Leonidas of Tarentum is the reputed author of one 
hundred and eleven epigrams in the Anthology, chiefly dedica- 
tory and sepulchral. In the case of some of these, however, there 
is confusion between him and his namesake, Leonidas of 
Alexandria, the author of about forty epigrams in the Anthology 
who flourished in the reign of Nero. In two epigrams Leonidas 
speaks of himself as a poor man, and in another, an epitaph 
written for himself, says that he led a wandering life and died 
far from his native Tarentum. His date is most nearly fixed 
by the inscription (Anth. Pal. vi. 130, attributed to him on the 
authority of Planudes) for a dedication by Pyrrhus of Epirus 
after a victory over Antigonus and his Gaulish mercenaries, 
probably that recorded under B.C. 274. Tarentum, with the 
other cities of Magna Graecia, was about this time in the last 
straits of the struggle against the Italian confederacy ; this or 
private reasons may account for the tone of melancholy in the 
poetry of Leonidas. He invented a particular style of dedi- 
catory epigram, in which the implements of some trade or pro- 
fession are enumerated in ingenious circumlocutions ; these 
have been singled out for special praise by Sainte-Beuve, but 
will hardly be interesting to many readers. The Garland of 
Meleager, I 15, mentions 'the rich ivy-clusters of Leonidas', 
and the phrase well describes the diffuseness and slight want 
of firmness and colour in his otherwise graceful style. 

Nossis of Locri, in Magna Graecia, is the contemporary of 


Leonidas; her date being approximately fixed by an epitaph 
on Phinthon of Syracuse, who flourished 300 B.C. We know a 
good many details about her from her eleven epigrams in the. 
Anthology, some of which are only inferior to those of Anyte. 
The Garland of Meleager, /. 10, speaks of ' the scented fair- 
flowering iris of Nossis, on whose tablets Love himself melted 
the wax ' ; and, like Anyte, she is mentioned, with the charac- 
teristic epithet ' woman-tongued,' by Antipater of Thessalonica 
in his list of poetesses. She herself claims (Anth. Pal, vii. 718) 
to be a rival of Sappho. 

Theocritus of Syracuse lived for some time at Alexandria 
under Ptolemy II., about 280 B.C., and afterwards at Syracuse 
under Hiero II. From some allusions to the latter in the Idyls, 
it seems that he lived into the first Punic war, which broke out 
B.C. 264. Twenty-nine epigrams are ascribed to him on some 
authority or other in the Anthology ; of these Ahrens allows 
only nine as genuine. 

Nicias of Miletus, physician, scholar, and poet, was the con- 
temporary and close friend of Theocritus. Idyl xi. is addressed 
to him, and the scholiast says he wrote an idyl in reply to it ; 
idyl xxii. was sent with the gift of an ivory spindle to his wife, 
Theugenis ; and one of Theocritus' epigrams (Anth. Pal. vi. 337) 
was written for him as a dedication. There are eight epigrams 
of his in the Anthology (Anth. Pal. xi. 398 is wrongly attributed 
to him, and should be referred to Nicarchus), chiefly dedica- 
tions and inscriptions for rural places in the idyllic manner. 
'The green mint of Nicias' is mentioned, probably with an 
allusion to his profession, in the Garland of Meleager, /. 19. 

Callimaciius of Alexandria, the most celebrated and the 
most wide in his influence of Alexandrian scholars and poets, 
was descended from the noble family of the Battiadae of 
Cyrene. He studied at Alexandria, and was appointed princi- 
pal keeper of the Alexandrian library by Ptolemy II., about the 
year 260 B.C. This position he held till his death, about B.C. 
240. He was a prolific author in both prose and verse. Sixty- 
three epigrams of his are preserved in the Palatine Anthology, 
and two more by Strabo and Athenaeus ; five others in the 
Anthology are ascribed to him on more or less doubtful 
authority. He brought to the epigram the utmost finish of 
which it is capable. Many of his epigrams are spoiled by over- 


elaboration and affected daintiness of style ; but when he writes 
simply his execution is incomparable. The Garland of 
Meleager, /. 21, speaks of ' the sweet myrtle-berry of Calli- 
machus, ever full of acid honey ' ; and there is in all his work 
a pungent flavour which is sometimes bitter and sometimes 

Posidippus, the author of twenty-five extant epigrams, of 
which twenty are in the Anthology, is more than once referred to 
as 'the epigrammatist', and so is probably a different person from 
the comedian, the last distinguished name of the New Comedy, 
who began to exhibit after the death of Menander in B.C. 291. 
He probably lived somewhat later ; the Garland of Meleager, 
/. 45, couples ' the wild corn-flowers of Posidippus and 
Hedylus', and Hedylus was the contemporary of Callimachus. 
One of his epigrams refers to the Stoic Cleanthes, who became 
head of the school B.C. 263 and died about B.C. 220, as though 
already an old master. 

With Posidippus may be placed Metrodorus, the author of 
an epigram in reply to one by Posidippus (xii. 39, 40 in this 
selection). "Whether this be contemporary or not, it can 
hardly be by the same Metrodorus as the forty arithmetical 
problems which are given in an appendix to the Palatine 
Anthology (Section xiv.), or the epigram on a Byzantine lawyer, 
Anth. Pal. ix. 712. These may be all by a geometrician of the 
name who is mentioned as having lived in the age of Constantine. 

Moero or Myro of Byzantium, daughter of the tragedian 
Homerus, flourished towards the end of the reign of Ptolemy 
ii., about 250 B.C. She wrote epic and lyric poetry as well as 
epigrams ; a fragment of her epic called Mnemosyne is pre- 
served in Athenaeus. Antipater o"f Thessalonica mentions her 
in his list of famous poetesses. Of the ' many martagon-lilies 
of Moero' in the Anthology of Meleager (Garland, I. 5) only 
two are extant, both dedications. 

Nicaenetus of Sanios flourished about the same time. There 
are four epigrams of his in the Anthology, and another is quoted 
by Athenaeus, who, in connexion with a Samian custom, 
adduces him as 'a poet of the country'. He also wrote epic 
poems. The Garland of Meleager, /. 29, speaks of 'the myrrh- 
twigs of Nicaenetus '. 

Euphorion of Chalcis in Euboea, grammarian and poet, was 


bora B.C. 274, and in later life was chief librarian at the court 
of Antiochus the Great, who reigned B.C. 224-187. His most 
famous work was his five books of XiXia&sc, translated into 
Latin by C. Cornelius Gallus (Virgil, Eel. vi. 64-73) and of 
immense reputation. His influence on Latin poetry provoked 
the well-known sneer of Cicero {Tusc. iii. 19) at the cantorcs 
Euphorionis ; cf. also Cic. de Div. ii. G4, and Suetonius, Tiberius, 
c. 70. Only two epigrams of his are extant in the Palatine 
Anthology. The Garland of Meleager, /. 23, speaks of 'the 
rose-campion of Euphorion '. 

Rhianus of Crete flourished about 200 B.C., and was chiefly 
celebrated as an epic poet. Besides mythological epics, he 
wrote metrical histories of Thessaly, Elis, Achaea, and Messene ; 
Pansanias quotes verses from the last of these, Messen. i. 6, 
xvii. 11. Suetonius, Tiberius, c. 70, mentions him along with 
Euphorion as having been greatly admired by Tiberius. There 
are nine epigrams by him, erotic and dedicatory, in the Pala- 
tine Anthology, and another is quoted by Athenaeus. The 
Garland of Meleager, £.11, couples him with the marjoram- 

Theodorides of Syracuse, the author of nineteen epigrams 
in the Anthology, flourished towards the close of the third 
century B.C., one of his epigrams being an epitaph on Euphorion. 
He also wrote lyric poetry ; Athenaeus mentions a dithyrambic 
poem of his called the Centaurs, and a Hymn to Love. The 
Garland of Meleager, /. 53, speaks of ' the fresh-blooming festal 
wild-thyme of Theodorides '. 

A little earlier in date is Mnasalcas of Plataeae, near Sicyon, 
on whom Theodorides wrote an epitaph (Anth. Pal. xiii. 21), 
which speaks of him as imitating Simonides, and criticises his 
style as turgid. This criticism is not borne out by his eighteen 
extant epigrams in the Palatine Anthology, which are in the 
best manner, with something of the simplicity of his great 
model, and even a slight austerity of style which takes us back 
to Greece Proper. The Garland of Meleager seizes this quality 
when it speaks, /. 16, of 'the tresses of the sharp pine of 
Mnasalcas '. 

Moschus of Syracuse, the last of the pastoral poets, flourished 
i "Winds the end of the third century B.C., perhaps as late as 
B.c. 200 if he was the friend of the grammarian Aristarchus. 


A single epigram of his is extant in Planudes. The Palatine 
Anthology includes his idyll of Love the Runaway (ix. 440), 
and the lovely hexameter fragment by Cyrus (ix. 136), which 
has without authority been attributed to him and is generally 
included among his poems. 

To this period may belong Diotimus, whose name is at the 
head of eleven epigrams in the Anthology. One of these is 
headed ' Diotimus of Athens ', one ' Diotimus of Miletus ', the 
rest have the name simply. Nothing is known from other 
sources of any one of them. An Athenian Diotimus was one 
of the orators surrendered to Antipater B.C. 322, and some of 
the epigrams might be of that period. A grammarian 
Diotimus of Adramyttium is mentioned in an epigram by 
Aratus of Soli (who fl. 270 B.C.); perhaps he was the poet 
of the Garland of Meleager, which speaks, /. 27, of 'the quince 
from the boughs of Diotimus '. 

Automedon of Aetolia is the author of an epigram in the 
Palatine Anthology, of which the first two lines are in 
Planudes under the name of Theocritus ; it is in his manner, 
and in the best style of this period. There are twelve other 
epigrams by an Automedon of the Eoman period in the An- 
thology, one of them headed ' Automedon of Cyzicus '. From 
internal evidence these belong to the reign of Nerva or Trajan. 
An Automedon was one of the poets in the Anthology of 
Philippus {Garland, I. 11), but is most probably different from 
both of these, as that collection cannot well be put later than 
the reign of Nero, and purports to include only poets subse- 
quent to Meleager : cf. supra p. 1 7. 

Theaetetus is only known as the author of three epigrams 
in the Palatine Anthology (a fourth usually ascribed to him, 
Anth. Pal. vii. 444, should be referred to Theaetetus Scholas- 
ticus, a Byzantine epigrammatist of the period of Justinian) 
and two more in Diogenes Laertius. One of these last is an 
epitaph on the philosopher Crantor, who flourished about 300 
B.C., but is not necessarily contemporaneous. 

(4) Alcaeus of Messene, who nourished 200 B.C., represents 
the literary and political energy still surviving in Greece under 
the Achaean League. Many of his epigrams touch on the 
history of the period ; several are directed against Philip ill. of 


Macedonia The earliest to which a date can be fixed is on 
the destruction of Macynus in Aetolia by Philip, B.C. 218 or 
219 (Polyb. iv. Go), and the latest on the dead at the battle of 
Cynoscephalae, B.C. 197, written before their bones were collected 
and buried by order of Antiochus B.C. 191. This epigram is 
mentioned by Plutarch as having given offence to the Roman 
general Elamininus, on account of its giving the Aetolians an 
equal share with the Romans in the honour of the victory. 
Another is on the freedom of Flamininus, proclaimed at the 
Isthmia B.C. 196. An Alcaeus was one of the Epicurean philo- 
sophers expelled from Rome by decree of the Senate in B.C. 173, 
and may be the same. Others of his epigrams are on literary 
subjects. All are written in a hard style. There are twenty - 
two in all in the Anthology. Some of them are headed ' Alcaeus 
of Mitylene', but there is no doubt as to the authorship; the 
confusion of this Alcaeus with the lyric poet of Mitylene 
could only be made by one very ignorant of Greek literature. 

Of the same period is Damagetus, the author of twelve 
epigrams in the Anthology, and included as ' a dark violet ' in 
the Garland of Meleager, I. 21. They are chiefly epitaphs, and 
are in the best style of the period. 

Dionysius of Cyzicus must have flourished soon after 200 B.C. 
from his epitaph on Eratosthenes, who died B.C. 196. Eight other 
epigrams in the Palatine Anthology, and four more in Planudes, 
are attributed to a Dionysius. One is headed 'Dionysius of 
Andros ', one ' Dionysius of Rhodes ' (it is an epitaph on a 
Rhodian), one ' Dionysius the Sophist ', the others ' Dionysius ' 
simply. There were certainly several authors of the name, 
which was one of the commonest in Greece ; but no distinction 
in style can be traced among these epigrams, and there is little 
against the theory that most if not all are by the same author, 
Dionysius of Cyzicus. 

Dioscoiudes, the author of forty-one epigrams in the 
Palatine Anthology, lived at Alexandria early in the second 
century B.C. An epitaph of his on the comedian Machon is 
quoted by Athenaeus, who says that Machon was master to 
Aristophanes of Byzantium, who flourished 200 B.C. His style 
shows imitation of Callimachus ; the Garland of Meleager, 
/. 23, speaks of him as the ' the cyclamen of the Muses '. 

Aetemidorus, a grammarian, pupil of Aristophanes of 


Byzantium and contemporary of Aristarclms, flourished about 
180 B.C., and is the author of two epigrams in the Palatine 
Anthology, both mottoes, the one for a Theocritus, the other 
for a collection of the bucolic poets. The former is attributed 
in the Palatine MS. to Theocritus himself, but is assigned to 
Artemidorus on the authority of a MS. of Theocritus. 

Pamphilus, also a grammarian, and pupil to Aristarchus, 
was one of the poets in the Garland of Meleager (/. 1 7, ' the 
spreading plane of the song of Pamphilus'). Only two epi- 
grams of his are extant in the Anthology. 

Antipater of Sidox is one of the most interesting figures of 
the close of this century, when Greek education began to per- 
meate the Eoman upper classes. Little is known about his 
life ; part of it was spent at Pome in the society of the most 
cultured of the nobility. Cicero, Or. iii. 194, makes Crassus 
and Catulus speak of him as familiarly known to them, but 
then dead ; the scene of the dialogue is laid in B.C. 91. Cicero 
and Pliny also mention the curious fact that he had an attack 
of fever on his birthday every winter. ' The young Phoenician 
cypress of Antipater ', in the Garland of Meleager, £.42, refers 
to him as one of the more modern poets in that collection. 

There is much confusion in the Anthology between him and 
his equally prolific namesake of the next century, Antipater 
of Thessalonica. The matter would take Ions; to disentangle 
completely. In brief the facts are these. In the Palatine 
Anthology there are one hundred and seventy-eight epigrams, 
of which forty-six are ascribed to Antipater of Sidon and 
thirty-six to Antipater of Thessalonica, the remaining ninety- 
six being headed 'Antipater' merely. Twenty-eight other 
epigrams are given as by one or other in Planudes and 
Diogenes Laertius. Jacobs assigns ninety epigrams in all to 
the Sidonian poet. Most of them are epideictic ; a good many 
are on works of art and literature ; there are some very 
beautiful epitaphs. There is in his work a tendency towards 
diffuseness which goes with his talent in improvisation men- 
tioned by Cicero. 

To this period seem to belong the following poets, of whom 
little or nothing is known : Afjstodicus of Phodes, author of 
two epigrams in the Palatine Anthology : Akiston, author of 
three or four epigrams in the style of Leonidas of Tarentum : 


IIek.mockkox, author of one dedication in the Palatine Anthology 
and another in Planudes : and Tymnes, author of seven epi- 
grams in the Anthology, and included in the Garland of 
.M.'leager, /. 10, with the 'the fair-foliaged white poplar' for 
his cognisance. 

(5) MELEAGEE son of Eucrates was born at the partially 
Hellenised town of Gadara in northern Palestine (the Ramoth- 
Gilead of the Old Testament), and educated at Tyre. His 
later life was spent in the island of Cos, where he died at 
an advanced age. The scholiast to the Palatine MS. says he 
flourished in the reign of the last Seleucus ; this was Seleucus 
vi. Epiphanes, who reigned B.C. 95-93. The date of his cele- 
brated Anthology cannot be much later, as it did not include 
the poems of his fellow-townsman Philodemus, who flourished 
about B.C. 60 or a little earlier. Like his contemporary Men- 
ippus,also a Gadarene,he wrote what were known as 07couSoy£Xoia, 
miscellaneous prose essays putting philosophy in popular form 
with humorous illustrations. These are completely lost, but 
we have fragments of the Saturae Meni$>]pcac of Varro written 
in imitation of them, and they seem to have had a reputation 
like that of Addison and the English essayists of the eighteenth 
century. Meleager's fame however is securely founded on the 
one hundred and thirty-four epigrams of his own which he 
included in his Anthology. Some further account of the erotic 
epigrams, which are about four- fifths of the whole number, is 
given above, p. 33. For all of these the mss. of the Anthology 
are the sole source. 

Diodorus of Sardis, commonly called Zonas, is spoken of 
by Strabo, who was a friend of his kinsman Diodorus the 
younger (see infra, p. 302), as having flourished at the time of 
the invasion of Asia by Mithridates B.C. 88. He was a dis- 
tinguished orator. Both of these poets were included in the 
Anthology of Philippus, and in the case of some of the epigrams 
it is not quite certain to which of the two they should be referred. 
Eight are usually ascribed to Zonas : they are chiefly dedicatory 
and pastoral, with great beauty of style and feeling for nature. 

Ekycius of Cyzicus flourished about the middle of the first 
century B.C. One of his epigrams is on an Athenian woman 
who had in early life been captured at the sack of Athens by 


Sulla B.C. 80 ; another is against a grammarian Parthenius of 
Phocaea, possibly the same who was the master of Virgil. Of 
the fourteen epigrams in the Anthology under the name of 
Erycius one is headed ' Erycius the Macedonian ' and may be 
by a different author. 

Philodemus of Gadara was a distinguished Epicurean philo- 
sopher who lived at Rome in the best society of the Ciceronian 
age. He was an intimate friend of Piso, the Consul of B.C. 58, 
to whom two of his epigrams are addressed. Cicero, in Pis. 
§ 68 foil., where he attacks Piso for consorting with Graeculi, 
almost goes out of his way to compliment Philodemus on his 
poetical genius and the unusual literary culture which he com- 
bined with the profession of philosophy : and again in the de 
Finibus speaks of him as ' a most worthy and learned man '. 
He is also referred to by Horace, 1 Sat. ii. 121. Thirty-two 
of his epigrams, chiefly amatory, are in the Anthology, and five 
more are ascribed to him on doubtful authority. 

IV. Roman 'period ; from the establishment of the Empire to 
the decay of art and letters after the death of Marcus 
Awrelius, B.C. 30-A.D.180. 

This period falls into three subdivisions; (1) poets of the 
Augustan age ; (2) those of what may roughly be called the 
Neronian age, about the middle of the first century ; and (3) 
those of the brief and partial renascence of art and letters 
under Hadrian, which, before the accession of Commodus, had 
again sunk away, leaving a period of some centuries almost 
wholly without either, but for the beginnings of Christian art 
and the writings of the earlier Fathers of the Church. Even 
from the outset of this period the epigram begins to fall off. 
There is a tendency to choose trifling subjects, and treat them 
either sentimentally or cynically. The heaviness of Roman 
workmanship affects all but a few of the best epigrams, and 
there is a loss of simplicity and clearness of outline. Many of 
the poets of this period, if not most, lived as dependants in 
wealthy Roman families and wrote to order : and we see in 
their work the bad results of an excessive taste for rhetoric 
and the practice of fluent but empty improvisation. 

(1) Antipater of Thessalonica, the author of upwards of a 


hundred epigrams in the Anthology, is the most copious and 
perhaps the most interesting of the Augustan epigrammatists. 
There axe man}- allusions in his work to contemporary history. 
He lived under the patronage of L. Calpurnius Piso, consul 
in B.C. 1">, and afterwards proconsul of Macedonia for several 
years, and was appointed by him governor of Thessalonica. 
One of his epigrams celebrates the foundation of Nicopolis 
by Octavianus, after the battle of Actium ; another anticipates 
his victory over the Parthian s in the expedition of B.C. 20 ; 
another is addressed to Caius Caesar, who died in a.d. 4. 
None can be ascribed certainly to a later date than this. 

Antiphanes the Macedonian is the author of ten epigrams 
in the Palatine Anthology ; one of these, however, is headed 
' Antiphanes of Megalopolis ' and may be by a different author. 
There is no precise indication of time in his poems. 

BlANOR of Bithynia is the author of twenty-two epigrams in 
the Anthology. One of them is on the destruction of Sardis 
by an earthquake in A.D. 17. He is fond of sentimental 
treatment, which sometimes touches pathos but often becomes 

CuiNAGORAS of Mitylene lived at Rome as a sort of court 
poet during the latter part of the reign of Augustus. He is 
mentioned by Strabo as a contemporary of some distinction. 
In one of his epigrams he blames himself for hanging on to 
wealthy patrons ; several others are complimentary verses sent 
with small presents to the children of his aristocratic friends : 
one is addressed to young Marcellus with a copy of the poems 
of Callimachus. Others are on the return of Marcellus from 
the Cantabrian war, B.C. 25 ; on the victories of Tiberius in 
Armenia and Germany ; and on Antonia, daughter of the 
triumvir and wife of Drusus. Another, written in the spirit 
of that age of tourists, speaks of undertaking a voyage from 
Asia to Italy, visiting the Cyclades and Corcyra on the way. 
Fifty-one epigrams are attributed to him in the Anthology; 
one of these, however (Anth. Pal. ix. 235), is on the marriage 
of Berenice of Cyrene to Ptolemy ill. Euergetes, and must be 
referred to Callimachus or one of his contemporaries. 

I)i(ii)oi:rs, sun of ] >i. i] M 'it lies of Sardis, also called Diodorus 
the Younger, in distinction to Diodorus Zonas, is mentioned as 
a friend of his own by Strabo, and was a historian and melic poet 


besides being an epigrammatist. Seventeen of the epigrams 
in the Anthology under the name of Diodorus are usually 
ascribed to him, and include a few fine epitaphs. See also 
above, p. 300, under Zonas. 

Evenus of Ascalon is probably the author of eight epigrams 
in the Anthology; but some of these may belong to other 
epigrammatists of the same name, Evenus of Athens, Evenus 
of Sicily, and Evenus Grammaticus, unless the last two of 
these are the same person. Evenus of Athens has been doubt- 
fully identified with Evenus of Paros, an elegiac poet of some 
note contemporary with Socrates, mentioned in the Phaedo 
and quoted by Aristotle : and it is just possible that some of 
the best of the epigrams, most of which are on works of art, 
may be his. 

Pakmexio the Macedonian is the author of sixteen epigrams 
in the Anthology, most of which have little quality beyond 
commonplace rhetoric. 

These seven poets were included in the Anthology of 
rhilippus ; of the same period, but not mentioned by name 
in the proem to that collection, are the following : — 

Apollonides, author of thirty-one epigrams in the Anthology, 
perhaps the same with an Apollonides of Nicaea mentioned by 
Diogenes Laertius as having lived in the reign of Tiberius. 
One of his epigrams refers to the retirement of Tiberius at 
Rhodes from B.C. 6 to a.d. 2, and another mentions D. Laelius 
Balbus, who was consul in B.C. 6, as travelling in Greece. 

Gaetulicus, the author of eight epigrams in the Palatine 
Anthology (vi. 154 and vii. 245 are wrongly ascribed to him), 
is usually identified with Gn. Lentulus Gaetulicus, legate of 
. Upper Germany, executed on suspicion of conspiracy by Cali- 
gula, a.d. 39, and mentioned as a writer of amatory poetry by 
Martial and Pliny. But the identification is very doubtful, 
and perhaps he rather belongs to the second century a.d. No 
precise date is indicated in any of the epigrams. 

Pompeius, author of two or three epigrams in the Palatine 
Anthology, also called Pompeius the Younger, is generally 
identified with M. Pompeius Theophanes, son of Theophanes 
of Mitylene the friend of Pompey the Great, and himself a 
friend of Tiberius, according to Strabo. 

To the same period probably belong Quixtus Maecius or 


M.vccius, author of twelve epigrams in the Anthology, and 
Marcus Argentarius, perhaps the same with a rhetorician 
Argentarius mentioned by the elder Seneca, author of thirty- 
seven epigrams, chiefly amatory and convivial, some of which 
have much grace and fancy. Others place him in the age of 

(2) Piiiurpus of Thessalonica was the compiler of an 
Anthology of epigrammatists subsequent to Meleager (see 
above, p. 17 foil.) and is himself the author of seventy-four 
extant epigrams in the Anthology besides six more dubiously 
ascribed to him. He wrote epigrams of all sorts, mainly 
imitated from older writers and showing but little original 
power or imagination. The latest certain historical allusion in 
his own work is one to Agrippa's mole at Puteoli, but Anti- 
philus, who was included in his collection, certainly wrote 
in the reign of Nero, and probably Philippus was of about 
the same date. Most of his epigrams being merely rhetorical 
exercises on stock themes give no clue to his precise period. 

Antiphilus of Byzantium, whose date is fixed by his epigram 
on the restoration of liberty to Ehodes by the emperor Nero, 
a.d. 53 (Tac. Ann. xii. 58), is the author of forty-nine epigrams 
in the Anthology, besides three doubtful. Among them are 
some graceful dedications, pastoral epigrams, and sea-pieces. 
The pretty epitaph on Agricola (Anth. Pal. ix. 549) gives no 
clue to his date, as it certainly is not on the father-in-law of 
Tacitus, and no other person of the name appears to be men- 
tioned in history. 

Julius Polyaenus is the author of a group of three epigrams 
(Anth. Pal. ix. 7-9), which have a high seriousness rare in the 
work of this period. He has been probably identified with a 
C. Julius Polyaenus who is known from coins to have been 
a duumvir of Corinth (Colonia Julia) under Nero. He was a 
native of Corcyra, to which he retired after a life of much toil 
and travel, apparently as a merchant. The epigram by 
Polyaenus of Sardis (Anth. Pal. ix. 1), usually referred to the 
same author, is in a completely different manner. 

Lucilius, the author of one hundred and twenty-three 
epigrams in the Palatine Anthology (twenty others are of 
doubtful authorship) was, as we learn from himself, a gram- 


marian at Eome and a pensioner of Nero. He published two 
volumes of epigrams, somewhat like those of Martial, in a 
satiric and hyperbolical style. 1 

Nicarchus is the author of forty-two epigrams of the same 
kind as those of Lucilius. Another given under his name 
(Anth. Pal. vii. 159) is of the early Alexandrian period, 
perhaps by Nicias of Miletus, as the converse mistake is made 
in the Palatine MS. with regard to xi. 398. A large proportion 
of his epigrams are directed against doctors. There is nothing 
to fix the precise part of the century in which he lived. 

To some part of this century also belong Sectjndus of 
Tarentum and Myrinus, each the author of four epigrams in 
the Anthology. Nothing further is known of either. 

(3) Steato of Sardis, the collector of the Anthology called 
MoGca ]TcaSi/C7] ^TpaTcovo; and extant, apparently in an imper- 
fect and mutilated form, as the twelfth section or first appendix 
of the Palatine Anthology may be placed with tolerable cer- 
tainty in the reign of Hadrian. Besides his ninety-four epigrams 
preserved in his own Anthology, five others are attributed to 
him in the Palatine Anthology, and one more in Planudes. 
For a fuller discussion of his date see above, p. 18. 

Ammianus is the author of twenty-nine epigrams in the 
Anthology, all irrisory. One of them {Anth. Pal. xi. 226) is 
imitated from Martial, ix. 30. Another sneers at the neo- 
Atticism which had become the fashion in Greek prose writing. 
His date is fixed by an attack on Antonius Polemo, a well- 
known sophist of the age of Hadrian. 

Thymocles is only known from his single epigram in Strato's 
Anthology. It is in the manner of Callimachus and may 
perhaps be of the Alexandrian period. 

To this or an earlier date belongs Archias of Mitylene, the 
author of a number of miscellaneous epigrams, chiefly imitated 
from older writers such as Antipater and Leonidas. Forty-one 
epigrams in all are attributed on some authority to one 
Archias or another; most have the name simply; some are 
headed 'Archias the Grammarian', 'Archias the Younger', 
' Archias the Macedonian ', ' Archias of Byzantium '. All are 

1 The spelling Lucillius is a mere barbarism, the I being doubled to in- 
dicate the long vowel : 30 we find 2Taxu).A'.&;, etc. 



sufficiently like each other in style to be by the same hand. 
Some have been attributed to Cicero's client, Archias of 
Antioch, but they seem to be of a later period. 

To the age of Hadrian also belongs the epigram inscribed on 
the Memnon statue at Thebes with the name of its author, 
Asclepiodotus, ix. 19 in this selection. 

Claudius Ptolemaeus of Alexandria, mathematician, astro- 
nomer, and geographer, who gave his name to the Ptolemaic 
system of the heavens, flourished in the latter half of the 
second century. His chief works are the MsyaXi] SuvxaEic 
T/j; ' A<TTpovoj/.ia<; in thirteen books, known to the Middle Ages 
in its Arabian translation under the title of the Almagest, and 
the rswvpa^ix^ 'Tipiypjffis in eight books. He also wrote on 
astrology, chronology, and music. A single epigram of his on 
his favourite science is preserved in the Anthology. Another 
commonplace couplet under the name of Ptolemaeus is probably 
by some different author. 

Lucian of Samosata in Commagene, perhaps the most impor- 
tant figure in the literature of this period, was born about a.d. 
120. He practised as an advocate at Antioch, and travelled 
very extensively throughout the empire. He was appointed 
procurator of a district of Egypt by the emperor Commodus 
(reigned a.d. 180-192) and probably died about a.d. 200. 
Besides his voluminous prose works he is the author of forty 
epigrams in the Anthology, and fourteen more are ascribed to 
him on doubtful or insufficient authority. 

To some part of this period appear to belong Alpheus of 
Mitylene, author of twelve epigrams, some school-exercises, 
others on ancient towns, Mycenae, Argos, Tegea, and Troy, 
which he appears to have visited as a tourist; Carpyllides or 
Carphyllides, author of one fine epitaph and another dull 
epigram in the moralising vein of this age : Glaucus of 
Nicopolis, author of six epigrams (one is headed ' Glaucus of 
Athens ', but is in the same late imperial style ; and in this 
period the citizenship of Athens was sold for a trifle by the 
authorities to any one who cared for it: cf. the epigram of 
Automedon (Anth. Pal. xi. 319) ; and Satyrus (whose name is 
also given as Satyrius, Thyilus, Thyillus, and Satyrus Thyillus), 
author of nine epigrams, chiefly dedications and pastoral pieces, 
some of them of great delicacy and beauty. 


V. Byzantine period; from the transference of the seat of 
empire to Constantinople, a.d. 330, to the formation of 
the Palatine Anthology in the reign of Constantine Por- 
phyrogenitus, about the middle of the tenth century. 

For the first two centuries of this period hardly any names 
have to be chronicled. Literature had almost ceased to exist 
except among lexicographers and grammarians ; and though 
epigrams, Christian and pagan, continued to be written, they are 
for the most part of no literary account whatever. One name 
only of importance meets us before the reign of Justinian. 

Palladas of Alexandria is the author of one hundred and 
fifty-one epigrams (besides twenty-three more doubtful) in the 
Anthology. His sombre and melancholy figure is one of the 
last of the purely pagan world in its losing battle against 
Christianity. One of the epigrams attributed to him on the 
authority of Planudes is an eulogy on the celebrated Hypatia, 
daughter of Theon of Alexandria, whose tragic death took place 
A.D. 415 in the reign of Theodosius the Second. Another was, 
according to a scholium in the Palatine MS., written in the 
reign of Valentinian and Valens, joint-emperors, 364-375 a.d. 
The epigram on the destruction of Berytus, ix. 27 in this 
selection, gives no certain argument of date. Palladas was a 
grammarian by profession. An anonymous epigram (Anth. 
Pal. ix. 380) speaks of him as of high poetical reputation ; and, 
indeed, in those dark ages the harsh and bitter force that 
underlies his crude thought and half-barbarous language is 
enough to give him a place of note. Casaubon dismisses him 
in two contemptuous words, as ' versifcator insvlsissimus' ; this 
is true of a great part of his work, and would perhaps be true of 
it all but for the saeva indignatio which kindles the verse, not 
into the flame of poetry, but as it were to a dull red heat. 
There is little direct allusion in his epigrams to the struggle 
against the new religion. One epigram speaks obscurely of 
the destruction of the idols of Alexandria by the Christian 
populace in the archiepiscopate of Theophilus, a.d. 389 ; another 
in even more enigmatic language {Anth. Pal. x. 90) seems to 
be a bitter attack on the doctrine of the Resurrection ; and a 
scornful couplet against the swarms of Egyptian monks might 
have been written by a Pieformer of the sixteenth century. 


For the most part his sympathy with the losing side is oiily 
betrayed in his despondency over all things. But it is in his 
criticism of life that the power of Palladas lies ; with a re- 
morselessness like that of Swift he tears the coverings from 
human frailty and holds it up in its meanness and misery. 
The lines on the Descent of Man (Anth. Pal. x. 45), which un- 
fortunately cannot be included in this selection, fall as heavily 
on the Neo-Platonist martyr as on the Christian persecutor, 
and remain even now among the most mordant and crushing 
sarcasms ever passed upon mankind. 

To the same period in thought — beyond this there is no clue 
to their date — belong Aesopus and Glycon, each the author of 
a single epigram in the Palatine Anthology. They belong to 
the age of the Byzantine metaphrasts, when infinite pains were 
taken to rewrite well-known poems or passages in different 
metres, by turning Homer into elegiacs or iambics, and recasting 
pieces of Euripides or Menander as epigrams. 

A century later comes the Byzantine lawyer, Marianus, men- 
tioned by Suidas as having flourished in the reign of Anastasius I., 
a.d. 491-518. He turned Theocritus and Apollonius Ehodius 
into iambics. There are six epigrams of his in the Anthology, all 
descriptive, on places in the neighbourhood of Constantinople. 

At the court of Justinian, a.d. 527-565, Greek poetry made 
its last serious effort ; and together with the imposing victories 
of Belisarius and the final codification of Roman law carried out 
by the genius of Tribonian, his reign is signalised by a group 
of poets who still after three hundred years of barbarism 
handled the old language with remarkable grace and skill, and 
who, though much of their work is but clever imitation of the 
antique, and though the verbosity and vague conventionalism 
of all Byzantine writing keeps them out of the first rank of 
epigrammatists, are nevertheless not unworthy successors of 
the Alexandrians, and represent a culture which died hard. 
Eight considerable names come under this period, five of them 
officials of high place in the civil service or the imperial house- 
hold, two more, and probably the third also, practising lawyers 
at Constantinople. 

Agathias son of Mamnonius, poet and historian, was born 
at Myrina in Mysia about the year 536 a.d. He received his 
early education in Alexandria, and at eighteen went to Con- 


stantiuople to study law. Soon afterwards he published a 
volume of poems called Daphniaca in nine books. The preface 
to it (Anth. Pal. vi. 80) is still extant, and many of his epigrams 
were no doubt included in it. His History, which breaks off 
abruptly in the fifth book, covers the years 553-558 a.d. ; in the 
preface to it he speaks of his own early works, including his 
Anthology of recent and contemporary epigrams, of which a 
further account is given above, p. 19 foil. One of the most 
pleasant of his poems is an epistle to his friend Paulus Silen- 
tiarius, written from a country house on the opposite coast of 
the Bosporus, where he had retired to pursue his legal studies 
away from the temptations of the city. He tells us himself 
that law was distasteful to him, and that his time was chiefly 
spent in the study of ancient poetry and history. In later 
life he seems to have returned to Myrina, where he carried out 
improvements in the town and was regarded as the most dis- 
tinguished of the citizens {Anth. Pal. ix. 662), He is believed 
to have died about 582 a.d. Agathias is the author of ninety- 
seven epigrams in the Anthology, in a facile and diffuse style ; 
often they are exorbitantly long, some running to twenty- four 
and even twenty-eight lines. 

Akabius, author of seven epigrams in the Anthology, is called 
cyoAa«7Tt/.d? or lawyer. Four of his epigrams are on works of 
art, one is a description of an imperial villa on the coast near 
Constantinople, and the other two are in praise of Longinus, 
prefect of Constantinople under Justinian. One of the last is 
referred to in an epigram by Macedonius {Anth. Pal. x. 380). 

Joannes Barbucalltjs, also called Joannes Grammaticus, is 
the author of eleven epigrams in the Anthology. Three of them 
are on the destruction of Berytus by earthquake in a.d. 551 : 
from these it may be conjectured that he had studied at the 
great school of civil law there. As to his name a scholiast in 
MS. Pal. says, s$-viy.ov scttiv 6'vojxa. BappouxocAy] yap ■tzoXic, ev toTc, 
[svtoc] "IfJvjpo? tou TTOTajj.ou. But this seems to be an incorrect 
reminiscence of the name 'Ap(3ouy.aAyj, a town in Hispania 
Tarraconensis, in the lexicon of Stephanus Byzantinus. 

Julianus, commonly called Julianus Aegyptius, is the 
author of seventy epigrams (and two more doubtful) in the 
Anthology. His full title is obco uTrap/cov AiyoTTTOu, or ex-pre- 
fect of a division of Egypt, the same office which Lucian had 


held under Commodus. His date is fixed by two epitaphs on 
Hypatius, brother of the emperor Anastasius, who was put to 
death by Justinian in a.d. 532. 

Leontius, called Scholasticus, author of twenty-four epigrams 
in the Anthology, is generally identified with a Leontius 
Referendarius, mentioned by Procopius under this reign. The 
Referendarii were a board of high officials, who, according to 
the commentator on the Notitia imperii, transmitted petitions 
and cases referred from the lower courts to the Emperor, and 
issued his decisions upon them. Under Justinian they were 
eighteen in number, and were spectabiles, their president being 
a comes. One of the epigrams of Leontius is on Gabriel, prefect 
of Constantinople under Justinian ; another is on the famous 
charioteer Porphyrius. Most of them are on works of art. 

Macedonius of Thessalonica, mentioned by Suidas s. v. 
WyxOia; as consul in the reign of Justinian, is the author of 
forty-four epigrams in the Anthology, the best of which are 
some delicate and fanciful amatory pieces. 

Paulus, always spoken of with his official title of Silen- 
tiarius, author of seventy-nine epigrams (and six others doubt- 
ful) in the Anthology, is the most distinguished poet of this 
period. Our knowledge of him is chiefly derived from 
Agathias, Hist. v. 9, who says he was of high birth and great 
wealth, and head of the thirty Silentiarii, or Gentlemen of the 
Bedchamber, who were among the highest functionaries of the 
Byzantine court. Two of his epigrams are replies to two others 
by Agathias (Anth. Pal. v. 292, 293 ; 299, 300) ; another is on 
the death of Damocharis of Cos, Agathias' favourite pupil, 
lamenting with almost literal truth that the harp of the Muses 
would thenceforth be silent. Besides the epigrams, we possess 
a long description of the church of Saint Sophia by him, partly 
in iambics and partly in hexameters, and a poem in dimeter 
iambics on the hot springs of Py thia. The ' grace and genius 
beyond his age', which Jacobs justly attributes to him, reach 
their highest point in his amatory epigrams, forty in number, 

Mine of which are not inferior to those of Meleager. 

I .'i tin us, author of thirty-nine (and three more doubtful) 

amatory epigrams in the Palatine Anthology, is no doubt of the 

ue period. In the heading of one of the epigrams he is 

called Rufinus Domesticus. The exact nature of his public 


office cannot be determined from this title. A Domestic was 
at the head of each of the chief departments of the imperial 
service, and was a high official. But the name was also given 
to the Emperor's Horse and Foot Guards, and to the body- 
guards of the prefects in charge of provinces, cities, or armies. 

Eratosthenes, called Scholasticus, is the author of five epi- 
grams in the Palatine Anthology. Epigrams by Julianus, 
Macedonius, and Paulus Silentiarius, are ascribed to him in 
other mss., and from this fact, as well as from the evidence 
of the style, he may be confidently placed under the same date. 
Nothing further is known of him. Probably to the same 
period belongs Theophanes, author of two epigrams in the 
miscellaneous appendix (xv.) to the Palatine Anthology, one 
of them in answer to an epigram by Constantinus Siculus, as 
to whose date there is the same uncertainty. Two epitaphs in 
the Anthology are also ascribed to Theophanes in Planudes. 

With this brief latter summer tire history of Greek poetry 
practically ends. The epigrams of Damocharis, the pupil of 
Agathias, seem already to show the decomposition of the art. 
The imposing fabric of empire reconstructed by the genius of 
Justinian and his ministers had no solidity, and was crumbling 
away even before the death of its founder : while the great 
plague, beginning in the fifteenth year of Justinian, continued 
for no less than fifty-two years to ravage every province of the 
empire and depopulate whole cities and provinces. In such a 
period as this the fragile and exotic poetry of the Byzantine 
Eenaissance could not sustain itself. Political and theological 
epigrams continued to be written in profusion ; but the collec- 
tions may be searched through in vain for a single touch of 
imagination or beauty. Under Constantine VII. (reigned a.d. 
911-959) comes the last shadowy name in the Anthology. 

Cometas, called Chartularius or Keeper of the Pcecords, is 
the author of six epigrams in the Palatine Anthology, besides 
a poem in hexameters on the Eaising of Lazarus. From some 
marginal notes in the MS. it appears that he was a contemporary 
of Constantinus Cephalas. Three of the epigrams are on a 
revised text of Homer which he edited None are of any 
literary value, except the one beautiful pastoral couplet, vi. 10 
in this selection, which seems to be the very voice of ancient 
poetry bidding the world a lingering and reluctant farewell. 



I. Anth. Pal v. 134. 

/. 1. Ksxpo-I; Xayuvo; (feminine here as in the Latin form lagena) the 
ordinary Attic vase with a narrow neck, fully described by a list of 
epithets in another epigram, infr. x. 6. 

I. 2. au|i.[3oXtx.ri has special aptness as applied to the Anthology to which 
each poet contributes verses, -po-oaic, generally ' a health ', here means the 
drinking party itself. 

I. 3. Zeno and Cleanthes were the first and second masters of the Stoic 
school. The former is probably called xu'xvo? in allusion to his great 
age ; he is said to have died at 98. So the chorus of old men in the 
Hercules Furens speak of themselves as y.u/.vo; w: ye'ptov aoioo; (I 692). 
There is no mention of Zeno ever having written poetry, though a book 
-zy. jcoi7rrtx7fs is mentioned in the catalogue of his works. Of the poetry 
of Cleanthes all now extant is a hymn to Zeus and the famous quatrain 
expressing the religious side of Stoicism (Epictetus, Enchir. c. 53) : 

"Ayou Si' [jl' w Zsu /.at cu y' ■J] ns-pio;jivr] 
ojuot -09-" ujjCCv z\v. 5taT3Tayu.c'vo;' 
(•j; E'ioaai y aox.vo; 7)v be [xr t tr;Aw, 
xa/.o; ysvofievos ojo;v r,"ov tfAofiai. 

II. Anth. Pal v. 169. 

U. 1 and 2 are imitated from Aesch. Ag. 909, where Clytemnestra calls 
her husband 

yr^v aavUvav vauxiXoi? ~ap' sX—ioa 
xaXXiarov >)Uap ElatSetv -/■- yz'p.aTo;. 
oSot-opto Std/covTi -r^yatov psos. 

J. 2. ars'savov needlessly altered in modern editions to ^'oupov. The 
flowers and the west wind are both mentioned in the exhortations to put to 
sea in spring, Anth. Pal. x. 1, 4-6, 15, 16. And sailors do not see the wind. 

I 3. fjSsiov ms. with 7jbiorov in the margin : hence some read rfiw. 

I. 4. Cf. Soph. Track. 539, za' 1 . vuv ou : ouorat ;j.!tj.vo;j.:v [ua; o~o yAaivr,; 
ux:ayza>a7;j.a : also Theocr. Epithal Bel. 19, and Eur. frag. Pdiad. 6, 
orav 8' U7T avopo; yXaivav suyivo-j; -3T7,;. 

III. jlnto. Pa?, v. 170. 

I. 2. a-s'—uaa, the aorist of quick or sudden action : a-:'"^, to yspa;:. 
jj-uO-ov, Eur. Iph. in Aid. 874. The abruptness of expression in this line is 
almost Oriental. 


316 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

/. 3. T:va = ovxtva : so in the epigram of Callimachus, infra iv. 32, the Ms. 
rr.uls oooe y.:),;J0(;) /aiMo x;c -oXXou; ioos loos os'pei. Here Meineke 
would alter riva to xav. 

IV. .4n&. Pa/, ix. 161. Headed aorjXov in Planudes. 

With this epigram compare Mr. Austin Dobson's charming verses called 
' A Dialogue from Plato ' in Old World Idylls, p. 103. 

/. 1. pt(3Xov, the 'Epya zai 'H[.;ipai of Hesiod. 

/. 4. j'pya napE/stv, ' to give trouble ', with a play on the name of the poem. 
For the use of Hesiod as a school-book, see Plato Re}}. 363 a, and (for a 
common-sense view of the matter) Lucian, Ver. Hist. ii. 22. 

V. Anth. Pal. v. 78. Also quoted by Diog. Laert. in Vita Platonis 
c. 32, and by Gellius Nod. Att. xix. 11. 

The question of the authenticity of the epigrams attributed to Plato is 
fully discussed by Bergk Lyr. Gr. ii. pp. 295-299. Thirty-seven epigrams 
in the Anthology appear there under the name of Plato or are elsewhere 
assigned to him. Another (infra iv. 13) is not in the Anthology. Of 
these thirty-seven, one is attributed to Plato the comedian, a con- 
temporary of Aristophanes, and three, which are very poor, to an other- 
wise unknown Plato Junior (6 Nsioxspo;). The rest were probably believed 
to have been written by the great Plato, and the Garland of Meleager, I. 47, 
speaks of them as such. Of the fourteen included in this collection this 
epigram and six others (infra i. 41 ; iii. 10, 11 ; iv. 13 ; vi. 8 ; xi. 51) are 
possibly genuine ; the other seven are certainly of later date. 

This epigram, if authentic, is written under the person of Socrates. 
Agathon, the brilliant dramatist, aoouxaxo; xafc /.aXXiTxos as Alcibiades calls 
hi in in the Symposium, 212 E, was noted for his beauty : see Plato Protag. 
315 d, Aristoph. Thesm. 198, and the notices of him in Athenaeus. 

VI. Anth. Pal. xii. 177. 

I. 1. /.aSP f]v IffjcepfKjv wpTjv uyiatvo|jLEv, 'at the hour of evening when we 
say good-night.' youps and uyiaivs, as in Latin salve and vale, were used 
for our ' good-morning ' and ' good-night '. 

VII. Anth. Pal. xii. 117. 

I. 1. oc'^te, 'light a torch', addressed to his slave. 

I. 3. 'Reason and love keep little company' M.N.D., iv. i. 

VIII. Anth. Pal. v. 93. The epigram is modelled on one by Posidippus, 
Anth. Pal. xii. 120. 

I. 3. auv{axaa 1 f rat here ' to contend with ' : a rare use. 

I. 4. There was a common proverb, p.7)o' 'Hpa/X^? r.po$ ou'o. 

IX. Anth. Pal. v. 64. There is a reminiscence throughout the epigram 
of Aesch. Prom. 11. 992-5 : 

7:po; TocCrra pt^ic'aO-d) p.kv a:!)aXouaaa cjXof, 
Xeuxo7:T£p(o o£ vtoaot xat ppovx^jiaat 
X&ovfoi; zux.axeo 7:avxa /.at xapasarno, 
yvap/i/Ei yap ouoev xwvSe [ae. 

4-14] NOTES 317 

1.2. JCOpcpupovroc vf-^rj, 'glooming clouds': wc ox3 Jcop^pupr] ~:Xayo; piya 
xujxaxt xtocpto, H. xiv. 16, of the sea darkening with a foaniless swell. 

I. 4. ystpova may agree with ;j.e in I. 3, but is more probably ace. pi. used 
adverbially : cf. ^Xsiova -idp.E0-a, infra x. 4. 

X. Anth. Pal. v. 261. For the general sense of the epigram cf. the 
passage in Philostratus, p. 355, almost literally translated into English by 
Jonson in Drink to me only with thine eyes. 

I. 4. The thought is slightly confused, and it is not certain whether the 
oivo/oo? is the lady herself, which is supported by ^pdsoEpE in I. 2, or the 
cup, like os'7:a; oivoydov, infra Ep. 15. 

XI. Anth. Pal. v. 212. 

/. 1. Sivsl is Hermann's correction of the ms. Su'vsi, and has been generally 
accepted, though fSuvsi gives a sufficiently good sense, ' sinks in my ears '. 

I. 2. ndO-o? and "ip-spo?, Longing and Desire, are half personified as 
brothers of Eros ; the lover brings them his offering of tears. Cf. infra 
viii. 3. 

I. 3. E-/.OIJJU3S, ' lets me rest ', precisely as in Soph. Aj. 674, oavtov -' ar^x. 
rvsu[j.axo)v iy.oi[wz$. ax:'vovxa -dvxov. 

I. 4. Cf. Virg. Aen. iv. 23, and Dante Pvrg. xxx. 48. 

XII. Anth. Pal. v. 171. 

/. 3. u-ofrstaa /siXca, 'bringing up her lips', a-vEuaxi, 'without drawing 
breath '. Cf. Eossetti, The House of Life, liii., ' I leaned low and drank . . . 
all her soul.' 

XIII. Anth. Pal. v. 177. This epigram is imitated from Moschus Id. i., 
the"Epw; ApaTyETT)?. A specimen of a proclamation describing a runaway 
slave and offering a reward for his capture may be found in Lucian, 
Fugitivi, c. 26 ; and two originals found on a papyrus in Egypt, dated 
B.c. 145 (a little earlier than this epigram) are given in Letronne, Fragmens 
inedits d'anciens poetes Grecs (printed at the end of Didot's Aristophanes). 

I. 3. XiyuSaxpu? (after the analogy of Xiyuacovo?) has been suggested as 
giving a better antithesis to aip.a ysXtov. 

1. 5. Plato Symp. 178 b . yovst? "Eptoxo? ouV eh\v ouxe Xc'yovxcu CV ouSsvo; 
ouxs toiw'xou ouxs tjo'.tjxou. Eros is one of the uncreated originals of things 
in Hesiod, Theog. 120. In the birds' cosmogony (Aristoph. Av. 696) he 
springs from a wind-egg laid by Night in the times when y^ ouo' a7jp ouo' 
oupavd? i^v. 

1. 9. xslvo;, ' there he is ', like w ouxo?, ' you here '. 

XIV. Anth. Pal. xii. 134. The whole epigram is well illustrated by 
that of Asclepiades, Anth. Pal. xii. 135 : 

Oivo? e'pwxo; sXsyyo;' Epav apvoup.svov r;[juv 
rjvuaav a- 7:oXXaf. Ntxayoprjv r.poKQizi.e,' 

Kai yap ISaxpuareV xai Evuaxaas v.a.1 xi xaTtjcpkg 
EpXsra, yio acty/Osi; oux ejxeve sxi'oavo;. 

I. 5. With o'J-x7jxai cf. the d-xdv [j.zki of Meleager, infra Ep. 75. puap.d; 
is an Ionicism for puOp.d; : oux and Su<t[aou=oux dpuQ-p-w;, 'not at random'. 

318 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

XV. A nth. Pal. v. 266. It was a theory that the aversion from water 
in persons Buffering from hydrophobia was caused by their seeing the image 
of the dog in the cup. Plato Symp. 217 e mentions a similar curious 
superstition regarding tli" bite of a serpent. 

/. »;. oz'rra; oivo/oov (cf. supra Ep. 10) must mean the cup into which the 
wine is poured. Some editors read otvo/o'ou or otvo/owv to keep the usual 
sense of the word, ' cup-hearer '. 

XVI. Anth. Pal. xi. 64. A description of the vintage-revel, which as 
early as Homer (II. xviii. 561) was a favourite subject for poetry and 
sculpture, and is one of the commonest subjects in Graeco-Roman reliefs. 

/. 2. av£7cXe'xo[AEv, sc. dancing with linked hands, a sort of Greek Car- 

I. 5. ayj'otov -oxov, 'an extemporised banquet', where we did not feel 
the want of a proper crater and cups, or of warm water to mix with the 
wine. For the practice of mixing wine with hot water see Athen. iii. p. 123, 
Pollux ix. 67. The water w r as kept on table in a heated urn called 
l-vo\i[ir t c. 

1. 9. doat cppEveg is an imitation of the Homeric usage in phrases like 
irorjv aXsyuvcic oaixa (Ocl. viii. 38). 

XVII. Anth. Pal. v. 147. 

I. 5. fjLupopdaTpu)(os, ' balsam-curled ', is one of the curious new compounds 
of which Meleager is so fond : cf. [xupocpsyy^?, Anth. Pal. xii. 83. Other 
instances of compounds coined by him are oupeafcpoiTog, Ipioxo-Xavo?, iprftxo- 
XaXoc, Sa/.puyaprj; (infra Epp. 19, 65, 66, 69) : bolder and more successful 
than any of these is yXuxu^apO-svo;, Anth. Pal. ix. 16. 

1. 6. Flowers were scattered over people's heads as a mark of honour : cf. 
Lucr. ii. 627 ninguntque rosarum floribus umbrantes ; Prut. Pomp. c. 57, 
~oXXo\ os xai <jTsaavr ( cpopouvXc; u~o Xa;j.-aotov sor/ovro /.at -zpii-zii.-ov 
av9-o[joXo'J[j.3vov ; and Dante Purg. xxx. 28 : 

dentro una nuvola di fiori 
Che dalle mani angeliche saliva 
E ricadea in giii dentro e di fuori. 

XVIII. Anth. Pal. xii. 147. The lover finding Heliodora gone is seized 
with a sudden alarm that she has been forcibly carried off, and calls for 
torches to go in pursuit, when he hears her footfall returning : 

" What fond and wayward thoughts will slide 

Into a lover's head ! 
' mercy ! ' to myself I cried, 

' If Lucy should be dead ! ' " 
I. 1. The construction is a sort of compromise in syntax between ik 
outo); aypto? av £li\ toars touto a?/jxaaat ; and t(; ayoio? totsov av at/jjiaaat ; 
a;/ji.aretv with cognate ace, 'to do a deed of arms' as in Soph. Trach. 354, 
Epio; o£ vtv Movo; 3c<ov -OsX^sisv atypiaaai -racJs. 

XIX. Anth. Pal. v. 144. 

1. 3. oiXc'paaro?, 'dear to lovers', a common epithet of the rose, is here 
transferred by anticipation to 'the rose of womanhood '. 

15-24] NOTES 319 

I. 5. Strictly it is the flowers themselves that would be said to laugh, or 
the meadows to laugh with flowers ; for this extension of the ordinary 
metaphor and half personification of the meadows cf. Virg. Georg. i. 103, 
ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messes. 

XX. Anth. Pal. v. 151. 

I. 2. xvwoaXov is 'monster' in the widest sense, of large and small 
animals alike. 

I. 6. Cf. Lucian, Muscae Encomium, c. 10, where after telling the story 
of Myia and her rivalry with Selene for the love of Endymion he goes on, 
xa\ ota xouxo Tuaat vuv idle, xot[J.wfjivot? auxrjv xou u7ivou ep&ovstv [j.sptvr]rj.s'v7]v 
exi xou 'EvSujxiwvo?, xa\ (jiaXiaxa xol? ve'oi; xat a^aXo!? - xa"t to S^yf/a 8e auxo 
xat T\ xou a't'[j.axo5 ETitO-upua oux ayptoxYjxo; aXX' sptoxo? sax\ a7)pLs!ov xa\ otXav- 
Q-puiTzitxc,' 165 yap ouvaxov drcoXauct xat xou xaXXou? xt a~av?K£Exat. 

XXI. Anth. Pal. xii. 114. 

XXII. Anth. Pal. v. 241. Under the name of Agathias in Planudes. 

I. 3. Suidas s.v. SacrcXr]; cpaotes this couplet and explains oaa^Xijxa as 
i~\ xaxoi Trpoa^eXa^ouaav. The origin of the word (an epithet of 'Epivu's in 
the Odyssey) is obscure. 

XXIII. Anth. Pal. v. 223. Compare with this epigram the beautiful 
Provengal alba (given in Raynouard, Clwix des Poesies originates des Trouba- 
dours, vol. ii. p. 236) beginning En un vergier sotz fuelha d'albespi, with 
the refrain, Oy dieus, oy dieus, de Valba tan tost ve / 

I. 1. The planet Venus was ordinarily called <£toa<popos by Greek 
astronomers, though it also had the name 6 -rife 'AcppoStxr)? (sc. uXavr-jxr];). 
It is not certain whether the allusion here is merely to the mythological 
connection of Venus and Mars, or to a conjunction of the two planets. 

I. 3. <£as'a>tov, the god of the sun (as in Homer), whose son the Phaethon 
of later legend was by the Oeeanid Clymene wife of Merops. There is a 
good deal of confusion about this myth, another version making Phaethon 
the son of Clymenus and Merope ; but the story, only mentioned here, of 
the dawn-star delaying its upward course through the eastern sky, seems 
to relate to the former version. 

I. 5. Tuspt has the force of going round or up and down in a place, rather 
than going round it : cf. ypovt£stv rapt A'tyu^xov, Hdt. iii. 61. 

I. 6. For the Cimmerians, ' on whom the sun looks not in his rising,' see 
Od. xi. 14-19. 

XXIV. Anth. Pal. v. 3. 

I. 1. "OpO-po; is the grey dawn which is succeeded by the rose-fingered 
Hw; or 'Hptyavsta. 'And indeed the dawn was already beginning. The 
hollow of the sky was full of essential daylight, colourless and clear ; and 
the valley underneath was flooded with a grey reflection. . . . The scene 
disengaged a surprising effect of stillness, which was hardly interrupted 
when the cocks began once more to crow among the steadings. Perhaps 
the same fellow who had made so horrid a clangour in the darkness not 
half-an-hour before, now sent up the merriest cheer to greet the coming 
day.' R. L. Stevenson, The Sire de Maletroit's Door. 

320 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

/. 4. vj/ioi; qi<h'a>v occpotf in rather a different sense, infra vi. 1. Here 
it Beems to mean the talk of young men in the lesche or gymnasium. 

XXV. A nth. Pal. v. 172. 

/. ± ( T. Mi'leager in Antk. Pal. xii. 63, /.at r.hpov ttjxco xpcort ^XtaivdjiEvov. 

/. 5. sV 'AXxpjvjjv Aid;, ' for Alcmena the bride of Zeus ' ; by an extension 
of its common meaning 'for the purpose of, hd here comes to mean 'to 
serve the purpose of ', 'for the sake of. 'AXxp]V7] Ato? like Sputu^Huivog 
MeXiotixt), Aristoph. Eccl. 46 or ' Hectoris Andromache', Aen. iii. 319. 

/. 6. ^XO-s? avxio;, ' thou didst go contrary ', i.e. backward. 

XXVI. Anth. Pal. v. 173. 

/. 1. Dawn is represented as the charioteer of the wheeling firmament. 

XXVII. Anth. Pal. v. 279. 

I. 1. Cf. Petronius, Sat. c. 22, lueernae quoque humor e defectae tenue et 
txtremum lumen spargebant. 

I. 5. Scnrepo? adj. for the usual lojcsptog : so again infra Ep. 36. 

XXVIII. Anth. Pal. v. 150. The first couplet is also quoted by Suidas 

S.V. 0£a|JLOCpOpOS. 

I. 1. -r\ ':upo7]i:o;, ' she who is in all men's mouths ', like the multi Lydia 
nominis of Horace : the full phrase i i 'mpurros avO-pw-ot; is used Anth. Pal. 
vii. 345. 

/. 2. es-j[i.ocpopo;, Demeter ; ' Ugifera Ceres ', Aen. iv. 58. 

/. 3. It is not certain what hour of night this implies ; the night seems 
in different circumstances to have been divided into three, four, or five 

XXIX. Anth. Pal. v. 164. 

I. 1. Hecker reads oux dXarjv, which may be right. 

/. 2. The termination -tj; as a feminine form is extremely rare ; there is 
perhaps an instance in Anth. Pal. xii. 81, where <W/a.T.a.-rp <pXoya is the 
most probable reading. Others prefer to coin a form cpiXEtjajra-utg, or to read 
y.V i% a-axTjC, ' deceitfully dear ', which hardly makes sense. 

I. 4. t:ote is Jacobs' conjecture for the ms. rapa, which he afterwards 
proposed to retain, changing £-' to et'. But the former makes a smoother 

XXX. Anth. Pal. v. 237. Cf. the pseudo-Anacreon, 9 (Bergk). 

1. 5. o[j.[ 3' ou Xaovxa ms., (Auovxa Hecker. Others read o|j.[ ok 
axaXaovxa, 'my dripping eyes'. The couplet is omitted in Planudes, its 
corruption having probably been considered desperate. 

I. 9. Cf. Ovid Her. xv. 154 : 

moestissima mater 
Concinit Ismarium Daulias ales Ityn, 
Ales Ityn, Sappho desertos cantat amores 
Hactenus ; ut media cetera nocte silent. 

I. 10. The hoopoe, according to Aelian, Hist. An. iii. 26, builds iv xoi; 
if»][Lotf xak xot; 7:ayoi? xol; u'^Xot; : cf. the opening scene of the Birds of 

25-37] NOTES 321 

XXXI. Anth. Pal. v. 9. Plan, has 11. 1 and 2 under the name of Rufinus, 
and the rest of the epigram later without any author's name. 

I. 5. r, ImopxijcrtDV ms., corr. Hecker. Coressus (see Xen. Hell. i. ii. 7, 
Pausan. Eliaca A. xxiv. 8) was the quarter of Ephesus which lay on the 
hill overlooking the harbour and plain. 

XXXII. Anth. Pal. v. 24. Jacobs points out with truth that the style 
of this epigram is exactly that of Meleager, and suspects that it is wrongly 
attributed to Philodemus. Certainly no other of the thirty-four epigrams 
extant under the name of Philodemus is like this, and most of them have a 
marked style of their own. But it may be an imitation of the older poet 
by the younger, and it is hardly safe, in face of the fact that Planudes 
agrees with Cephalas in the authorship, to alter the title. 

XXXIII. Anth. Pal. v. 182. To this epigram some editors prefix a 
couplet which occurs as a separate epigram, Anth. Pal. v. 187, also under 
Meleager's name : 

Ei~k Auxaivio'., Aopza;" 'to' to; i~'-r^/.-ix oiXoGux 
fjXwc" oj y.vj— a -Xaaxov sptoxa ypovoc. 

XXXIV. Anth. Pal. v. 226. 

I. 4. vr ( csaXia (j.s' were peace-offerings of water, milk, and honey, 
without wine. Cf. Aesch. Eum. 107. 
1. 5. xal y.ild-i, sc. x^s, I. 3. 

XXXV. Anth. Pal v. 280. 

/. 1. r.o&ov is the reading of Plan., -o'vov ms. Pal. 

/. 4. A scholiast on Theocr. xiv. 48 quotes an oracle given to the 
Megarians :; 3', to Mcyapa;, ouok xpixoi ouok xkxapxoi 
ouok outoor/.axoi, out 1 ev Xoyto out' ev apiO-; 

The phrase had become proverbial : cf. Callimachus in Anth. Pal. v. 6, 
-rfi ok xaXatvr,; vuijiorj;, to; Msyaps'tov, ou Xoyo; out' api9-;j.o;. 
I. 8. Hor. in. Od. x. 9, ingratam Veneri pone superbiam. 

. XXXVI. Anth. Pal. v. 256. 

1. 2. &nrepo$ for la-c'pto; as in Ep. 27, supra. 

I. 4. Catull. lxxii. 7, amantem iniuria talis cogit amare magis. 

XXXVII. Anth. Pal. v. 247. After I. 4 in ms. Pal. follow two more 
lines : 

KcVxpojj.avk; o' ayx.i<ixpov Spu axojjia, /.a'! ;j.s oaxovxa 
eu-9-u; s'yst oooe'ou )(6tXeos ixxpe^iia. . . . 

which seem to be a fragment of another epigram, and are wanting in Plan. 
I. 1. There is a play on the name nap[.isvt;, ' the constant.' 
1. 3. seat osuya (piXs'ovxa xa\ oo ciXs'ovxa ouo/.si of Galatea and the Cyclops, 

Theocr. vi. 17. But the amplification in the next line is Macedonius' own. 

' Pursuing that that flies and flying what pursues,' Merry Wives, n. ii. 


322 < ; i; i-: k k a x tholoi ; v [sect, i 

XXXVIII. Anth. Pal. v. 23. In Plan, under the name of Rufinus, but 
that i> hardly ]>o->il)Ie. The repetitions are a piece of literary affectation 
peculiar to Callimachus : cf. Anth. Pal. v. 6. xii. 71. 

/. l. /.ovrXz'.: is tlic same as xoipxca&ai note!? in I. 1. 

/. 6. a-JT'i/.a not 'immediately' but 'presently,' 'by and bye.' 

XXX IX. Anth. Pal. v. 16. 

/. I. Hecker alters Ss'pxTj to Se'pxeu. rcepiXdpcEt, ms. Others read 7cep(XapEEl& 
/. 4. Fur the idiom cf. Theocr. II. 156, vuv Sg te owocx-aTato? as' <o t: viv 
oJo: -ox.' 3'oov. 

XL. Anth. Pal. v. 123. With this epigram may be compared Spenser's 
Eptthalamhim, 11. 372-382, which shows the contrast between the richness 
of the best Renaissance work and the direct simplicity of expression which 
Greek poetry preserves even in its decline. 

/. 1. 2eX.7]V7] -fa'v: is from Theocr. n. 11. 

I. 2. EUTpTjtoi !>jv!o;:, latticed windows, the Latin fenestras clatratae or 
reticulatae (Varro, R. R. m. 7, Serv. on Aen. iii. 152). 

/. 5. ^;j-:'a;, as often, means ipi : but it is singularly awkward here in 
antithesis to t>jv8e. 

XLI. Anth. Pal. vii. 669. Also quoted by Diog. ' Laert. in Vita 
Platonis, c. 29. This epigram is in all likelihood authentic. Diog. Laert. 
I.e. quotes Aristippus nspi -a).aia? xpuo^; as saying that Aster was a 
beautiful youth with whom Plato studied astronomy. 

XLII. Anth. Pal. v. 84. In Plan, this and the next epigram, together 
with a third couplet (Anth. Pal. v. 83.) are set down as a single epigram 
under the name of Dionysius Sophista. All three are quoted by a scholiast 
on Dion Chrysostom, Orat. ii. de Regno. 

I. 2. dpsapivr,, ' fastening ', a rare aorist of apapicrxco. It occurs in 
Hesiod, Scut. Her. 320, of Hephaestus forging the shield of Heracles, 
apad[i£V0g -aAa;j.r ( a'.v. 

XLIII. Anth. Pal. appendix (xv.) 35. See the note on the last epigram- 
dpysvvao; (a variant of the Homeric dpyevvog) and x.P OTt7 3 (for /.poj;) are 

lioth aizaJ; elpr)|jieva. 

Sypa [laXXov go together, i quo magis', and ycozir^ is governed by xopeon)c 

as in Soph, l'hil. 1156, xopecrat aTO[j.a sapx.o?. 

XLIV. Anth. Pal. v. 174. 

/. 2. Sleep was represented as winged in Greek art ; as in the celebrated 
bronze head of the school of Praxiteles with the wings of a night-hawk, 
found in the bed of a river in Umbria and now in the British Museum. 

/. 3. The reference is to the Iliad, xiv. 230, foil. 

XLV. Anth. Pal. v. 225. 

/. 1. Machaon i~' ap' rjjrioc oapuax.a slow; rcdaasv on the wound of 
Menelaus, II. iv. 218. 
/. 5. Cf. Paulus Silentiarius in Anth. Pal. v. 291, T^Xc-^ov o -puisa; xat 

38-52] NOTES 323 

a/isaaxo. The story of Telephus' wound being cured by rust scraped from 
the spear of Achilles is in Hygirus, Fab. 101. 

XLVI. Anth. Pal. xii. 47. Cf. with this Ep. 67 infra, and Apoll. 
Rhod. iii. 114, foil., where there is an elaborate description of Eros and 
Ganymede playing at aTrpdyaXot. 

I. 2. There is a play on the phrase -vsuua y.uPcu'av which was used of 
running a deadly risk, 'set one's life in jeopardy'. Cf. Antipater of Sidon 
in Anth. Pal. vii. 427, last couplet. 

XLVII. Anth. Pal. v. 190. 

/. 1. a-/.ot[j.7]Tot ms. generally altered into d/.o'!u.7]Tov : but the construction 
is like the Virgilian haeret inexplctus lacrimans, Aen. viii. 559. 

1. 2. Cf. Cic. de Or. iii. 164, where tempestas comissationis is instanced 
as a good metaphor. 

I. 4. The rudderless ship drifts back upon Scylla. 

XLVIIL Anth. Pal. xii. 80. 

I. 1. ouToazpuTo; active, 'weeping sore' : in odxp-ja o-jaoazpuTa, infra xi. 
46, it has its normal passive sense. 

-s^av8-sv xpaup.a is a medical phrase, used of a wound after the hard 
swelling has gone down and it has begun to suppurate ; the • metaphor is 
continued in dvaoXc'yETai, 'sets up inflammation again'. Ovid, R. A. 623, 
vulnus in antiquum rediit male firma cicatrix. 

I. 6. Branding (ori^siv) was the usual punishment inflicted on runaway 

XLIX. Anth. Pal. v. 214. 

I. 2. -aXXoixi'vav is used in the double sense of the ball being tossed and 
the heart beating. 

I 4. d-&Xata-pov, 'against the rules of the game', which consisted in 
keeping the ball up and not letting it fall to the ground. 

L. Anth. Pal. v. 198. 

I. 1. A7}[aou?, Brunck for Ti^ous, ms. As Timo and Timarion are the same 
name, the latter being merely the pet form or diminutive of the former, 
one must be altered, either Ti[aou? into A^j-lou? or Ti;j.ap{ou into Ar^aptou. 
Both names occur in other epigrams of Meleager. 

I. 5. 7ii/.pou; is a conjectural restoration of a word which has been lost in 
the ms. owing to the copyist having inadvertently written z-rspdavxa? twice 
over. Others fill up the line with j^puaeKj. 

LI. Anth. Pal. v. 98, with title do^Xov, 01 ok 'Apywu. In Plan, it is run 
on to another epigram by Capito (Anth. Pal. v. 67). 

1. 2. Eur. H. F. 1245, vs'iaio xazwv or], /.ou/.eV ea9-' o'-tj TcDf. 

LII. Anth. Pal. v. 57. Probably on a gem which represented a butter- 
fly, the usual emblem of the soul in later classical art, fluttering round a 
lamp. Midler, Arch, der Kunst § 391, gives an account of the principal 
gems and reliefs which represent this subject. According to him the 
Psyche-butterfly does not occur till the Roman period, and is connected 

324 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, i 

with the mystical doctrines of the so-called Orphic school with regard to the 
immortality of the soul. But this epigram shows that the origin of the 
symbolism must be placed earlier. 
/. 1. -upi vri/o;j.:'vr t v us., corr. Hecker. 

LI 1 1. Anth. Pal. v. 178. 

/. 3. a/.px ovoijiv is equivalent to azpto'vu/o;, ' with the tips of his nails ; . 

/. 5. rcpog o' hi Xoi-ov is a redundant colloquial phrase like nee non etiam. 

LIV. Anth. Pal, v. 110. Compare Sir H. Wotton's lines to the Princess 
Elizabeth : 

You meaner beauties of the night, 

Which poorly satisfy our eyes 
More by your number than your light, 
You common people of the skies, 
What are you, when the moon shall rise ? 

LV. Anth. Pal. v. 137. 

/. 3. ypaosxai, is entered in the register as my -posxaxn; : cf. the speech 
of Rhetoric in Lucian, Bis Ace. c. 29, 67:0x3 [xovr,v i[A #-au[j.a£ouai xat 
£-iypacpovxai a-avxj; Tipoaxaxtv iauicov. 

/. 4. axprjxw auyxspaaac, i.e. he will mix his wine with her name as other 
drinkers do with water. 

LVI. Anth, Pal. v. 136. 

I. 1. This line is imitated and expanded from that of Callimachus, 
infra viii. 4. 

I. 2. ouv axpyjxo), ms. au o' axprjxw, most Edd. Cf. Pindar, Nem. iii. 134, 
[iS[JLiy[i.£VOV [xiki crjv yaXaxxt. 

/. 3. He desires yesterday's garland for memory, soiled though it be 
with myrrh and droj:>ping its rose-petals like tears (cf. supra, Ep. 14). 
There is no allusion here to the vulgar practice condemned by Plutarch 
(Quaest, Conv. vn. viii.) of steeping flowers in artificial scents. The old 
garland is dabbled with ointment from the hair on which it was worn. 

LVII. Anth. Pal. v. 149. 

I, 1. Ixatpav ms., corr. Graf, octzvuvai 'to portray' is almost a technical 
term of art. 

LVIII. Anth. Pal. v. 156. There is a reminiscence in the epigram of 
Aesch. Ag. 740, where Helen is called 9pdvyj;j.a vy]vs'[j.ou yaXava? . . [j-aXO-axov 
6;j.[ ("isXos. Cf. also Lucr. v. 1004-5. 

I. 1. xocpojcog, 'sparkling'; an epithet of the sea under a light wind in 
another epigram by the same author, infra vii. 10. 

LIX. Anth. Pal, v. 138. On a girl who sang the 'iXiou r.zpvi$. 

I. 1. fc-ov, the Trojan horse, my woe in the singing as it was the Trojans' 
in the story. ' ' 

I. 2. As the city kindled, I kindled along with it, not restrained by the 
fear that, like the Greeks, I might lose my labour for ten years. 

/. 3. o:yyo;, the light of the burning city. But there is also probably an 
allusion to Aesch. Ag. 504, where the or/.axov cps'yyo? exou; is simply a peri- 
phrasis for the tenth year. 

53-67] NOTES 325 

LX. Anth. Pal. v. 139. 

/. 1. uiXra; [xikoc, r.r^iZi and xpg'xEif [iikoz express the same idea, which is 
probably that of simple harp-playing and does not necessarily imply singing, 
though the harp was generally used as an accompaniment to the voice. 

The ^xti; was a larger instrument than the -/.ii>apa, and seems to have 
resembled more nearly the fiayaot; or Lydian harp of twenty strings ; the 
cithara, which had seven in the best period, never increased the number 
beyond eleven. 

I. 2. Xtyiav ms., corr. Schneider. Boissonade would read va\ IlaV. 

LXI. Anth. Pal. v. 163. 

I. 3. -/.at ou'aotarov ms., /.at ouau-oiaxov Edd., which makes the sentence 
very awkward and barely grammatical, ' that she has a sting of love both 
sweet and intolerable, ever bitter to the heart'. I have therefore written 
xa\ to Sdaotarov, ' that even the intolerable sting of love, ever bitter to the 
heart, has sweetness too '. 

LXII. Anth. Pal. v. 152. 

I. 7. He promises the gnat for reward the lion-skin and club of Hercules ; 
cf. infra x. 23, and Aesop Fab. 149, where the gnat concpiers the lion. 

LXIII. Anth. Pal. v. 215. Attributed in Plan, to Posidippus. It 
occurs again with one verbal change, Anth. Pal. xii. 19.* 

/. 6. Cf. Theocr. xxiii. (Ahrens, Incertorum v.) 44 : yoa'iov scat tooe 
yoa;j.;jia, to act; Toiyotst yapa^w, Toutov "Epto; E/.TctVcV. 

LXIV. Anth. Pal. v. 130. 

I. 3. From Theocr. xiv. 37, aXXoe Tot yXu/twv u7:o-/.oX-to<;. 

I. 6. Hdt. I. 8, (oTa Tuy/avst avDoiorrotat sdvTa a-iaxoTspa ooOaX[j.tov. 

LXV. Anth. Pal. vii. 195. Field-crickets and tree-crickets (axptos; and 
TaTTtys;) were much kept in cages (a/.pioo{Hj/.ai) as pets ; for other references 
to the custom see infra vi. 20 and xi. 14 ; and for the ppji-ia Xupa? of their 
shrill note, the story of Eunomus infra ii. 14. 

/. 7. yrJTciov or y7]-9-uov (see Schneider on Theophrast. Hist. Plant, vn. 4) 
can hardly mean ' leek ' here : the etymology suggests ' groundsel ' as an 

I. 8. The cages for crickets were floored with a turf, which he promises to 
water every morning. aTofjiaTa are the holes in the rose of the watering-can 
which divide the stream of water into drops. 

LXVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 19G. 

I. 1. Cf. Antipater of Thessalonica in Anth. Pal. ix. 92, ap/.f! TSTTtya; 
jAeO-uaai opdao?. 

I. 3. a/.pa Icp. -sTaXou is equivalent to £«p. a/.poi; -sxaXot:, as in Ep. 53 

LXVII. Anth. Pal. xii. 46. 

/. 3. f)v Tt ?:a!>(.), 'when I die'. The phrase is a double evasion of the 
straightforward statement, like the Latin siqu Id tnihi humanitus acciderit. 
It occurs again Ep. 71 infra. 

326 G KEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 

LXVIII. Antk. Pal. v. 8. In Plan, under the name of Philodenms. 
I. 5. Cf. Soph. Frag. Invert. 694, opxou; Eyto yuvocixo? el? uowp ypa- r <.). 

LXIX. Anth. Pal. v. 166. 

/. 2. The epithet a/.o'Xuov perhaps rather means jealous or malign. Some 
editors alter it to oxotiwv, 'gloomy'. 8axpu/ap7) is however a somewhat 
uncertain emendation of the MS. Saxi/apr], so that we cannot be sure of the 
meaning of the whole phrase. 

LXX. Anth, Pal. v. 145. 

/. 3. ' He will w r eep you an 'twere a man born in April ', Troil. and Cress. 
1. 2. 

LXXI. Anth. Pal. xii. 74. 

/. 1. n yap -Xe'ov, ' for what good is it 1 ' seems to have been adopted by all 
the editors. But the ms. reading, to yap -Xs'ov ev mjpf, may be right ; ' the 
greater part of me is already in ashes ' ; cf. infra viii. 11. 

/. 4. xeeXfti;, a jug, is here half-jestingly used for the burial urn. 

LXXII. Anth. Pal. v. 176. 

I. 6. e£ uypou Texoxa? is a compressed form of expression which may be 
compared with xaJh^sfr' axptov ix ^aywv, Soph. Ant, 411 ; to complete the 
sense yeyovuta must be understood with the former as axo7:oup.svoi with the 
latter phrase. For the sense cf. Antipater in Anth. Pal. ix. 420 (of Eros), 
irfind-v] os ouoc tot' ev -oXXio tixto|j.evo; rcsXayei. 

LXXIII. Anth. Pal, xii. 48. 

LXXIV. Anth, Pal, xii. 132, II. 1-6. This and the following epigram 
are written as one in the ms. I have separated them, following a German 
critic, Huschke, quoted by Dubner. 

LXXV. Anth. Pal. xii. 132, //. 7-14 : see note to the last epigram. 

LXXVI. Anth. Pal. v. 155. 

I. 2. Greek artists, from the time of Alexander onwards, generally signed 
their work in the imperfect ('A^eXX^? ijcofei) ; from not remembering this 
the editors have most needlessly altered the text to srcXaasv auTo? "Epw?. 
Cf. The Gardener's Daughter, I, 25, foil. 

LXXVII. Anth. Pal. xii. 248. With the whole epigram cf. Shakespeare, 
Sonnet cxvi. 

/. 3. By a dexterous confusion of tenses, yesterday is spoken of as still 
present (apEazwv) and to-day being thus future (dpEaci), the 'dreadful 
morrow ' seems put off into a still greater distance. 


I. Anth. Pal. ix. 7. 

/. 3. The Scheria of the Odyssey was, from the earliest times, identified 
with Corcyra. Xen., Hell, vi. 2, describes the extraordinary fertility of the 
tspov to'Sov of Corcyra. A temple of Zeus Casius there is mentioned by 
Suetonius, Ner. c. 22. 

i-8] NOTES 327 

/. 5. Hor. n. Od. vi. 7, sit modus lasso maris et viari'm. 

II. Anth, Pal. x. 24. 

/. 4. The editors print 'As-a^o as a proper name, which does not seem 

III. Anth. Pal. x. 17. The voyage spoken of is probably from Byzan- 
tium to Aulis, where he would disembark and proceed to Delphi by land. 
It can hardly have been to Delos, as the town and temple there were 
destroyed long before (see infra ix. 21), and IIvjOeiov in /. 4, though it 
might be used of any shrine of Apollo, properly means the Delphic temple. 

I. 3. h& Tpitwva means bit 0-aXaasav, the open sea outside the straits. 
tu must be a new god on the headland ; Jacobs supposes it still to refer to 
the harbour -god of the first couplet. 

IV. Anth. Pal. ix. 90. 

/. 2. Aegae in Euboea was peculiarly connected with the worship of 
Poseidon as early as Homer : II. xiii. 20, 'iV.e-o Ts'/.[j.wp Atya;' EvQ-a 8s oi 
xXuxa ow[ (3s'v9-e<ji Xiluvtj^. The ajj.ot/'.psp^ <jxo7;eXo; here is the sea- 
cavern of Aegae, humida regna speluncisque lacus clausi, where he kept his 
sea-horses. Dilthey very ingeniously reads; oxotoXov, which 
makes an easier syntax ; the allusion would then be to the rock of 
Caphareus, called ?uXotpayo; from the number of ships wrecked on it. 

I, 3. "Apso? 7udXts, i.e. Rome. 

V. Anth. Pal. vi. 70. 

VI. Anth. Pal. vi. 349. 

VII. Anth. Pal. vi. 30. 

1. 8. w? eS-eXei? ms. Others read w; 8-s'p.i?, u [aeSe'wv. 

VIII. Anth. Pal. vi. 223, under title 'Avnraxpou. Jacobs prints it 
among the epigrams of Antipater of Sidon ; but the style seems more like 
Antipater of Thessalonica. 

The Scolopendra (enrolled by Spenser among the ' dreadful pourtraicts of 
deformitee' that live in the sea, F. Q. u. xii. 23), seems to have been a 
half-fabulous monster, like the sea-serpent, compounded out of what was 
known or believed of various huge sea-creatures. It is called (j.upto7:ou? in 
an epigram by Theodorides (Anth. Pal. vi. 222). Aelian says that the 
part of its body which appears above the water is about the size of a 
trireme, and that it 'swims with many feet'. The scolopendra of Pliny 
(N. H. ix. 43) is a very harmless creature. The object dedicated here 
must be one of the tentacles of a huge cuttle-fish. They are not now found 
in the Mediterranean of so gigantic a size, but in the Indian Ocean still 
exist with tentacles of forty feet in length, while the ten-tentacled squid 
or calamary of the Banks of Newfoundland sometimes even exceeds that 
size. Each tentacle is furnished with a hundred and twenty suckers, so 
that the epithet [xupto-ou? is hardly exaggerated. 

328 OREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 

IX. A nth. Pal. vi. 105. 

/. 1. XijievlTt Jacobs for ms. Xi|j£V7jTiv : cf. Callim. Hymn to Artemis, 
I. 39, ettt, /.a\ Xi[iive<raiv e'-it/.otto?. 

/. 3. Cf.'the Homeric £topdxspov oz xipats and the discussion on the 
meaning of the phrase in Arist. Poet. 1461 a. 15. 

/. G. -avxa Xiva, sc. fishing-nets as well as hunting-nets ; cf. Ep. 38, infra. 

X. A nth. Pal. vi. 33. 

/. 2. -aoa, 'by the grace of : it was owing to the god's help that the 
fishermen had any offerings to give him. 

/. 3. The meaning of Xfvou [3uac;(o[i.aai is rather difficult to determine. If 
P'j<j5(oij.a (a word which does not appear to occur elsewhere) is formed from 
puaaoc, ' depth ', a collateral form of puO-d;, Xtvov would be the net (as in 
Ep. 38 infra) and puaanj;j.a-a the pockets of the net ; if puaao)[j.a is formed 
from [iuaao;, 'flax', the whole phrase will merely mean 'nets woven of flax '. 
Liddell and Scott say that [iuc73(o[j.a = pua[i.a, 'a stopper', which seems to be 
a mistake, as it does not satisfy either the sense or the etymology. 

/. 5. The ipzir.ri is described by Pliny, N. H. xxiv. 39, as a bush not 
unlike the tamarisk. It is probably the Mediterranean heath, which grows 
to a height of five or six feet, and might have stems thick enough to be 
made into a rough stool. auxoupY^Tov means a rudely wrought rather than 
a natural seat ; it is in distinction to an object on which ornament has been 
added ; cf. the auxdijuXov Ey.-ioj.ta of Philoctetes, Soph. Phil. 35. 

1. 6. Glass did not come into common use for drinking-vessels before the 
Christian era, and even then earthenware was the ordinary substance, or, 
among wealthy people, silver. Trimalchio in speaking about his cups of 
Corinthian metal (Petr. Sat. c. 50) says, ignoscetis mihi quod dixero, ego 
malo mihi vitrea, certe non olunt : quod si non frangcrentur, mallem mihi 
quam aurum; nunc autem vilia sunt, and then goes on to tell the story of 
the invention of malleable glass by an artist in the reign of Tiberius. The 
manufacture of glass, of which Alexandria was the chief centre, was carried 
to as great perfection under the Empire as it ever has attained since. The 
calices allassontes of iridescent glass were specially prized ; Vopisc. 
Saturn, c. 8. 

XL Anth. Pal. vi. 251. A dedication by sailors in the famous temple 
of Apollo on the headland of Leucas, called formidatus nautis by Virgil, 
A en. iii. 275. Cf. the epigram by Antipater of Thessalonica (Anth. Pal. 
i x. 553) on the foundation of Nicopolis by Augustus. 

I. 6. oXxt], the oil-flask from which the lamp was filled ; called pto^Eio^?, 
'parsimonious', because the oil was dropped from it into the lamp a little 
at a time. 

XII. Anth. Pal. vi. 199. As a rule the Greeks wore hats only on 
journeys, not in the city or near home. 

/. 1. 91X7]; y.6o<sr]i simply 'his head', the old epic use. 
/. 4. /apt;, concrete, ' thank-offering '. 

XIII. Anth. Pal. vi. 149. It is not known what victory is referred tc. 
The cock was a common symbol of courage. Pausanias, Eliaca B. xxvi. 3, 

9- 1 8] NOTES 329 

mentions a chryselephantine statue of Athene by Pheidias at Elis with a 
cock for helmet-crest, oxi Tzpoyzip6xa.xa. r/ouaiv zz p-dya; oi dXexTpuovEj. 

XIV. Anth. Pal. vi. 54. The same story is told at somewhat greater 
length in an epigram by an unknown author, Anth. Pal. ix. f)84, with the 
title in the MS. et; ayaXp.a Euvojxou xou xiOapoioou iaxtoxo? ev AsXcpot; e'/ovto? 
ink tjJ xiOapa xa\ xov p.ouai/.ov xi'xxtya. The opponent is there called Spartis. 
It is also related by Strabo vi. p. 2G0, (who says the statue was in Locris), 
by Clemens Alexandrinus in the preface to his npoxp£7rrixd, and by the 
Emperor Julian, Ep. xli. The original source appears to have been the 
history of Timaeus. It is told in English by Browning in the epilogue to 
the volume of poems entitled La Saisiaz. 

I. 1. The Delphians, according to a scholiast on Apoll. Rhod. iv. 1490, 
were originally called Auxtopsl?, from the village of Lycorea on Parnassus ; 
hence Apollo Lycoreus. 

I. 2. dOXoau'voc; ©iXoaxccp dvou means little if anything more than ' contest 
for the garland'. In such compound epithets one half is frequently 
ornamental ; thus compounds of jiou?, Ssivojiou? apd, opO-cI-ou? xdyo; in 
Sophocles are a stronger way of saying osivo's and op!>o; : cf. cptXoppw§ 
dp-sXo;, 'the clustered vine', infra iv. 12. 

/. 6. «Jtexd|ji.7ca<rc ppay/ov, ' snapped with a jarring sound '. The verb 
d-oxo[j.:;d£siv seems coined for the occasion ; the words xcI[j.7:o? and y.opxd^Eiv 
originally meant a sound like that of ringing metal, and hence came to 
mean ' sounding brass ' in the metaphorical sense. 

XV. Anth. Pal. vi. 240. A prayer to Artemis Soteira for the recovery 
of the Emperor. In the uncertainty as to the date of Philippus it cannot 
be determined what emperor is referred to. The title of paaiXsu; was 
current in the eastern provinces of the empire from Tiberius downwards. 

/. 4. For the Hyperborean worship of Artemis see Hdt. iv. 32-35. 

XVI. Anth. Pal. vi. 337. It is this Nicias, the physician of Miletus, 
to whom Theocritus dedicates Idyl xi., taxpov sovxa -/.at xatg Ivve'a <ir\ 
-soiX7][jivov l\oya. Motaat? ; and Idyl xxviii. went with the present of an 
ivory distaff to his wife Theugenis. 

XVII. Anth. Pal. vi. 189. A dedication to the healing Nymphs of the 
river Anigrus on the borders of Elis and Triphylia. Pausanias, Eliaca A. 
v. 11, gives an account of the ceremonial gone through by persons suffering 
from skin disease : after prayer and sacrifice in the cave of the Nymphs, 
they anointed the ailing parts of their body and swam across the river, 
from which they were said to emerge cured. The water of this river was 
reddish and had a strong sulphurous smell. Cf. also Strabo, viii. p. 346. 
'Aviypidos; has been restored here from these passages for the ms. 
'Ajj-aopudSs; into which it had become very naturally corrupted. 

I. 2. dp-Ppoata-., ms. (and Plan.), due to a copyist who thought the metre 
needed mending. 

XVIII. Kaibel, Efigr. Grace. 802. From an inscribed tablet of the 
second century a.d. found at Rome. 

330 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 

With an offering to Pan Paean, the Healer. Besides Apollo Paean, 
other gods, Asclepius, Dionysus, etc., were worshipped under this title. 

For such appearances of the gods, not in dreams but in a form visible to 
the waking eye, cf. Virg. Aen. iii. 173, and Hegesippus in Anth. Pal. 
vi. 266, where Artemis appears to a girl at her loom, to? auya r.up6<;. 

/. 1. Unless tocos is a mistake of the stonecutter for to3s, it means 'these 
offerings', and owpov is in apposition, 'as a gift'. 

/. 4. There is a play on the words 'Yystvos and uyir];. 

XIX. Anth,. Pal. vi. 3. 

/. 2. Mount Pholoe in Arcadia was the scene of Heracles' fight with the 

/. 4. auTo; a^oxa^wv go together in the construction. Cf. the -/.opuva 
ayptsXaiw of Lycidas, Theocr. vii. 18. 

XX. Anth. Pal vi. 336. 

XXI. Anth. Pal. vi. 119. 

XXII. Anth. Pal. xii. 131. 

/. 1. Est Paphos Idaliumque tibi, sunt alta Cythera, says Juno to Venus, 
Aen. x. 86. The temple of Aphrodite in the Reeds at Miletus was the 
principal sanctuary of that city. For the worship of Astarte-Aphrodite at 
Heliopolis in Hollow Syria see Lucian's treatise de Dea Syria. 

1. 4. otxclo; here has its primary sense 'of the house' ; a very rare use ; 
cf. Hes. "Epya 457. 

XXIII. Anth. Pal. vi. 1. Ascribed there to Plato, but it is obviously 
of a much later date. 

There were two celebrated courtesans of the name of Lais. The first 
was a Corinthian, and flourished in the time of the Peloponnesian war. The 
second, daughter of the Sicilian Timandra, lived nearly a century later, and 
was the contemporary and rival of Phryne the Athenian. There is a vast 
amount of gossip about both in Athenaeus, Book xiii. 

There are three epigrams on the same subject by Julianus Aegyptius, 
Anth. Pal. vi. 18-20. 

XXIV. Anth. Pal. v. 205. For the magical uses of the wryneck the 
locus classicus is the 4>ap;j.a/.:jTptxi of Theocritus. The bird was fastened 
outspread on a wheel, which was turned to a refrain of incantations. 
?X/.stv wyya ir.l xivi was the technical phrase for using this charm upon a 
lover. The object dedicated here is an amethyst engraved with a wryneck 
and set in gold. 

/. 1. Theocr. I.e. (I. 40), yt<K oivsti)-' ooz pd[j.[io? 6 yaX/.so; e? 'A<ppoo{xa;, 
u>; ttjvo; oivotxo 7to3-' ajAsxi'pr^i flupT,atv. The refrain of the sorceress is 
"iuy? SXxe xu x^vov £[j.ov ~ot\ otojj.a tov avopx. 

I. 2. Theocr. (/. 136), auv Be xaxal; [Jiaviai; zx\ -apOivov £x i/aAa;j.oio, xa\ 
vJppav ssofir,?' en oc'[j.via frepfxa Ai-otaav avEpoj. 

/. 5. Theocr. (/. 2), ors'^ov xav xeXe'Pocv opoivtxe'ti) o!o; awxu. Purple had 
magical virtues. 

iq-32] NOTES 331 

/. 6. This is the Thessalian Larissa, Thessaly being famous for its 
witches : cf. infra x. 38, and the Asinus of Lucian. 

XXV. Anth. Pal. v. 17, with title raixouXXiou. 

/. 2. Aaiax'la are explained by Suidas to be cakes of barley-meal, oil, 
and wine. 

XXVI. Anth. Pal. vi. 148. The temple of Serapis at Canopus was one 
of the holiest in Egypt and a celebrated place of divination by dreams, 
Strab. xvii. p. 801. Athen., xv. 700 D, speaks of a lamp given by 
Dionysius the younger of Syracuse to the prytaneum of Tarentum with as 
many lights as there were days in the year. 

/. 2. There are no means of determining whether rj Kptxiou means the 
wife or the daughter of Critias. 

/. 3. Eufcfieva, i.e. when her prayer was heard : cf. Ep. 1 supra. 

I. 4. This lamp 'outburned Canopus'. There is a curious verbal co- 
incidence with Isaiah xiv. 12, xw; i£e7ce<jev i/. xou oupavou 6 'Ewatpopo? 6 jcpayt 

XXVII. Anth Pal. vi. 178. 

/. 1. orcXov is the shield, cccjtxi?, and so the epithets are in the feminine. 

XXVIII. Anth. Pal. vi. 127. For a dedicated weapon, probably a 
helmet or shield, in the temple of Artemis, presumably at Miletus, to which 
Nicias belonged. 

/. 2. Of these /opo\ rapJHvco'. Callimachus' Hymn to Artemis is a 
specimen. In it, I. 226, Artemis is invoked as ' the dweller in Miletus '. 

XXIX. Anth. Pal. vi. 160. There is a very similar epigram by 
Philippus, Anth. Pal. vi. 247 ; cf. also Kaibel, Epigr. Qraec. 776. 

/. 2. The shuttle may be called aXxuwv taxtov either from its ringing 
sound (cf. the xepxiSog 9<ov7j in Arist. Poet. 1454 b. 35) or from the swift 
flash of colour in which it passes through the loom. 

1. 3. /.apr u 3apc'ovxa, with its heavy swathe of wool at the top. 

I. 6. crrapov, ' warp ', must here mean thread spun for use as warp. With 
the rest of the line cf. Catull. lxiv. 320, mollia lanae vellera virgati 
custodibau t calath isci. 

XXX. Anth. Pal. vi. 22, without any author's name. In Plan, it is 
attributed to Zonas. 

I. 1. Cf. Virg. Eel. ii. 51, cana tenera lanugint mala. 

I. 4. Cf. Philippus in Anth. Pal. vi. 102, xocpuov yXwpiov ixyavs? ix 


I. 5. A marginal note in the Ms. says, axopOuy? Be Xc'ysxai -av xo s.1; o?u 
/.axaXjjyov. It is specially used of the tip of a horn, as in Ep. 41 infra. 
This Priapus was a wooden post carved into a head at the top, and below 
running into a point which was stuck into the ground. 

XXXI. Anth. Pal. vi. 98. 

XXXII. Anth. Pol. vi. 36. 

332 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 2 

/. 4. Imitated from Theocr. vii. 155, ac, £zi atopto auxt; syw -a?at[j.i [ac'yoc 

XXXIII. A nth. Pal. vi. 31 : headed aS*jXov, with the words 01 ok 
N'./.ao/ou added in a later hand. 

/. 2. For the rites of Demeter Chthonia see Pausan. Corinthiaca, xxxv. 5-8. 

XXXIV. Anth. Pal. vi. 53. With this epigram compare the famous 
lines of Du Bellay, Dhin vanneur de ble aux vents, taken in substance from 
a Latin epigram by the Venetian scholar and historian Andreas Naugerius 
(b. 1483, d. 1529). This last, which is less easily accessible, is worth 
quoting as a specimen of the best and simplest Renaissance workmanship : 

Aurae, cpiae levibus percurritis aera pennis 
Et strepitis blando per nemora alta sono, 

Serta dat haec vobis, vobis haec rusticus Idmon 
Spargit odorato plena canistra croco ; 

Vos lenite aestum, et paleas seiungite inanes 
Dum medio fruges ventilat ille die. 

/. 2. From this line Suidas has an entry in his lexicon, -tdxaxo?, 
■9-p£7:Ttxdc, aujfijTij'.os. Meineke says the word could not have such a 
meaning ; noxoxaxio, 7:p7)uxdxto (cf. dvs'[j.wv -prjuxaxs Zs'cpups in an epigram 
by Dioscorides, Anth. Pal. xii. 171) Xcicxdx<o, have been suggested by 
different editors. Cf. Milo's song in Theocritus (x. 46) : 

E; popery avs[j.ov xa; xdpttuo? a xopia ufttv 
7) ^'cpupov (iXs—'xeo " — laivcxat 6 axdyu; ouxto;. 

Columella ( 1 1. 20) speaks of the lenis aequalisaue Favouiux as the best wind 
for winnowing in. 

XXXV. Anth. Pal. ix. 142. 

I. 2. XeIoy/e is Brunck's correction of the ms. xexsuS-e. 
I. 3. Xtpa is a shortened form (a^prjijivov) of XtJBaoa ; it apparently does 
not occur elsewhere. 

/. 4. a?:(oaa[j.£i < )a, a frequentative aorist equivalent to a present. 

XXXVI. App. Plan. 291. It occurs twice in the Planudean Anthology, 
the second time with the reading at puv u-o £a{h'oto ■Jk'psu; in I. 3. 

/. 2. oiovo'ijlo; here is most probably 'shepherd', from o!: : but it is 
possible that a/.07:ta; otovd[j.ou, 'a lonely peak', may be the true reading : 
cf. KtOaiptovd; x' o;ovd;j.ot axo-iai in the epigram of Kiitmnides, infra in. 57. 

XXXVII. Anth. Pal. vi. 177 : without the name of any author. Ahrens 
places it among the Dnbia et Spuria in his edition of Theocritus. He 
restores the Doric forms, u;j.vh);, etc., throughout. 

XXXVIII. Anth. Pal. vi. 16. One of fifteen epigrams (Anth. Pal. vi. 
I 1-16 and 179-187) by different authors on the same subject, four of them 
by Archias. 

33-41] NOTES 333 

XXXIX. Anth. Pal. vi. 268. Also quoted by Suidas, s.vv. etaaro, 
v-ipir/s, sivowpuXXov and uatfjuooecig. 

Compare with this the single Greek epigram written by the poet Gray, 
one of the many scattered proofs of the extraordinary genius which alone in 
that age penetrated the inmost spirit of Greek literature : 

*A£o[.isvgc —oXuD-rjpov sxtjJjoXou aXaog avarraa; 

xa? osiva; xs[jiv7) XftJte xuvays -9-sa;. 
Mouvoi ap' evOxc xuvtov ^aiKtov zXayyEusiv uXayuot 

avxaysi? Nujj.oav aypoxspav xsXaoio. 

/. 2. opiou corr. Jacobs for ms. (Jiou : others read piou, ' spur ' of a 
mountain. uro'pia^s perhaps merely means ' stand above ' ; but it is 
generally taken as meaning 'protect', urapfajretv /sipa being the full 

/. 3. ecre ms., rjxs SuicL The editors for the most part read Ires (' so long 
as thou goest '), which is not Greek. I have made what seems the simplest 

/. 4. /.us!v is a dative of accompaniment, equivalent to cniv xugi'v. 

XL. Anth. Pal. vi. 253. 

I. 2. rcpsuv is a rare variant of nptav, a headland of coast or spur of hill. 

I. 3. The 'hut of Pan' is probably the little penthouse over the god's 
image to protect it from birds and rain. Cf. also however Endymion, i. 
232, ' O thou, whose mighty palace roof doth hang from jagged trunks, and 
overshadoweth eternal whispers.' 

/. 4. Ka3aat7j? ms. corr. Hecker. Bassae in Arcadia was one of the most 
celebrated shrines of Apollo : the temple stands high on the hillside in a 
most imposing situation. 

/. 5. The hunters nailed up their trophies on these old juniper stumps : 
for the practice cf. Paulus Silentiarius in Anth. Pal. vi. 168. 

I. 6. Eustathius, on Od. xvi. 471, urap 7:0X10;, o-9-i "Eppiato; X090? sra'v, 
mentions a story that Hermes was brought to trial before the gods at the 
suit of Hera for the murder of Argus, and acquitted, the judges all casting 
down their pebbles of acquittal at his feet as they passed ; oO-sv aypi xou vuv 
xou; dvfrpwjzou; xaxa xa; ooou; . . . swpou; izoiztv XtO-cov xa\ Sidyovxa; 
"poapaXXciv X'ID-o'j;, xal toutou; xaXslv 'Ep[J.atou; Xocpou;. Another scholium 
on the same passage says that the name "Ep|j.aioi Xo'cpot was given to the 
Roman milestones, because Hermes juparros ixarhjps xd; 6000;. There is an 
epigram of unknown authorship, App. Plan. 254, on one of these w Ep[j.aioi 
Xd<pot or Epjxaxe; ; it is there at once a propitiation to the god and a mark 
of the distance, seven stadia, from a place called Atyo? Kp»]W]. 

XLI. Anth. Pal. vi. Ill : with title 'AvxiTcdxpoo merely. 

The places mentioned in the epigram are all Arcadian except Lasion, 
which was a town in Elis, but near the border of Arcadia. 

/. 3. A Thearidas is mentioned by Polybius, xxxii. 17 and xxxviii. 2, as 
Achaean envoy to Rome, b.c. 158 and 146 ; it may have been his son for 
whom this epigram was written. 

334 GREEK A X T H L G Y [sect. 3 

/. 4. poajoTo; means shaped like a rhomb or diamond ; it may be 
doubted whether we should not read here ^ofi^bvnu, 'whirled '. 

1.5. ordofruY?, 'antler-point': see note on Ep. 30 supra. Antipater 
like Pindar falls into the mistake of giving the female deer horns. Arist. 
Poet. 14G0b. 31, eti -OTspov eiti to a[j.apxr;[j.a, twv xata ttjv TE/yi]v r} xar aXXo 
au(xpEp7jxos ; eXocttov yap, e! \ir\ rSsi oti eXocoos rhjXeia xeperra oux. eyei, r; e! 
d;juij.7]To>: EYpalev : the reference being to Pind. Olymp. iii. 52. 

XLII. 4n*fc. PaZ. vi. 75. 

/. 4. E-t merely means ' with '. 
/. 7. Lyctus was a town in Crete. 

/. 8. The afJwpiSe'ai were metal sockets into which the ends of the bow 
were fitted and on which the bowstring was attached. 

XLIII. App. Plan. 17. Attributed by Natalis Conies, Myth. v. 6, to 
Ibycus ; but it is obviously of late date. 

XLIV. Anth, Pal. vi. 79. 

I. 3. The herds of Pan here, as in Keats, Endymion i. 78, are probably 
not visible to mortals. 

I. 5. There is a play on words which can hardly be rendered in a trans- 
lation, to E-auXtov or ^ E-auXia meaning also the day after the marriage 
ceremony. Pan will find consummation and rest here after his long 
wanderings in search of Echo. 

/. 6. Cf. vi. 10 infra, and an anonymous epigram Anth. Pal. vi. 87, 
which speaks of Pan as leaving the company of Bacchus and wandering 
over the country in search of Echo. 


I. Anth. Pal. vii. 253. Also quoted by a scholiast on Aristides iii. 154. 
For the critical questions involved in this and the next epigram, see 
Bergk Lyr. Gr. iii. p. 426 foil. The authenticity of both is beyond reason- 
able doubt. The only question is which is the Athenian and which the 
Lacedaemonian inscription ; and, as Bergk points out, I. 3 of this epigram 
applies more naturally to Athens. The mutual jealousy of the two states 
probably accounts for the absence of any distinctive expressions. 

I. 3. repi&elvai, sc. as a crown. Cf. the epigram of Mandrocles the 
Samian engineer in Hdt. iv. 88, ocutw jjlev crre'oavov jcgpitfetg Saafotat 8s /.ufioc. 

II. Anth. Pal. vii. 251. See the note to the last epigram. 

III. Anth. Pal. ix. 304. The bridging of the Hellespont and the cutting 
of Athos were favourite themes with Greek rhetoricians. Cf. Isocr. Paneg. 
58 e, o -ocvte; O-puXouai, to> arpaTons'Scj) jcXeuaat [jiv 01a t^s r^neipou 7TE£suaai SI 
ota ttJ; fl-aXotTTT]?, and Arist. Phct. 1410 a. 11. This perpetual repetition 
provoked the sneer of Juvenal (x. 173) : 

creditur olim 
Velificatus Athos et quicquid Graecia mendax 
Audet in historia, constratum classibus isdem 
Suppositumque rotis solidum mare. 

i-io] NOTES 335 

IV. Anth. Pal. vii. 249. Hdt. vii. 228, GatpO-stai 8e a<pi auxou xauxr,, xfpcsp 
incaov, E^tysypaTrTai Xs'yovxa xaSs . . . xotat ok S^aoxivjXTjat toty «o 
j-eIv , ayyeXXEiv (so the best mss.) x.x.X. It is also quoted by Diod. Sic. xi. 
33, and by Strabo, ix. p. 656 c, who says that the pillars with the inscription 
still existed in his time. Strabo and Diodorus both quote I. 2, xoi? /.sivwv 
xEtO-ojiEvoi vojjLtuLou ; Suidas s.v. Aeeovtorj? follows Hdt. and the ms. Pal. 

Cic. Tusc. i. 101, pari animo Lacedaemonii in Thermopylis occidcrunt, in 
quos Simonides : 

Die hospes Spartae nos te hie vidisse iacentes 
Dum Sanctis patriae legibus obsequimur. 

V. Anth. Pal. vii. 242. It is not known to what event this epigram 
refers. It is headed in the Palatine MS. si? xou? jxexa Asovioou TeXeu-njaavxas, 
which is obviously absurd. 

VI. Anth. Pal. vii. 245. It follows an epigram under the name of 
Gaetulicus on the battle between three hundred Spartans and three hundred 
Argives to decide the possession of Thyrea (Hdt. i. 82), with the heading 
xou auxou si? xou? auxou's. The sic, xou; auxou? is j)lainly absurd. But 11. 1 and 
2 are partially extant on a marble fragment of a date between 300 and 350 
B.C. found near the Olympeium at Athens (Kaibel Epigr. Grace. 27) which 
proves that xou auxou is wrong also. A scholium suggests that it is either 
on the Athenian and Theban dead at Chaeronea, or on those slain in the 
subsequent battle in which Alexander crushed the revolt of Thebes, b.c. 335. 

VII. Anth. Pal. vii. 160. This epigram is probably authentic, though 
there is some doubt as to all those ascribed to Anacreon. See Bergk 
Lyr. Gr. iii. p. 281. 

It is conjectured that this Timocratus was one of the Te'ians who re- 
colonised Abdera after the capture of Teos by the Persians under Harpagus, 
B.C. 544, and was killed in a battle with the neighbouring Thracians (see 
Hdt. i. 168) ; but nothing is certainly known on the subject. 

/. 1. sv ms., r ( v Bergk, without obvious necessity. 

/. 2. Soph. Phil. 436, ^oXejjlo? ouosV avSp' ixiov aipsi 7COV7)pov, aXXa xouc 
/ p^ttou? a£t, and fr. inccrt. 649, "Apr)? yap ouoev xrov /.axtov Xoyi£sxai. 

VIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 255. Nothing is known of the occasion of this 
epigram, nor on what authority it is assigned to Aeschylus. The style is of 
the best period ; and a Life of Aeschylus says that he competed with 
Simonides in ikiyeiu. 

I. 1. [j.svs'y/7;;, which does not seem to occur elsewhere, is formed on the 
analogy of the Homeric (jlsve7:xoAe;jlo?. 

IX. App. Plan. 26. On the Athenians who fell in the great victory 
over the Chalcidians after the unsuccessful invasion of Attica by the con- 
federacy under Cleomenes king of Sparta, b.c. 504 : Hdt. v. 77. 

('. 4. Cf. Pind. Isthm. iv. 26, xpa/sla vioa; -oX;p.oto. 

X. Anth. Pal. vii. 256. Also quoted by Philostratus, vita Apoll. i. 23. 
On the Eretrian captives settled at Ardericca in Cissia by Darius after 

336 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 3 

the first great Persian War of 490 B.C. Hdt. vi. 119 gives a full account 
of the history. Philostratus, I.e., gives a more or less legendary account of 
memorials of the colony surviving up to the time of Apollonius. He places 
the colony 'in Cissia near Babylon', one long day's journey from the city 
of Babylon. Four hundred and ten of the seven hundred and eighty 
prisoners reached Ardericca alive. They built temples and an agora in 
the Greek style, and continued to speak Greek for about a century. 
Damis, a contemporary of Apollonius, saw this epigram on a Greek tomb 
there. So far Philostratus, who may possibly be preserving some fragments 
of a real tradition. 

For the question of the authenticity of this and the next epigram, see 
Bergk Lyr. Gr. ii. p. 297, who inclines to consider them genuine. A 
ground for suspicion is the mention of the plain of Ecbatana, which was 
in Upper Media, and at least three hundred miles distant from Ardericca. 
But we need never look for accurate geography in Greek authors when 
speaking of Persia ; both Ecbatana here and Susa in the next epigram are 
probably used vaguely for the heart of the Persian empire. 

XL Anth. Pal. vii. 259 : also quoted by Diog. Laert. vita Platonis c. 33, 
and by Suidas s.v. "ir.r.ioq. See the notes to the last epigram. 
/. 1. Suidas has eC[3g:'«v : which is perhaps right. 

XII. Vita Anonyma Aeschyli, printed in most editions. The first 
couplet is also quoted in Plutarch de Exsilio c. 13, and the second in 
Athenaeus xiv. 627 x>. Athenaeus is the authority on which it is ascribed 
to Aeschylus himself, the author of the Life merely saying that the people 
of Gela engraved it on this tomb. It is referred to by Pausan. Attica 
xiv. T). 

Aeschylus died at Gela in SicUy, b.c. 456. 

/. 3. For the grove of the hero Marathon, from which the battlefield was 
named, see Pausan. Attica xv. 3, xxxii. 4. 

XIII. Anth, Pal. vii. 651. 

/. 1. ooTs'a /.etva, ms. The correction Xsu/.a, which Jacobs suggested but 
did not print in his text, is undoubtedly right. 

I. 2. Incised letters in marble were nearly always coloured, generally with 
minium, but sometimes as here with xu'avo;, blue carbonate of copper. 

I. 3. Doliche was another name of the island Icarifl, one of the larger 
Sporades, which gave the name of the Icarian sea to the channel between 
the Sporades and Cyclades. Dracanon or Drepanon was the northern pro- 
montory of this island. 

I. 5. Sevir]; ^oXupjoco; ms. Reiskc and Jacobs both saw that a proper 
name was concealed here, the former proposing to read Ssvta 7loXux7j8eqs, 
' the unfortunate Xenias ', and the latter "/spot 3' sy^ 3sv ! .r t z tzoXux.^oso? ' by 
the hands of the unfortunate Xenia ' f mother or wife of the dead man). I 
keep the ms. reading : l pro hospitio tneo cum, Poh/medeJ 

I. 6. The Dryopes were the inhabitants of Doris, the neighbouring state 
to Malian Trachis, and only divided from it by a spur of Mount Oeta. 

n-23] NOTES 337 

XIV. Anth. Pal. x. 3. Probably an epitaph on an Athenian who had 
died at Meroe. It is among the npoTpc^xtxa in the Anthology, and Jacobs 
accordingly says, ' hominem de exsilio lamentantem poeta alloqui videtur '. 
But #avovxa, /. 3, makes this explanation impossible. 

For the sentiment cf. Cic. Tusc. i. 104, Praeclare Anaxagoras ; qui cum 
Lampsaci moreretur quaerentibus amicis velletne Clazomenas in patriam si 
quid ei accidisset afferri, Nihil necesse est, inquit, undique enim ad inferos 
tantundem viae est : also an epigram by Arcesilaus, quoted by Diog. 
Laert. iv. 30 : 

'AXXa yap dq 'Ayspovxa t6v ou (poccov taa -/.cXsuO-a, 
<6; aivo? dvoptov, — avxoO'SV (j.3xp£U[j.sva. 

XV. Anth. Pal. vii. 368. On an Athenian woman, probably one of those 
carried to Rome after the storm and sack of Athens by Sulla on the first of 
March, b.c. 86. 

I. 4. Cyzicus was built on a peninsula in the Propontis only joined to the 
mainland by a narrow passage : Strabo, xii. p. 861. 

XVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 265. Bergk, I.e. on i. 5 supra, is unquestionably 
right in saying that this and the next epigram belong to a later period 
than Plato. 

Si bene calculum ponas, ubiqiie naufragium est, says the hero in Petronius, 
Sat. c. 115. 

XVII. Anth. Pal. vii. 269. See the note to the last epigram. 

XVIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 282. In Plan, under the name of Antipater. 

XIX. Anth. Pal. vii. 264. 

XX. Anth. Pal. vii. 350. 

XXI. Anth. Pal, vii. 277. 

I. 1. Various emendations of this line have been proposed, none [con- 
vincing. The text as it stands, though extremely elliptical, is quite in the 
manner of Callimachus. ' At the hands of what stranger hast thou found 
burial, shipwrecked man ? ' 

I, 2. eV alytaXot? Edd. It is not necessary to alter the MS. reading. It 
means ' stretched on the sand ', like eV evvfa x&E-co 7:=7.£9-pa, Od. xi. 577. 

XXII. Anth. Pal, vii. 285. 

I, 3. From Od, i. 161, avs'po; ou or] ~ou XsuV oarsa 7:u9-cTa'. o;j.(3pc->. < 'f. 
Propert. in. vii. 11, 

Sed tua nunc volucres adstant super ossa marinae, 
Nunc tibi pro tumulo Carpathium omne mare. 

XXIII. Anth, Pal, vii. 496. Bergk, Lyr. Or. iii. p. 466, argues that 
this epigram as it stands must be incomplete, the name of the dead man not 
being mentioned. He would therefore prefix to it the couplet also attri- 
buted to Simonides which occurs a little further down in the w Palatine 
Anthology (vii. 511) : 

2fJ(j.a -/.axacpy-ifxEvoto Mt^avXiQc, £uV av tSeofxat 
o?/.xs(pw 06, xaXav KaXXia, o* E7xa8c?. 


338 GKEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 3 

ami regards t lit* eight lines thus reconstructed as ' non tuutulo insrrijitiuit sol 
epistalium coHsolandi causa missum Calliae cuius JUius Megacles naufragio 
jiropc Gem n en m interiit'. It is an additional argument in favour of this 
proposal that Bergk is thus enabled to retain the ms. reading u><peXev in I. 1, 
which all other editors alter to wosXs?. 

But the theory cannot be accepted. The epigram is obviously an epitaph, 
real or imaginary ; the x^os in I. 6 agrees very ill with the sux' av 'locoo-ai 
of the other epigram ; and it is almost superfluous to point out how much 
the beautiful and stately apostrophe to Mount Geraneia suffers by being 
removed from the beginning of the poem and transformed into a somewhat 
frigid statement of fact. Nor is it any insuperable objection that the name 
of the dead man is not given. In many of the sepulchral epigrams of the 
Anthology we must suppose that the name and family of the deceased were 
inscribed separately on the tomb, followed by the verses. For an instance 
similar to this of an inscription on a cenotaph, where the original monument 
has been preserved, see Kaibel Epigr. Graec. 89. On the tomb there is 
engraved first the name, Nixta? Nixfou 'Epsrpieu? ; then follow eight lines of 
elegiacs, beginning : — 

2^[J.a too' £v x.3Vc^ x.itxat -/0-ovi [awjxa o' hi aypou] 
'Qosio'j x.ounxa rcupxatin csihuivou. 

i I I'll 

Tovo' ixi 7:a-Ta!vovx' h& youvaat JtaTpo* [? Jtaxpo? youvaii] jxap'ia; 
' AlSqg ot ax.oxia; ajAOc',3aXiv ~-'puya;. 

where the xovos is like the 6 [jiv of here. 

I. 1. Mount Geraneia and the Scironian rock lay north of the Isthmus 
of Corinth, leaving a narrow pass between Corinth and Megara along the 
coast. The spot was celebrated for the legendary leap of Ino and the 
slaying of the robber Sciron by Theseus. 

I. 2. ex. Sxud-Euv ms., iq Bergk, an almost certain correction, though it 
is possible to keep the ms. reading, translating it, with Jacobs, ' Tanain 
e Scyihis dt sa ndentem '. 

/. 3. U. ii. 626, v^awv at vaiouat ro'p7]v aXo? : cf. Soph. Aj. 596, <o xXeivoc 
SaXajju;, au [iiv t:ou vaiets aX(-Xayx.xo;. 

/. 4. For the MeXoupis or MoXoupt; rcerpa, a rock projecting into the sea 
at this point of the coast, see Pausan. Attica xliv. 8. The reading of this 
line in the ms. is ayvs'a vatpopiva; tx\xo\ pi 9-oupiaoo;. Salmasius suggested 
ayxea, ' ravines ', which has been generally accepted. Bergk ingeniously 
reads : 

oiojxa 0-aXaaa7j; 
ay:a p.aivopivr ( s ap/pt MoXouptaoa 

' the billow of the sea that raves round accursed Molurias', for the epithet 
referring to Pausan. I.e. xa; o; p.jxa xauxrjv (the MoXoup'i? -Eipa) vop.i£ouaiv 
ivay€i-, oxt -apoix.clv acpiatv 6 2x.stp<ov, ondaoi* xwv ?i'vuv E-sxuyyt vsv, TJcpisi a^a; 
i- xr,v SaXaaaav. But the alteration of vicpopivjjs into p.aivopiv7]<; is rather 
arbitrary, and the reason he gives, 'cum nequc rupes ista tuque mare 
vicinum nivale did potuerit ', entirely incomprehensible. 

24-32] NOTES 339 

XXIV. Anth. Pal. vii. 497. 

/. 6. In the epithet a&ivou there is a further allusion to the name of 
the Euxine Sea. 

XXV. Anth. Pal. vii. 639. 

I. 2. The 'Oifsiai, rocky islets oft' the coast of Acarnania, are mentioned by 
Strabo x. p. 458, as Xu-poi za\ Tpayaou. They lay at the mouth of the 
Achelous, where navigation was difficult owing to shifting banks caused by 
the silt of the river, which came down with a violent current. 

/. 3. ovojjloc here means ' bad name ', as in Ep. 44 infra. 

1. . r >. Scarphe was a small seaport in Locris. 

XXVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 499. 

/. 3. For Icaria see note on Ep. 13 supra. 

XXVII. Anth. Pal. vii. 502. On a tomb by the high-road just outside 
the city wall of Torone. 

/. 2. For aui7jv it has been proposed to read akrjv or /.Xstx^v, but no 
change is necessary ; the aux^'v conveys a touch of tenderness on the part 
of the speaker towards his native place, and implies its distinction as the 
chief city of Thrace. 

1. 4. Strymonias was the name given by Greek sailors in the Aegean to 
t he north wind that came down from the region of the Strymon. Xerxes 
was caught in it and almost shipwrecked on his flight from Salamis, Hdt. 
viii. 118. 

It is generally the evening rising of the Kids, impetus orientis Haedi, 

put down by Columella under November 4th) which is spoken of as the 

time of storms. But Serv. on Aen. ix. 665 says, quorum et ortus et occasus 

tempestates gravissimas facit ; and their morning setting would be about a 

month later. 

XXVIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 739. 

/. 4. Sciathus is a small island oft' the northern coast of Euboea and 
opposite the Gulf of Torone. 

XXIX. Anth. Pal. ix. 315. 

I. 2. -It -9-aaaov ms., corr. Schneidewin. The form raS-i seems to have 
been more colloquial than Jtfe, and so is perhaps better suited to the 
simplicity of the epigram. 

1. 3. t3puE<j$-ai applied to a fountain is rather a stretch of language, as 
it is seldom used in this sense except of a statue or temple. But it hardly 
means more than 'to dedicate', and any additional meaning in it would be 
quite satisfied if we suppose that an artificial basin for the fountain was 
placed here by Simus. To alter with Hecker f era rfXXw, 'by which (the 
statue of) Simus is set up beside his dead child', completely spoils the 

XXX. Anth. Pal. vii. 474. 

XXXI. Kaibel Epigr. Grace. 576 ; C. I. G. 6257. On a tomb found at 

XXXII. Anth. Pal.xU. 308. 


XXXIII. V. I. G. 5816. On a tomb found near Naples and now in the 
Museum there. Above the inscription is a relief representing the child 
standing between his father and mother. 

/. 4. The parents could not keep him though they held him by both hands. 

X XXIV. Anth, Pal. vii. 453. 

XXXV. Kaibel Epigr. Graec, Addenda 1. a ; C. I. A. 477 c. Of the 
6th century n.c. ; found at Athens and now in the Museum there. 

XXXVI. Kaibel Epigr. Graec. 373 ; C. I. G. Add. 3847, 1. From a 
tomb at Yenidje in Asia Minor. 

/. 4. ' To lie the love of the dead in their more populous world ' : cf. infra 
v. 17, xi. 6. The marble reads spwv ttoXXiov epa;j.£vo; xrXsdvwv. 

XXXVII. Kaibel Epigr. Graec. 190; C. I. G. 2445. From a tomb in 
the island of Pholegandros, one of the smaller Cyclades. 

XXXVIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 261. 

/. 2. [lt\ xcV.ot s' [xikXrA ms., r t xs'xot, si piXXsi Hecker. 

XXXIX. Anth, Pal. vii. 459. 

XL. Anth. Pal. vii. 712. One of two epigrams {Anth. Pal. vii. 710, 
712) on a girl who died just before her marriage, attributed to Erinna the 
famous contemporary of Sappho. The epigram of Leonidas or Meleager, 
infra iv. 7, which quotes Baaxavo; eW 'A'i'oa from here as words of Erinna's, 
is regarded by Bergk as sufficient ground for accepting the authenticity of 
this epigram, and consequently of the other as well. Both appear to have 
been inscribed on the tomb, which was further embellished with two figures 
of Sirens. 

I. 3. xa Se -cot xaXa xa (j.s{P opwvxt ms., corr. Bergk. 

II. 5, 6. The ms. reads : 

0$ xav rato' 'Yjiivaio; £cp' a?s rjoExo -euxai? 
xdvo' eVi xaosaxa? scpXEys xupxaVa;. 

It is impossible in so involved a sentence to be certain what the original 
reading was, though it is easy enough to see how it became corrupted. I 
have modified Bergk's restoration : 

'{2; xav 7rato' 'Y[jivato; u'^' a; siaaysxo ~suxa; 
xao' hA xaosaxa; so^sys -upxaVav, 

which as it stands leaves xav x:atoa without anything to govern it. 
Cf. the epigram of Meleager, infra xi. 41. 

XLI. Anth. Pal. vii. 185. On a Libyan slave-girl who had been 
manumitted and adopted by her mistress, and died at a villa on the coast 
of Latium. 

/. 4. Freedmen and freedwomen had a share in the family tomb, from 
which slaves were excluded ; sibi suisqnc libertis libertabusque is a common 
formula in the dedication of a family vault. 

/. 5. jtup frepov, the marriage torch. 

33-49] NOTES 341 

XLII. 0. I. G. 6261. In the Borghese Gardens at Rome. These four 
lines are engraved above a portrait in relief with a cithara of eleven strings 
on one side and a lyre of four strings on the other. Below the portrait is 
another epigram of eight lines, and under it the name petroxiae musae. 

/. 3. Theogn. 568, xaao[ wars Xff>o? acpOoyyoi;. 

XLIII. C. I. G. 6268. The history of this epigram is very curious. It 
is inscribed on a marble tablet, professing to be in memory of one Claudia 
Homonoea, conliberta and contubernalis of Atiinetus Antherotianus, a 
freedman of the imperial household. At the sides are Latin elegiacs, 
twenty-six lines in all. The tablet was supposed to have been discovered 
in San Michele at Rome and to be of the first century a.d. But the Latin 
verses are too plainly not ancient ; and in fact the whole monument is a 
Renaissance forgery. Nothing is known as to the date or person of the 
forger ; but there can be no doubt that this epigram is really ancient and 
that it was the basis upon which he constructed the rest. 

XLIV. Anth. Pal. vii. 700. 

I. 1. r\ [x iV.pu'kv ms., 7] [J." eV.pyoEv Edd. after Brunck. 

/. 3. ouvo;j.a, 'Ul name' as in Ep. 25 supra. 'Poucplvo? ms. 'Poucpiavo? has 
also been suggested. Names ending in -ianus often have the penult short 
after the 3d century a.d. 

XLV. Anth. Pal. vi. 348. 

I. 1. The order is very involved ; the sense is, touxo cuAivgv ypa[i.|j.a vr t c, 
Atoowpstoo aootT]? Xsyei [ae (i.e. the marble) x.Exo<pO-ou tox.ujj.opw XeytatSi. 

I. 6. For the converse cf. Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 69, continue ut multa 
Timaeus : qui cum in historia dixisset qua node natus Alexander esset 
eadem Dianae Ephesiae templum deflagravisse, adiunxit minime id esse 
mirandum, quod Diana, cum in partu Olympiadis adesse voluisset, abfuisset 

XLVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 167. The preceding epigram in the ms. is 
headed Atoaxopioou, o? ok Nixap-/ou, and this one, tou auxou, - ot oe 'Exktou 
['ExaTcaou] Gaaiou. It is usually included among the epigrams of 

XLVII. Kaibel Epigr. Graec, 596 ; G. I. G. 6735. On a tomb at 
Ravenna, of the second or third century a.d. 

XLVIII. Kaibel Epigr. Graec. 204 b. On a tomb at Cnidos, of the 
first century b.c. 

XLIX. Anth. Pal, vii. 163. This is one of the most graceful specimens 
of the epitaphs xa-ca keutiv xa\ aroxpiatv which were favourite in later 
Greece. It is followed in the Anthology by two others on the same Prexo 
and of the same purport, one by Antipater of Sidon, and the other by 
Archias. Antipater lived a century and a half after Leonidas, and Archias 
probably at least a century later than Antipater ; if the titles of the three 
opigrams are correct, they are a very curious instance of the narrow 
academicism of Greek literature in the Alexandrian and Roman periods. 

342 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 3 

Other epitaphs of similar form are Anth. Pal. vii. 64, 79, 470, 552 ; .see 
also Ep. 58 infra. 

The purer taste of the best period discouraged such garrulity in an 
epitaph. See the curious passage in Theophrastus (Char, xiii.) where it is 
made a mark of the -epispyo? or busybody, yuvar/.o? TcXsuTrjaaar,? imypatlat 
£t:i xo [xv^ijia tou xj avopo; aux^s xai xou -axpo? xai xfj; [X7]xp6? xai aux^; xrj; 
yuvatxo? xouvou.a xa\ x:o8a7z^ laxiv, precisely what is done here. But the 
pathetic beauty of the last two lines more than redeems the rest. 

/. 1. Ilapir, xftov, a cippus or truncated column of Parian marble sur- 
mounting the tomb. 

L. Anth. Pal. vii. 667. A scholium says it is from a tomb in the church 
of S. Anastasia at Thessalonica. 

LI. Kaibel Epigr. Grate. 47. Of the fourth century b.c. ; found at the 
Piraeus. The name of the nurse was Malicha of Cythera. 

For the fashion of having Spartan nurses see Plutarch, Lyntrgus, c. 16. 

LII. Anth. Pal. vii. 178. 

I. 1. ' Lydian ' was a term for the lowest class of slaves; cf. Eur. Ale. 67">. 

I. 2. The xpo<psu; or -aioaywyoc, took charge of a child when he was five 
or six years old, and remained in charge of him till he grew up. Cf. Anth. 
Pal. ix. 174. 

LIU. Anth. Pal. vii. 179. 

/. 4. xaXuffo], properly a slave's hut, is applied here to the simple tomb 
erected over the speaker. 

LIV. Kaibel Epigr. Grace. 627. Found near Florence. 

LV. Anth. Pal. vii. 211. The white Maltese lap-dogs were as much prized 
as pets in ancient times as they are now. Athenaeus, xii. p. 518 f, says thai 
the citizens of Sybaris used to keep xuvapta MsXixala, a^sp auxot? xai 
E-saO-at st; xa yu[j.vaaia. Theophrastus (Char, xxi) makes it characteristic 
of the [j.t/.po»iXdxi[j.o; or man of petty ambition to erect a monument to such 
a dog : xai xuvapiou os xsXsux/jaavxo; auxiy [J.vr^xot. T.ovr^ai xa"t axuXiotov -oir^y.z 
intypdij/ai KAAA02 MEAITAI02. 

I. 4. is repeated with a variation in another epigram by the same 
author, infra xi. 13. 

LVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 204. One of three epigrams, two by Agathias 
himself and one by Damocharis, on a tame partridge belonging to 
Agathias and killed by his cat. A scholium in the ms. adds a'lXoupo; 6 
7:apa Pio[j.aioi; (i.e. the Byzantines) Xsyo[j.£vo; yaxxo;. The cat had been 
introduced from Egypt and domesticated in Europe under its present name, 
but in literary Greek the old word a'cXoupo; was still used. 

Cf. xi. 12 infra ; and for the unexpected turn in the final wish, 
Ammianus in Anth. Pal. xi. 226 : 

E'it] coi xaxa yr]<; xou®7] xovt;, otxxpk Niap/c, 
090a as ^rj'tout); Sfjspu'jfoat xuvsc. 

LVII. Pollux v. 47. 

/. 4. It cannot be certainly determined whether oiovo';j.o; means 'lonely' 

50-63] • NOTES 343 

(from 0T0;), or 'pastured by sheep' (from cits). The word 'pastoral' has 
something of the force of both. Cf. ii. 36 swpra and the note there. 

LVIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 524. This Charidas was probably a Pythagorean 
philosopher. Their doctrine of transmigration implied the immortality of 
the soul ; cf. Ov. Metam. xv. 153 foil, where the text omnia mutantur, 
nihil interit is expanded at some length. 

1. 3. avoSoi, doctrines of a resurrection. &ipza&oa avw sic, xr^v ye'veertv says 
Plato of the souls who had chosen their new lives, Rep. x. 621 b. 

I. 6. pduXa raXXcaou (Sou? |j.e'ya? elv 'A% ms. The line is generally 
regarded as desperate ; ' longum est interpretum somnia adscribere ' is the 
conclusion of Jacobs. His own conjecture was that rcsXXaiov might be the 
name of a small Macedonian coin (derived from Pella, as the florin and 
bezant from Florence and Byzantium), and that the meaning of the line was 
' food is cheap in Hades.' 

The change I have made in reading TOYCAMIOY for IIEAAAIOY is not 
great, especially if TOY was contracted in the ms. Cf. the epigram, also by 
Callimachus, infra iv. 26, syio 0' ava xrjvoc -/.zyr^to- too 2a[j.tou ot-Xoov. 

LIX. Anth. Pal. vii. 509. 

LX. Anth. Pal. vii. 346. An epitaph at Corinth, according to a note in 
the ms. which justly adds that it is $-au[j.a-oc aftov. 

LXI. Anth. Pal. vii. 309. 

LXII. Anth. Pal. vii. 254*: written on the margin of the ms. in a 
different hand. 

LXIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 451. Cf. C. 1. G. 6276, last couplet : 

Ka\ Xe'yc Uto-iXJrjv suoav, avsp " ou •9-sjj.itov yap 
{Vvrja/.ctv tou; aya^ou;, aXX' unvov r,ouv i'/c'.v. 


I. 0. I. G. 6186 : on a Hermes found at Herculaneum. 

Probably an inscription for a library opening on to a court with plane- 
trees, like that in Pliny's Tuscan villa (Ep. v. 6.), and containing statues 
of the Muses, the guardians of the place. 

I. 4. toj xtaaw, 'with our ivy', 'EXixtov su/.taao;, as it is called by Dios- 
corides in Anth. Pal. vii. 407, being the Muses' home. 

II. Anth. Pal. vii. 6. Also inscribed on a terminus upon which a bust 
of Homer formerly stood, found outside the Porta S. Paolo at Kome, 
C. J. G. 6092. The marble reads 00^ for ptoxfj in I. 2 and rav-o; 6pa; 
toutov oaioaXov dpyrcuTrov in /. 4. 

I. 4. aXippoS-ia ms., aXtppofrtoc, which would be the usual form, in the 
line as quoted by Suidas s.v. 

III. Anth. Pal. ix. 97. The 'wail of Andromache' over Hector is in 
fl. xxiv. 725-745; the 'battling of Ajax ' probably refers to the fighting 

344 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 4 

in front of the Greek entrenchments, xii. 370 foil. ; the dragging of Hector's 
body under the walla of Troy is in xxii. 395 foil. But Homer nowhere 
tells the story of the sack of Troy : /. 2 is a translation of Aen. ii. 625, 
imiiir mihi visum considere in ignes Ilium et ex imo verti Neptunia Troia. 

I. 6. xXfjxa, literally ' slope ', is used widely for ' district ', and specially as 
a technical term of geography equivalent to our 'zone'. yat?) ap/soxEpT), 
Europe and Asia. 

IV. Anth. Pal, vii. 8. 

V. Athenaeus xiii. p. 596 b, 'Evoo^ou? ok Ixaipa? xai b& xdXXst otatpspouaa? 
qvsyxE xa"t r\ Nauxpaxt?, Awptyav te, 7]v t\ xaXr; 2a~cpw, Epw[j.Evr]v yEvofXEvrjv 
Xapaifou tou dosXcpou auxr)? /.aV Ept^optav £?; t^v Nauxpaxtv a7;aipovxos, oia 
X7j; Jtowjffgws otaJBaXXst w? -oXXa tou Xapdijou voaifiaapiEVTjv. 'Hpoooxo? 8' auxqv 
' PoSwmv xaXsl, dyvotov oxt ixepa T7}; Atopics eotiv aux7] . . . e; Se xr ( v Awptyav 
xoS' l^oujaE xou;:iypa|j.p.a IloaiSirocos, xatxot ev xfj A?iho-ta -oXXdxt; auxvj; 
[j.vr)(i.ov£uaa; ' lark oe xooe' Awptya, oaxi'a jxev, x.x.X. 

See also Hdt. ii. 134-5 and Strabo xviL p. 1161 r>. The ode of Sappho 
mentioned by Herodotus is completely lost. 

I. 1. aaTcaXa xoafj-rjaaxo [xot[j.7J?axo two MSS.] OEapttov Athenaeus ; tzolKoli 
y.ovt; o" x cctoSe<jjxoi corr. Deheque. I have written v]o' d-ooEap.os as being 
nearer the MSS. 

/. 4. Tjy/pous is from /pw; : cf. sup>ra i. 25 and Theocr. ii. 140, x. 18. 

/. 7. Naucratis, the only open port in Egypt before the Persian conquest, 
remained a place of importance until after the foundation of Alexandria. 

VI. Anth. Pal. vii. 12. Little is known of Erinna, though her fame 
was only second to that of Sappho, whose friend and contemporary she 
was according to Suidas and Eustathius. She is said to have died very 
young. Her renown mainly rested on the poem called AXaxdxa (referred 
to here by its name in I. 4, and as the '.fair labour of hexameters ' in /. 5). 
It consisted of about 300 verses, of which a few fragments survive. Three 
epigrams are in the Anthology under her name, one of which is given sxipra 
iii. 40. It seems probable that this epigram is partly made up of phrases 
from her poem. 

VII. Anth. Pal. vii. 13, under heading AeuviSou, 01 Se McXEaypou. 

This epigram must have been written by some one who had seen the two 
sepulchral epigrams composed by Erinna on her friend Baucis of Tenos. 
But the phrase Baaxavo; eW 'Atoa quoted here from the latter of these 
seems to have become proverbial, and it cannot be inferred that the writer 
had been in Tenos and seen the actual inscription. 

The way in which the half line of Erinna is re-echoed three centuries 
later has a curiously exact parallel in Mr. Swinburne's roundel on the death 
of the translator of Villon's rondeau beginning Mortyj'appclle de ta rigueur. 

I. 1. For ev upvo-oXotat p-EXtsaav cf. the last epigram : also Plato, Ion, 
534 B, Xe'youatv ot 7:ot7)xat, oxt lv. Mouatov X7)7t(OV xtvoTv xai va-tov opsTCou.svot 
xa ;j.cXrj qjjffv ©s'pouaiv, at [leXixxat. It was in such metaphors that the 
word 'Anthology' had its origin. 

4-h] NOTES 345 

VIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 28. Also quoted by Suidas s.v. ohoizozr^. 

This and the following epigram are two out of ten or eleven on Anacreon, 
Anth. Pal. vii. 23-33 (it is not certain whether 32 refers to him or not), 
five of them being by Antipater of Sidon. 

IX. Anth. Pal. vii. 26. 

/. 3. yavo; sc. <x[x-Cko\i : the full phrase is in Aesch. Pers. 615. 

/. 5. ouaat xwjjlo; ms. The text is Jacobs' emendation. But we may 
suspect that two lines have dropped out between /. 5 and I. 6. oivaat (or 
cuaai, which has also been suggested) is a feminine form and goes with 
xtofxoi; only by slipshod grammar. 

X. Ap2). Plan. 305. 

/. 1. v:'ppsioi auXot, flutes made out of the leg-bone of a fawn, which gave 
a shrill thin note. Ass-bones were also used for this purpose. 

I. 3. The story of bees clustering on the lips of the young Pindar when 
asleep on the wayside near Thespiae is told by Pausanias, Boeotica, xxiii. 2. 
EojQ-d; here probably has its proper meaning ' yellow-brown ' : cf. the note 
on vi. 20 infra. 

I. 5. Plutarch, Non p>osse suaviter vivi sec. Epicurum, c. xxii, mentions 
the story of Pindar hearing the god Pan sing one of his own songs. 

XL Anth, Pal. vii. 410. 

/. 1. avs;:Xa(j£ ms. But the whole epigram is written in the person of 

1. 2. /.(xivoxotjistv yaoixa; is equivalent to -oietv xaiva; yapixa; : cf. the 
Latin novare. 

1. 3. ipi9-uv xaxayoi ms., corr. Jacobs, comparing Aristoph. Ach. 628, 1% 
ou yc "/opotaiv E©i'<7X7]xEv Tpuyixol; 6 oioai/aXo; i^pv. 

The jingle of aO-Xwv and aftXov is disagreeable, and gives colour to an 
ingenious emendation, w xpuyd; acxd; ; cf. the Arundel marble, I. 55, xal 
afrXov iii&i) zpwxov tayaowv apar/o? xal ckvou aj-iipopsu;. But it is hardly 
.safe to alter the ms. reading where it gives an unexceptionable sense. 

/. 5. Cf. Epicharmus, fr. 98 Ahrens : 

12; 8' syw ooxc'to — Soxe'io yap ; saoa "aap.t xoufP oti 
Twv iu.u>v [ivajjia izoy.' iauftxai Xoytov xouxiov etl' 
Ka\ Xapto'v xt; auxa jtEpi§uaa{ xo jxs'xpov, o vuv v/zi 
Et[j.a, xat Sou; Jtopcpupav, Xoyoiat —oixiXot? xaXol; 
AuaJTaXoaTxo; tov xo; aXXou; suraXaiTuou; arroaava. 

XII. A nth, Pal. vii. 22. Partly suggested by the celebrated chorus in 
the Oed. Col. 668 foil. 

/. 3. For oiAoppw? cf. the note on ii. 14 supra. 

XIII. Olympiodorus in his Life of Plato and Thomas Magister in his 
Life of Aristophanes quote this epigram. Bergk considers it authentic. It 
i>, as he says, worthy of the author and the subject. Another life of Plato 
quotes it with onsp f^sXcv eupetv in /. 1. 

XIV. Anth. Pal. vii. 414. Rhintho of Syracuse, who flourished in the 
reign of Ptolemy I., about 300 B.C., invented the cpXu'a? or iXapoxpaywoia, a 

346 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 4 

sort of burlesque tragedy. He founded a school of writers of this sort a1 
Tarentum. No important fragments of his plays are preserved. We know 
the titles of a few ; among them is an 'A^ixpuwv, to which the Amphitruo 
of Plautus is probably indebted. These burlesques were written in loose 
metre, probably following the example of the Sicilian (tfjioi. 

/. 3. oti)8ov(; is a collateral form of ar,oidv rather than a diminutive ; from 
it is formed the diminutive arjSoviSeus. Cf. Catull. xxvn. 8. 

XV. Anth. Pal. vii. 419. This and the next epigram are two of three 
professing to be written by Meleager for his own tomb, Anth. Pal. 417-419. 

1. 2. 6c?stXo[j.£vov sc. roxaiv : the full phrase is given in the epigram of 
Callimachus, supra, iii. 39. 

I. 4. IXapat? Xaptaiv refers to the Menippean satires of Meleager : see p. 300. 

/. 6. The Meropes were traditionally the original inhabitants of Cos : 
cf. infra, viii. 5. 

/. 7. Salam, 'peace', the usual form of greeting in Hebrew and kindred 
Semitic languages. The Phoenician word, transliterated as Naidios here, 
is uncertain. In the ms. of Plautus' Poenulus it is written Haudoni. 

XVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 417. 

/. 1. The force of the present, -csxvdi, is to give the notion of what is the 
fact rather than what did happen ; so generat is used by Virgil, Acn. viii. 141. 

/. 2. Gadara, to the south-east of the Lake of Tiberias, is the Ramoth- 
Gilead of the Old Testament. It is called ' Attic ' here from the group of 
literary men whom it produced at this period : Strabo xvi. p. 759, l/- ok 
xuv Taoaowv <E>iXoor ( [j.d? xe 6 'EmxoupEio; /.at MeXsaypo? x.a\ Mivir.Koz o 
axoudoyikoios. The words 'Syrian' and 'Assyrian' are used in Greek litera- 
ture generally without much distinction. 

1. 3. 6 guv Mouaais ' the companion of the Muses' : from Theocr. vii. 12. 

I. 5. The saying is attributed to Socrates by Musonius quoted in Stobaeus. 
xl. 9, xi 8' ; ouyi xoiv^ — axpi; avOpiomov arcavxiov 6 xgt[j.o; eoxiv, warap JjfCou 
2w/.pa-ai; ; There are two slightly different forms of it quoted from 
Euripides ; a-aaa ok y&iav avop\ ysvvaito rcaxptc, jr. incert. 19, and w; 
navtayou ye 7taxpis t\ pdaxouaa y^, fr. Phaetlton, 9. 

XVII. Anth. Pal, vii. 412. The citharist Pylades of Megalopolis fl. 
about 200 B.C. Plutarch, Philop. xi. and Pausan. Arcadica, L. 3, tell a 
story of Philopoemen entering the theatre at the Nemean festival soon 
after his victory at Mantinea over Machanidas tyrant of Sparta (is.c. 206) 
when Pylades was singing the Persae of Timotheus. Pausanias says he 
was the most famous singer of his time. 

I. 3. ' Unshorn Apollo ' went into mourning so far as it was proper for a 
god to do so. For the practice of laying aside garlands on the arrival of 
bad news compare the story of Xenophon when the death of his son was 
announced to him, in Diog. Laert. Vita Xenophontis, c. 10. 

I. 6. The Asopus here spoken of rises in Arcadia and flows northward 
into the Corinthian gulf ; it must not be confounded with the better know-n 
Boeotian river of the same name. 

/. 8. For the epithet the ferreus Somnus of Virgil {Am. x. 745) is a 

15-24] NOTES 347 

nearer parallel than the oiS^peiai tmXx<. of the Iliad (viii. 15) where the 
word has its literal sense. Cf. however, Propert. iv. xii. 4, Non exorato 
staid adamante via<: 

XVIII. Anth. Pal vii. 571. Nothing else is known of this Plato. The 
date of the epigram is in the reign of Justinian. 

XIX. App. Plan. 8. The contest of Apollo and Marsyas was one of the 
favourite subjects of Greek art. The most celebrated representation of 
it was the fresco of Polygnotus in the Lesche at Delphi, described by 
Pausanias, Phocica xxx. 9 ; his description is closely followed by M. Arnold 
in Empedocles on Etna. 

I. 2. xpoupcc properly is a note struck on a string, but is used loosely of an 
air whether played on harp or flute. 

I 5. dXu/.To-c'oai is an archaic word, taken from Hesiod, Theog. 521. 

/. 7. Xwrot, flutes made of the hard wood of the African lotus-tree. This 
or boxwood was the common material. 

XX. Anth. Pal. vii. 696. See the notes on the last epigram. Marsyas 
used to play on the cliff of Celaenae in Phrygia, Pausan. I.e. 

XXI. Anth. Pal. ix. 266. In Plan, attributed to Philippus. 
Glaphyrus was a celebrated flute-player of the time of Augustus. He is 

mentioned by Juvenal, vi. 77, and Martial, iv. v. 8. 
/. 5. Hyagnis was the father of Marsyas. 

XXII. Anth. Pal. ix. 433. Placed among the doubtful epigrams by 
Ahrens. It does not seem unworthy of Theocritus. 

I. 3. 6 o v e pto/.oXo; syyuikv aa;t ms., probably from a recollection of Idyl 
vii. 72, 6 ok Tixupo? syyuO-sv aaft. ajj.jj.iya {hX?st is restored from the MSS. of 

I. 4. xapoSsrov -viujj-a is an extremely bold synecdoche for r:vso[j.a -/.apoos'xo-j 

I. 5. syyu'ikv avipou ms. The mss. of Theocritus read syyu; ok crravTs; 
Xa<j(a$ 8puo; av-pou ujuaxkv. evooSev is Hermann's correction. 

The epithet Xa«au)(ijv means that the mouth of the cave is thickly fringed 
with plants and creepers. The best commentary on it is Theocr. iii. 16, h 
Teov avxpov [zot;j.av xov xicraov StaSu? xa\ xav jrre'piv a tu -u/.asSa. 

/. 6. In Theocr. i. 15, the goat-herd does not venture to do so : 

Oxi -»h'[J.u, to ~ot[j.rjv, to [j.£aa[j.[jptvov, ou 9-e'[j.i? ajj.iv 
aupiaoev. TOV Ilava OEOoixajj.;;" r) yap <xt? aypa? 
-avix.a xE-/.;; ajj.-auETat, eori Se mxpo?. 

XXIII. Anth. Pal. xi. 133. 

I. 3. Cf. Hor. 1 Sat. x. 63, capsis quern fa-ma est esse librisque ambushim 

I 6. xat yrjv ms., corr. Jacobs. 

XXIV. Anth, Pal. xi. 143. Notice that the rhetorician, the grammarian, 
and the musician are balanced, in a studied disarrangement, by Cerberus, 
Tityus, and Ixion. Nothing is known of this Marcus ; /. 2 implies that he 


was a Cynic. Melito is alluded to in another epigram by the same author 
(Anth. Pal. xi. 246) as a writer of rotten plays '. The Rufus mentioned 
by Juvenal vii. 214 (and identified by some editors of Juvenal with the 
historian better known under his other names of Quintus Curtius) can 
hardly be the person spoken of here. Whatever the date of Q. Curtius 
may have been, he would be classed as a rhetorician rather than a gram- 

/. 4. [wXerav in oratory means to rehearse or declaim. 

XXV. Anth. Pal. ix. 162. 

XXVI. Anth. Pal. vi. 310. A statue of Dionysus set up in a school- 
room speaks. 

I. 2. The reference is to II. vi. 236. 

I. 3. The god stands against the wall where the Pythagorean allegory of 
virtue and vice is painted, and yawns with weariness at hearing his own 
words repeated over and over by the pupils. The 01-Xou; 2a;.ur i (quae 
tfamios diduxit litera rcmos, Pers. iii. 56) is the letter Y, used by Py- 
thagoras to illustrate the divergence of right and wrong. 

I. 6. tsoo; 6 -Xo/.a|j.oc, xw {teo> 3' auxov xpsW, says Dionysus in the 
Bacchae of Euripides I. 494. The passage of arr/ojuiD-ia in which the line 
occurs appears to have been a favourite school exercise in recitation. 

The proverb toujjlov ovsiap £jj.g( (or xoufiov ovapov ifxoi in another epigram 
by Callimachus, infra ix. 15) meant to tell some one a piece of news that 
he must know already. Cf. Plato, RejJ. 563 d, and Cic. Att. vi. ix. 3. 

XXVII. Anth. Pal. vi. 303. There is a very similar epigram by 
Leonidas of Alexandria, Anth. Pal. vi. 302, probably imitated from this, 
unless both are imitations of some older epigram. 

I. 3. A note in a MS. of Plan, says fjpy.ScTO ia/aoa ;j.dvov to yap aurjv rcapzX/.Ei, 
ia/a? alone meaning dried grapes. The epithet is put in to balance mova. 

I. 4. The axu[3aXa are the multa de magna quae superessent fercula cena of 
Horace in the fable of the town and country mouse, 2 Sat, vi. 79 foil. 

XXVIII. Anth. Pal. xi. 354. In Plan, attributed to Palladas, perhaps 
rightly. Both authors are often intolerably verbose. Nothing is known 
of this Nicostratus ; the name may be real or invented. 

/. 2. a/.ivoaXafj.oopaaT7]<; is a word suggested by the phrase Xoytov a/.piJ3<ov 
7/ivoaXa(j.ot in Aristoph. Nub. 130. 

/. 6. Xr^xd? here means ' tangible ', or ' capable of being apprehended by 
the senses '. It usually has a wider sense ; thus Plato speaks of things Xdyi;> 
xat oiavota Xrj-xa, o'ict 3' ou, Pep. 529 D. 

I. 10. Evaax.fiaOat, used of the patterns wrought into a web in the loom, 
is here applied to the composite and eclectic philosophy of the later Greek 

/. 15. <ttcyvo9'j7], the res quae solido sunt corpore of Lucretius. 

I. 17. For the story of Cleombrotus see Ep. 30 infra, from which phrases 
have already been transferred in //. 7 and 8 of this epigram. 

/. 20. oTcsp Ctjteis, i.e. r^v 'V/tJv. You can only find out with certainty 
what the soul or vital principle is by putting an end to your life. 

25-32] NOTES 349 

XXIX. Anth. Pal. ix. 358. It has been attributed, on the reported 
authority of an unknown ms., to Leonidas of Alexandria. Jacobs thinks 
it is by Diogenes Laertius. 

Panaetius of Rhodes, the Stoic philosopher and friend of Scipio Africanus 
the younger, flourished B.C. 150. The substance of his principal work, nsp\ 
xou xaxhj'/.ovTo;, is preserved in the De Offieiis of Cicero. His teaching with 
regard to the immortality of the soul is stated in the Tusculan Disinsec- 
tions, i. 79 : Credamus igitur Panaetio, a Platone suo dissenticnti : quem 
enim omnibus locis divinum, quem sajnentissiimim, quem sanctissim^lm, 
quem Homerum philosophonim appellat, huius heme unarm sententiam de 
inmortalitate animorum non probat. 

XXX. Anth. Pal. vii. 471. Cic. Tusc. i. 84 : Callimachi quidem epi- 
gramma in Ambraciotam Cleombrotum est; quem ait, cum nihil ei accidisset 
adversi, e muro se in mare abiecisse, lecto Platonis libro. The story is often 
referred to by ancient authors, and has been made imperishable in English 
by a line and a half of Milton (Par. L. in. 471), 

— he who, to enjoy 
Plato's Elysium, leapt into the sea, 

I. 3. rj <xvaXE?a[j.Evo;, 'only that he had read'. There is no reason for 
altering rj to into aXXa. The ellipsis of the comparative before vj is quite 
in the author's manner, and is not unknown in the best Greek : cf. Soph. 
Aj. 966, and the epigram of Crinagoras infra xi. 28. 

XXXI. Anth. Pal. vii. 80. This Heraclitus of Halicarnassus is 
mentioned as an eminent scholar and a friend of Callimachus by Strabo, 
xiv. p. 656, and Diog. Laert. ix. 17, who quotes this epigram. 

/. 3. Virgil, Eel. ix. 51, saepe ego longos cantando puerum memini me 
condere soles. 

I. 5. The arjoovs; are the poems of Heraclitus (elegiacs according to 
Diog. Laert. I.e.) So 'Al-/.(j.avo? cojoove; in an anonymous epigram, Anth. 
Pal. ix. 184. 

XXXII. Anth. Pal. xii. 43. In the ms. there follows another couplet : 

Auaavtrj, cu os valyt xaXo; xaXo; * aXXa jtplv siTCstv 
xouxo aacpo";, r ( yw or t ii xi? * AXXo? v/ei. 
which is rejected as a spurious addition by most editors. 
I. 1. Cf. the epigram of Pollianus, Anth. Pal. xi. 130 : 

Tou; xuxXixou; xouxou?, xou; auxap s'-Eixa Xsyovxa; 
puato, Xwtjoouxoc; dXXoxpiwv Ira'wv. 
/. 3. The phrase a-6 xp^vrj; reivetv is from Theognis, 959 : 
"Ecjxe [jlev auxo; et:ivov a~o xprjvr]? [j.EXavu'opou 

^Su xi [xot sooxst. v.a\ xaXov e[; uotop, 
Nov o' fjor, XEOoXwxat uotop o' ava[/.iaysxai '.Xui* 
aXXrj? oi^ xprjVJ]? ^ -oxa[j.ou. 
For the beginning of the line also cf. Theogn. 581, iyd-a'.oio ol yuval/.a 
nEp(8po;j.ov, of which this is a parody. 



XXXIII. A nth. Pal. ix. 577. 

/. 2. The helix or spiral represents the apparent path of the sun, the 
moon, or a planet 

/. 4. {hoTpo(si7]s MS., hardly a possible form : corr. Dindorf. 

XXXIV. Anth. Pal. ix. 205. It is also cpxoted in the prefaces to some 
mss. of Theocritus. A motto for a collected volume of the pastoral poets. 
As such, it is written in Doric. 

XXXV. App. Plan. 251. Muller, Archdologie der Kunst, § 391, gives 
a catalogue of the chief representations of Eros and Anteros extant on 
reliefs or gems, chiefly of the late Greek and Graeco-Roman period. Serv. 
on Aen. iv. 520 says, ' 'Avxs'pwxa invocat contrarium Cupidini qui amoves 
r< solvit, aut certe ('or rather') cui curae est iniquus amor, scilicet ut 
iiaplicet lion amantem. Amatoribus praeesse dicuntur Eptoc, 'Avxe'oco?, 

/. 1. Tov avTiov mss., corr. Jacobs : others would read xi? avxiov, with a 
mark of interrogation at the end of the line. 

I. 3. Cf. Meleager in Anth. Pal. xii. 144, where My'iscus plays the part 
that Anteros does here. 

/. 5. Spitting thrice into the bosom disarmed witchcraft and averted 
Nemesis : cf. Theocr. vi. 39. 

XXXVI. App. Plan. 250. 

1. 1. tSwv ayvuat mss., corr. Lobeck. 

XXXVII. App. Plan. 200. 

I. 2. Hesychius says ouXo? ' |j.aXa/.o; xal a-aXoc. But it might also mean 
' curly -headed '. 

/. 5. Cf. the Athenian prayer quoted by Marcus Aurelius, v. 7, uaov, 
•J70V, to <p!Xc Zhu, xaxa xa; doo-jpa; xtov 'AS-rjvaiwv xai xwv -soitov. 

XXXVIII. App. Plan. 225. 

/. 3. ' Pan loved his neighbour Echo, but that child 

Of Earth and Air pined for the Satyr leaping,' 

as Shelley translates Moschus, Id. iv. 

I. 4. 7t7]/.xi; here means the -^/.xr, aupiy? or Pan's pipe, not, as usual, the 
Lydian harp. 

XXXIX. App. Plan. 174. The Armed Aphrodite was mainly wor- 
shipped in Laconia : cf. Pausan. Laconica, xv. 10 and xxiii. 1. 

XL. App. Plan. 162. The Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles was probably 
the most famous single work of art in the ancient world. Both Greek and 
Latin literature are full of allusions to it. 'Of all the ima<res that euer 
were made (I say not by Praxiteles onely, but by all the workmen that were 
in the world) his Venus passeth that hee made for them of Gnidos : and in 
truth so exquisit and singular it was, that many a man hath embarked, 
taken sea, and sailed to Gnidos for no other busines, but onely to see and 

33-46] NOTES 351 

behold it. ... In the same Gnidos there be diuers other pieces more of 
Marble, wrought by excellent workmen, . . . yet there goeth no speech nor 
voice of any but onely of Venus abouesaid ; than which, there cannot be a 
greater argument to proue the excellencie of Praxiteles his work ; they all 
seem but foils, to giue a lustre to his Venus.' Holland's Pliny, Book 
xxxvi. c. 5. 

XLI. App. Plan. 146. Compare the more famous epigram of Michel- 
angiolo on his statue of Night in San Lorenzo : 

Grato m 'e '1 sonno, e piii '1 esser di sasso, 
Mentre che il danno e la vergogna dura ; 
Non veder, non sentir m' e gran ventura ; 
Pero non mi destar : deh parla basso. 

XLII. App. Plan. 129. 

XLIII. App. Plan. 244 : with the title e's sr/.dva Saxupou r.poc, rf, a/.of tov 
auXov e/ovto; xat toaitep axpocopivou. The word "/-rjpo; in I. 5 shows that this 
was not a statue but a picture, painted with wax as the medium. 

I. 6. r7]xxu, ' Pan's pipe ' : see note on Ep. 38 supra. 

XLIV. Anth. Pal. ix. 736. This is one of a set of thirty-one epigrams, 
A nth. Pal. ix. 713-742, on the Cow of Myron, the famous masterpiece of 
Greek bronze which stood in the agora at Athens. ' The piece of worke 
that brought him into name and made him famous, was an heifer of brasse ; 
by reason that diuers Poets haue in their verses highly praised it, and spread 
the singularity of it abroad.' Holland's Pliny, Book xxxiv. c. 8. 

XLV. App. Plan. 248. See Bergk Lyr. Gr. ii. p. 309 for all that is to be 
said as to the probable authorship of this epigram. If it is by a Plato at 
all, it is by the person known as Plato Junior. 

/. 2. apyupo; mss., corr. Bergk. 

XLVI. Athenaeus, xii. 543 c. : taTopst KX:apyo; ev toI? (3iois . . . nappaaiov 
tov ^oypacpov — op©upav ajj.-E/E'jD-at "/puToijv cri'oavov iizi zr^ xscpaXr^ r/ovxa 
. . . 7]u/r,a£ o' avsjj-ccnrxti); £v toutoi;' d xa\ a~iaTa x.t.X. 

Athenaeus goes on to give further details of his magnificence, gold buckles 
in his shoes, etc. He used to paint in full dress, like Vandyck. 

A fragment of a similar epigram in the name of Parrhasius' great rival 
Zeuxis of Crotona is preserved in Aristides, n. p. 386, where the phrase 
te'/vtjS -apscTa occurs. For the superb insolence compare the epigram on 
himself, by the tragedian Astydamas, quoted by Suidas s.v. cjocutov s^aivsi?. 

/. 3. Cf. the epigram attributed to Simonides, App. Plan. 84 : 

Oux aoar,; iypocLs Kt[J.wv -ao£ - -av~\ 3' eV spyw 
{jLtofiOc, ov ouo' T]pwc, AaioaXo? E?i'ou-)f£v. 

352 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 5 

I. Anth. Pal. x. 16. This and the next epigram (and also vi. 26 and 27 
infra) are selected from a collection of short poems of the same purport 
{Anth. Pal. x. 1, 2, 4-6, 14-16) probably all written for the same shrine of 
Priapus on a headland in the Thracian Bosporus. 

I. 2. XrjVov, generally ' a cornfield,' must refer here to the fields of roses 
orown to supply the immense market of Constantinople. The Damascus 
rose is still thus grown in Rumelia for the manufacture of attar of roses. 

I. 4. It must be remembered that barley harvest in the south comes at 
the same time with spring flowers ; in Egypt it is as early as March ; here 
it would be a month later. 

1. 5. ysiaov or ysicraov is explained by a scholiast as to 7zpouyov tou u~p- 
•0-upou. But it more properly means the eaves generally. The corbels 
supporting them are called ystaixooc;. 

/. 9. xaxaiyk is the sea-term for a white squall. 

I. 12. av9-3[j.o3'.; 'burnished', a Homeric epithet of a metal vessel, is here 
applied to the metallic lustre of the -rptyX7] or red mullet, called puX-o^apTjoc 
by Matro in Athen. iv. 135 b. 

I. 13. The scarus (identified with the wrasse) was said to emit sounds. 
Oppian, Halieiit. i. 134 : 

ax.apov, o; or) p.ouvo; ev ty&uai nasiv ava - joo'.: 

<p9-c'yy£xai tx.[j.aXs'rjv XaXayrjv. 

II. Anth. Pal. x. 14. The subject is the same as in the last epigram. 

I. 1. In Homer the word -opcpupsiv when used of the sea in the line w; Z-z 
^ooouotj raXayo; piya xupia-t xw<pw means simply ' to gloom ' ; and so the 
epithet nopaupso? is applied to the sea frequently, to a tidal wave (Od. xi. 
243), and to a cloud (II. xvii. 551). In later Greek it covers a wide range 
of colour between bright crimson and slate-blue, passing through all the 
shades of purple. This range of colours may be seen in the few extant 
manuscripts on parchment dyed with murex, and also in the Mediterranean 
at different times according to different conditions of sky and water. When 
the sea smooths out as the Xeu/.r) ©pt£ caused by a strong wind dies away, it 
sometimes appears, as seen from the coast in sunlight, banded with peacock 
blue and reddish purple. 

1. 8. xpoxaXr] ' a pebble ', here ' a pebbly beach '. 

I. 10. The pio£, like the a/.apog, was believed to emit sounds. Athen. vii. 
287 A, ojvop.aaO'7] xrjv Porjv oio xai 'Ep[J.ou ispov sivai Xoyo; tov l/duv, toe 
Tov x-iO-apov 'AjtoXXwvo;. 

III. C. I. 0. 3797. On a marble base found at Kadi-Kioi near the site of 
the ancient Chalcedon. It must have come there (Bockh suggests having 
been brought in a ship as ballast) from the temple of Zeus Oupio? at the 
mouth of the Bosporus, 120 stadia above Byzantium, where ships paid 
sacrifice when entering or leaving the Euxine. 

Philon was a celebrated artist of the time of Alexander the Great. The 

i-ii] NOTES 353 

statue which stood on this is mentioned by Cicero, Verr. iv. 129, as 
still perfect in his time. 

IV. Anth. Pal. ix. 645. 

For the connexion of Dionysus with Sardis cf. Eur. Bacch. 462-8. A 
legend which placed the birth of Zeus on Mount Sipylus not far from Sardis 
is mentioned by a scholiast on II. xxiv. 615. The Mother of the Gods was 
also born there, Hdt. v. 102. 

//. 7, 8. otva? 6r.iopr t . . . c"av9ov ajj.sXc": yavo; MS. and Edd., which hardly 
makes sense. Cf. Ion of Chios fr. 1 (Bergk). 

/. 10. Sardis was thrice captured in early times (Hdt. i. 15, i. 84, v. 101), was 
almost destroyed when taken and sacked by Antiochus, b.c. 214 (Polyb. vii. 
15), and was partially ruined by an earthquake, a.d. 17 (Tac. Ann. ii. 47), 
but always recovered itself, and remained a flourishing city till its destruc- 
tion by Tamerlane at the beginning of the fifteenth century. 

V. Anth. Pal, x. 12. 

/. 6. yutoljapjij xa;i.aTov, 'limb-wearying toil', where we should naturally 
say ' toil-wearied limbs '. 

VI. App. Plan. 188. For the Hermes of Cyllene, see Pausan. Eliaca B. 
xxvi. 5. 

VII. Anth. Pal. x. 10. 

/. 1. oiqiolooc, ms., which is strongly supported by xou'0-' u~o oiaaov opoc, 
Ep. 10 infra. But as there is no trace of the word oissa; or s^iotaaa; else- 
where, I have with some hesitation adopted the emendation of Jacobs. 
Xiaaac, ' a smooth rock ', the Xt; Tzs'xprj of Homer. 

/. 6. cu-Xoi>]s ms., corr. Jacobs. 

VIII. Anth. Pal. x. 8. 

I. 2. ai!>uta; ourotE avxtp^a; ms. None of the emendations proposed are 
satisfactory. The reading in the text gives what must I think be the 
general sense of the line. For the phrase, cf. Alpheus of Mitylene, infra 
jx. 23, of the ruins of Mycenae, ou 7:oXXi;> y' a'-Jtspai -co!wv. 

yjfjXrJ, ' claw ', is either an artificial mole or a natural spit of land. 

/. 3. co£o;, 'with a head running to a point', of Thersites in II. ii. 219. 
For a~ou; see note on ;j.ovoTTop9uyyi Ilp^-to, supra, ii. 30. 

" IX. Anth. Pal. x. 11. 

/. 3. Xaatou -goo?, sc. of the hare, ogctj-g-j;, ' rough-foot ', was a common 
synonym for Xayw;. 

/. 4, The fowler lengthened out his lime-twigs by jointing them together 
like a fishing-rod till they reached the bird where it sat. They are called 
axXtWe; as having to be made rigid enough to get an accurate aim. There 
is an elaborate description of the process in Sil. Ital. vii. 674 foil. 

X. Anth. Pal. ix. 337. The image of Pan stands on a spur of cliff in a 
wooded valley with hills on either side. 

XI. Anth. Pal. ix. 334. Strabo, p. 588, in giving an account of the 
worship of Priapus, says he belongs to the 'younger nods,' and 'iov/.z xolc 


354 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 5 

"AtcixoIs 'OpOavr, xa\ KoviaaXw xa\ Tii/wv.. Diod. Sic, iv. 6, identifies Tychon 
with Priapus. 

/. 3. co$ oxs SrijiOYsptov Ms., corr. Hecker. {ho; Sij(xox£ptov, one of the 
1 plebeian gods ', the di minor um gentium of the Latin religion. 

XII. A nth. Pal. vii. 694. Nothing is known of the hefo Philopregmon 
except from this epigram. There was a female deity of the same lesser order 
called Praxidice, Hesych. s.v. Pausanias, Attica xxiv. 3, says that on the 
acropolis at Athens there was a Srcouoatwv SaipLwv, whom he mentions in 
connexion with Athene Ergane. Cf. the Italian gods Iterduca and 

XIII. Anth. Pal. ix. 107. In Plan, under the name of Antipater of 

/. 3. Cf. Antipater of Sidon, supra iii. 25. 

1. 5. Greek ships were worked by a pair of steering oars, one on each 
side. Aelian, Var. Ei4. ix. 40, implies that these were usually worked by 
a single steersman. The great galley of Ptolemy Philopator had four ; 
Athen. v. 203 F. 

I. 6. Probably 2w£of«v7] was the name of this ship. An Athenian 
trireme of that name occurs in a dockyard list of the year 356 B.c. given in 
Bockh, Seewesen des Att. Staats, p. 329. 

XIV. C. I. G. 6300. At Eome : on the tomb of Floria Chelidon, a 
priestess of Jupiter, who died at the age of 75. The date is uncertain. 

XV. Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom, v. 13 : quoted as an inscription over 
the doorway of the great temple of Asclepiua at Epidaurus; cf. ibid. iv. 144, 
and Porphyry de Abstinentia, c. 3. 

XVI. Anth. Pal. Appendix Miscell. (xiv.) 71. with the title yp7]<jp.o« trfz 

/. 1. ayvo; e?5, MS. 

/. 2. vutimociov va;j.a like Jtaptte'vo? -r ( yrj Aesch. Pers. (>17, or the Aqua 

Virgo at Rome. 

I. 4. Cf. Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1227, ol[x<xi yap out' av "idtpov outs $aaiv av 
vi-iai y.xd-apixM xrjvos xr,v crrs'yrjv, and Macbeth ii. 2, ' will all great Neptune's 
ocean wash this blood clean from my hand I ' 

XVII. Anth. Pal. xi. 42. 

I. 1. For the hiatus after aot cf. infra xi. 43, Ilparn] <rot ovo;j.' eaxev, in 
another epigram by the same author. 

I. 6. k JtXeovwv ' to the place of the dead ' : see note on iii. 36 supra. 

For the sense cf. Plato Rep. 365 a, -e-0-ovxe? ou fiovov lo*iwxa; aXXa xa\ 
-oXei;, to? apa Xb'asi; xs xal xaO-apjj.o'i dotxT)[j.axiov ota 0-uaiwv xa\ 7:aioiac 
7Joovo>v th\ e-ct froatv, sh\ ok xa\ xsXsuxrJaaaiv, a; otj xsXsxa; xaXouaiv, a? xo7v xaxcov cwtoXuouoiv r^Si, [J.T| #-u?avxa? ok Beiva jrspifie'vei : and Soph., jr. 

incert. 719, r ( 

ii; xpiaoX(3ioi 

xetvoi ppoxwv o" xauxa SepyJhvTs; xeX?] 

[j.oXwa* e; "Aioou ' xotaoe yap [J-dvoi; eV.e! 

£r[v Ian, xot; o' aXXoiai 7:avx' em xaxa. 

sect. 6] NOTES 355 


I. App. Plan. 202. On a crowned Love in a garden. 

With this should be compared the epigram of Marianus, infra xii. 4f>, 
which was probably suggested by the same statue. If it has not the strange 
mystical fervour of the other, this epigram is no less singular in its suppressed 
but intense feeling for Nature. 

/. 1. The city of Heliopolis (Baalbek) at the foot of Anti-Libanus in the 
great plain of Hollow Syria was one of the chief seats of the worship of the 
Dea Syria. Cf. Cant. iv. 8 : and, for singular comparison and contrast, the 
scene in the garden of Dante's Earthly Paradise, Purgatorio xxix., with the 
' quattro animali coronati ciascun di verde fronda : ' and below, xxx. 10 : 
'edundiloro, quasi da ciel messo, veni sponsa de Libano cantando grido 
tre volte.' 

/. 2. ijtJh'wv oapcrjc in a slightly different sense, supra i. 24. Here it 
means the whispered talk of lovers. 

/. 3. The manifold ' rustic Loves ' of the popular mythology were the 
children of the Nymphs, as distinguished from the celestial Love the son of 
Venus. They are the winged children who constantly occur in every variety 
of occupation in later pagan art, e.g. on Pompeiian frescoes. Cf. Claudian, 
Nupt. Honor, et Mar. 74 : Eos Nymphae pariunt, ilium Venus aurea 
solum edidit.' 

II. App. Plan. 226. 

/. 6. prjaactv ' to dance,' as in II. xviii. 571. 

III. App. Plan. 230. 

IV. App. Plan. 227. For a statue of Pan in a meadow by a mountain 

//. 5, 6. Cf. Hor. Od. in. xxix. 21-23. 

/. 7. ai-o? aixzllz:; aupiov 'you will cross the height to-morrow.' It has 
been plausibly suggested that topiov 'in good time' is the true reading. 

V. App. Plan. 13. Attributed there to Plato. It is obviously however 
of much later date. The question is fully discussed by Bergk, Lyr. Gr. ii. 
p. 307. 

A fountain speaks : beside it there is a statue of Pan piping under a pine 

I. 2. -ir/.ivoi; xtofiov u-o Zscsu'pois MS., with a scholium, tppiaaouaav zwpv, 
otovsi -/.wtxaJjouaav. But even if that were possible Greek, the name of the 
tree is absolutely required in the verse. Others read xwvov, which would 
be satisfactory if there were any[ proof of the existence of a feminine xwvo; 
meaning a tree : xwvo; masculine is the fruit of the -suxr,. 

VI. App. Plan. 12. On a Pan playing under a pine by a fountain : 
probably written for the same scene as the last epigram. 

VII. App. Plan. 11. Also on a fly-leaf of the Palatine us. On a 
Hermes said to have stood in the vdr.r\ nXaxwvo?, also called the Garden of 

356 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 6 

the Nymphs, on Mount Hymettus. Here was laid the scene of the legend 
of bees laying their honey on the mouth of the infant Plato in his sleep. 
Cf. the pretty idyllic fragment under the name of Plato in the Anthology, 
App. Plan. 210. 

/. 4. x.T:'ava, ' stock,' used principally of possessions in cattle. 

VIII. Anth. Pal. ix. 823. In his latest edition Bergk with some reluct- 
ance pronounces that this epigram cannot with reasonable probability be 
regarded as authentic, though in beauty of workmanship it ranks with those 
of the best period. The epigram of Alcaeus, supra vi. 2, seems to be 
imitated from it. The Dryads or Hamadryads do not appear under these 
names till a quite late period in Greek poetry ; Apollonius Rhodius is the 
earliest authority I have found. 

IX. Anth. Pal. ix. 627. Headed in the MS. e?s Xouxpov Xsyop-svov "Epwxa. 
There is another epigram by Marianus on the same subject, Anth. Pal. ix. 

Cf. Shakespeare, Sonnets cliii. and cliv. 

I. 6. Nup.«pai 'Eptoxiaos?, the nymphs of the fountain Eros, the word being 
formed on the analogy of 'YoptaSss. 

X. Anth. Pal. ix. 586, last two lines. In the MS. this couplet follows 
four very commonplace lines of question and answer in the frigid Byzantine 
style : 

Etas vopuu, xivo? tldi ouxwv <rzi/ec, ; at jjlev eXatai 

IlaXXaoo;, at ok JtEpi£ ^ptsptos? Bpopuou. 
Kai xtvo? ot axa/us? ; A7]|J.7]Xcpo;. avOsa -otwv 

stat 0-swv ; ' Hprj; xa\ ^oSe'rj? Ilacptrj;. 

It is obviously complete in itself and has no evident connection with them. 
Possibly it is an older epigram which Comatas conveyed into his own work 
without taking pains to make it fit. 
I. 2. O-eiXgtlsoov is from Od. vii. 1 23. 

XL App. Plan. 279. Headed in the mss. Et? xov ev Msyapoi? /.il>apiaxTiv 

Pausanias, Attica xlii. 2, tt,c, 8s saxta; syyu; xaux7js (at Megara) sort 
XtO-o; £9' ou -/.axa3stvai Xsyouatv 'AvxoXXtova xttjv xt&dpav, 'AXxdthii to xslyoc 
auvspya£op.svov . . . rjv oe xuyr, (SaXo'v xt; 'ir]cp"tot, xaxa xauxa ouxo; " ''i~/J\iz 
xat /,tfl-apa xpouaO-staa. It is also referred to by Ovid, Met. viii. 14, and by 
the author of the Ciris, 105. For the legend cf. Theognis, 773. 

1. 4. Au/.wpEt7)v = Delphic : see note on ii. 14, swpra. 

XII. Anth. Pal. ix. 374. KaOapot, ' Clear,' is the name of the fountain. 
A fountain of the same name is the subject of an epigram by Apollonides, 
infra ix. 1 3. 

I. 3. 7][j.Epo3-aXX:at, 'gentle-blossomed,' probably in reference to the soft 
milky colour of the laurel - flower ; for the tree has no special connexion 
with peace. 

8-ig] NOTES 357 

XIII. Anth, Pal. ix. 338. Placed by Ahrens in his edition of Theocritus 
among the D^^bia et Spuria. It certainly has the extraordinary clearness 
of outline which is distinctive of Theocritus beyond all other writers of his 
own or a later period. 

/. 1. t:eo(;), on the floor of the cave mentioned in /. 5. 

/. 2. axaJazj; are the stakes on which hunting-nets were fastened. 

/. 6. xw[j.a is the drowsiness that precedes or follows sleep, rj [j.s-a!jo urcvou 
-/.at 8Yp7]yopas<o; xaxacpopa as it is explained by a scholiast. 

/caxayofiEvov ms., y.aTEipo[j.svov Dilthey, comparing Sappho fr. 4, Bergk, 
a;9-uaao[j.£'v(ov os cpoXXiov xtop.oc xaxappEt. 

XIV. Anth, Pal. ix. 314. On a Hermes by a windy orchard-corner 
near the sea. 

Hermes of the Garden is invoked in an epigram by Leonidas of Tarentuni, 
A_nth. Pal. ix. 318, and also in some anonymous iambics, App. Plan. 255. 

/. 4. I have written uomp Trpoys'si for urcoYaysi of the ms. Meineke reads 
ur.oKooyizi ; but uocop seems necessary for the sense. 

XV. App. Plan. 153. Cf. Wordsworth, Poems of the Imagination, xxix : 

Yes, it was the mountain Echo 

Solitary, clear, profound, 
Answering to the shouting Cuckoo, 

Giving to her sound for sound. 

Unsolicited reply 

To a babbling wanderer sent ; 
Like her ordinary cry, 

Like — but oh, how different ! 


XVI. Anth. Pal. ix. 87. 

/. 7. l&c, means both the mistletoe plant and the birdlime made from it. 
But Athen. x. 451 d quotes the tragedian Ion as calling birdlime Spuo; tSpcoxa, 
as though it were made from the sap of the oak itself. 

XVII. Anth. Pal. ix. 71. 

XVIII. Anth, Pal. vi. 228. Cicero de Nat, Deor. ii. 159, following 
Afatus, Phaen. 132, makes the slaughtering of ploughing-oxen one of the 
marks of the iron age, it having been counted a crime till then : cf. Virgil, 
Oeorg. ii. 537. Aelian, Var. Hist. v. 14, quotes an Athenian law [5ouv 
aooT7]v [.T7] Susiv . . . on Y='(opyo? zai tojv £v avO'pfoxiot? -/.aixaxojv xoivwvog. 

XIX. Anth, Pal, ix. 122, headed aoj'a-o-ov, and again, after ix. 339, 
headed Eurjvou ; in Plan, called aorjXov. 

/. 1. The swallow is called 'AxO-\? xopa from the story of Procne, who was 
the daughter of Pandion king of Athens. 

[jLEX;9-p£^TOi; hardly means more than 'honey-voiced' : cf. Theocr. i. 146, 
-X^ps'i; toi [aeXito? to xaXov aTO[j.a GupTi yEvot-o ; and the various legends of 
bees placing honey in the mouths of sleeping children who were predes- 
tined to be poets, Pindar, Plato, etc. Jacobs wished to read ;j.£X'oOcyxx£. 

358 CREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 6 

/. 3. The repetition of XctXo; is awkward, but there is no reason to suppose 
any error in the text. z.aXo; /.aXov suggested in /. 1 would not be Greek. 

/. 4. (jevov seems to imply a belief that the field-cricket, like the swallow, 
migrated, which might be due to their sudden appearance in great numbers 
in spring when they come out of the pupa. In England their season is 
from April to August : see White's Selborne, Letter xlvi. Cf. also Plato, 
Phacdr. 230 c, \hpivov ts xa\ Xiyupov \i-i\yv. to! twv TCTtiytov ypptS. 

There is an admirable translation of this epigram among Cowper's Minor 

XX. Anth. Pal. ix. 373. For the practice of catching tree-crickets and 
keeping them in cages, see supra i. 65, and infra xL 14. 

1. 2. IXxete, sc. with lime-twigs. 

/. 4. ?ou9-d; in classical Greek is only used as a constant epithet of the 
bee and the nightingale, except in the Eoudog i—aXsxTpuwv of Aeschylus 
(Aristoph. Av. 800). Rutherford on Babrius, fab. 118, argues, but not 
convincingly, that it refers properly to sound, and that its use as an epithet 
of colour is a mere mistake. It is generally taken to be equivalent in 
etymology to ?ov9-o; or £av9-o;. As applied to sound the granunarians 
explain it by Xsjtto;, d?u?, a-aXo; and kindred words. 

/. 5. It is not certain whether /.t/Xr] is the thrush or the fieldfare. 

XXI. Anth. Pal ix. 57. Attributed in Plan, to PaJladas, which is 

obviously wrong. 

Cf. the similar but inferior epigram of Mnasalcas, Anth. Pal. ix. 70, 
which makes it certain that the swallow and not the nightingale is the 
subject here. The ordinary version of the story (as told by Ovid and 
Hyginus) makes Philomela the ravished daughter of Pandion be turned 
into the nightingale, but there was another version, which is implied in 
Odyssey xix. 518, making Procne (the sister of Philomela and mother of 
Itylus) the nightingale, and Philomela the swallow : cf. Pseudo-Anacreon 
9 (Bergk). The contrast between the light-heartedness of the swallow 
and the grief of the nightingale, in Mr. Swinburne's Itylus and elsewhere, 
seems to be modern. 

XXII. Anth. Pal. vii. 703. In Plan, there follows another couplet : 

'A NupitpGH, Nu[i.oat, SieyeJpaTe xov XuxoO-apa^ 
(3o<jxov, [jl-tj 0'7)pwv x-Jpu.a ye'vTjxai "Ep<oc. 

/. 1. The Nymphs had, like Pan (supra, ii. 44) their invisible flocks upon 
the hills, and committed their herding to favoured shepherds. Jacobs 
quotes a curious passage from Antoninus Liberalis (a mythographer of the 
second century a.d.) of a musician called Terambus : lyivezo SI auTtS 8-peWara 
-Xftaxa, xai auxa bzol[uxiVEV auxd?, Nupcpat os a'jvjXa;j.pavov auxto, Biott ayxa; ev 
to"!; opeaiv i'otov etso-sv. 

XXIII. Anth. Pal. ix. 333. According to the heading in the ms., which 
may be taken for what it is worth, this was the famous temple of 

20-28] NOTES 359 

Aphrodite in Cnidos. For temples and groves of Aphrodite on the sea- 
shore cf. Pausan. Attica i. 3, Achaica xxi. 10, 11. 

I. 1. The text has been left as it stands in the us. though it is not very 
satisfactory. The word aXippavxoc, which apparently does not occur else- 
where, would naturally mean ' wet with sea-spray ' and apply to the land. 
If t:ovtou is right, it must be used actively, ' scattering spray'. In any case 
Meeker's conjecture, 

2xto;xsv ccXippoSKou -/0-ajj.aXav rapa fl-lva O-aXocTj^i;, 

is rewriting, not editing. 

/. 3. With the fountain and poplars cf. Odyssey, vi. 291. 

/. 4. £ou&oc( probably means 'shrill' : see note on Ep. 20 supra. 

XXIV. Anth. Pal. ix. 144. Compare the description of a temple of 
Venus on the coast of Argolis in Atalanta's Race in the Earthly Paradise. 

I. 4. Cf. Antipater of Sidon in Anth. Pal. ix. 143 (Venus speaks) : jtovxo) 
yap era -Xaxu Oci;j.aivovxi yai'pw, jtat vau'xcu; st; sjj.e aw£o;jivoic. 

XXV. Anth. Pal. ix. 675. On the lighthouse of Smyrna, budt by the 
great guild of the Asclepiadae. For a full account of them see Grote's 
History of Greece, vol. i. cap. ix. ad fin. 

Compare the lines written by Scott in 1814 on his visit to the Bell Rock 
Lighthouse : 

Far in the bosom of the deep 

O'er these wild shelves my watch I keep ; 

A ruddy gem of changeful light 

Bound on the dusky brow of night ; 

The seaman bids my lustre hail 

And scorns to strike his timorous sail. 

XXVI. Anth. Pal. x. 1. 

XXVII. Anth. Pal. x. 2. 

/. 6. otoXaoj;, 'lurking', generally used of such wild beasts as live in 
dens : owXccoes ap/.xoi, Theocr. i. 115. 

1. 8. ' Priapus of the Anchorage ' occurs again in the similar epigram by 
Agathias, supra v. 2. 

XXVIII. Athenaeus, xv. 673 b. : |j.viri;j.ovEUEiv o ; eoix-ev irX ^oaov xi xtjs 
xaxec -njv Xuyov <jXE?ava><7Eroc /.ai Ni/.a-vEXO? o £7:0-010? ev xot? E7:iypa|j.[i.aaiv, 
noir/xr,; 'j-jepyov Imytvipioi; (i.e. in Samos) /.a\ xf v e-zi/wptov icrxopiav j}ya7:7)xw; 
ev t:\v.ogi ' Xi'yEi o' ouxw? ' Oux £vhX<o -/..x.X. 

/. 3. /aijL£uvr h 'abed on the ground', the simplest form of which was a 
strewing of green boughs or rushes, as in the description of the summer 
feast in the Thalysia of Theocritus (vii. 133) : 

ev xe pa&c'a'.c 
'ASsia; cr/oivoio •/a;j.:uv!^'.v e/.X'v}>t,[j.e; 
"Ev xe vEOTixaxoiai yEyaiVox:: orvape'jiaiv. 

/. 4. The -pop-aXo? and Xu'yo? are two varieties of willow, the latter pro- 

360 < : 1 ! E E K A N T H OLOG Y [sect. 7 

bably the osier, the former of uncertain species. 'The willow worn of 
forlorn paramours' (Spenser, F. Q. 1. i. 9) is a symbol which does not occur 
in ancient art, and appears to have originated in the Psalm Super flumina 

Babylonis. But its use for festive garlands was not common. Athenaeus, 
/. <-., calls it aro-ov, because willow withes are used for fetters and the like, 
and quotes Menodotus' History of Samos for the origin of the custom in 
that island. He derives it from a prehistoric religious observance of 
binding the image of Hera with bands of Xj'yo; to prevent it from running 
a way. 

XXIX. Anth. Pal. ix. 667. On the palace gardens of the Heraeum,'an 
imperial villa on the coast opposite Constantinople, laid out by the 
Emperor Justinian, circ. 532 a.d. 

' On the Asiatic shore of the Propontis, at a small distance to the east of 
Chalcedon, the costly palace and gardens of Heraeum were prepared for 
the summer residence of Justinian, and more especially of Theodora. W -The 
poets of the age have celebrated the rare alliance of nature and art, the 
harmony of the nymphs of the groves, the fountains and the waves ; yet 
the crowd of attendants who followed the court complained of their incon- 
venient lodgings, and the nymphs were too often alarmed by the famous 
Porphyrio, a whale of ten cubits in breadth and thirty in length who was 
stranded at the mouth of the river Sangaris after he had infested more than 
half a century the seas of Constantinople.' — Decline and Fall, c. xl. 
Gibbon's description follows two epigrams by Paulus Silentiarius, Anth. 
Pal. ix. 663, 664, and one by Agathias, probably on the same gardens, 
Anth. Pal. ix. 665. 


I. Anth. Pal. ix. 64.9. An inscription for the author's house at Oibyra 
in Phrygia. Another inscription (Anth. Pal. ix. 648) celebrated its 
hospitality : 

Atto; s;j.cA y.a\ ifetvo; as\ tpiXo? " o'J yao Ipeuvav 


/. .">. Xi7Cspvj]T»js or Xwcepvjfe, 'an outcast': explained by Photius as 
meaning r-.v. Xwt07cdXets 75 jce'vujxes. 

II. Anth. Pal. \\. 770. An inscription on a cup (probably of silver. 
compare App. Plan. 324) given by the poet to his daughter. 

III. Anth. Pal. v. 124. 

IV. Anth. Pal. vi. 345. For roses forced (fcstinatae) under glass in 
winter see Martial xiii. 127. Martial also speaks of roses brought from 
Egypt to Rome in winter, vi. 80. 

/. ."). (jT6<p#-qvat MS., o-f fb>a-. Edd. after Brunck, without the least necessity. 

i-io] NOTES 361 

V. Anth. Pal. vi. 280. A dedication to Artemis by a Laconian girl. 
The Doric forms x.ooav /. 4 and xu I. 5 are to give local colour. 

/. 2. The xs/.p-JsaXo; was worn by married and unmarried women alike, 
as respectable women never appeared with their hair loose except in certain 
religious ceremonies : there is therefore no special significance in this gift. 

/. 3. Dolls in ancient Greece were generally made of clay ; cf. Plato, 
Tlieaet. 147a, Lucian, Lexiph. 22. Wax models were made and moulds cast 
from them ; or else the clay was modelled by hand round a wax core, which 
was then melted out. Pollux, x. 190, to -rj),ivov, o -spi£iXr;0£ -a ^Aa-jOivxa 
xr'otva, a xata ttjV tou — upc; Trooaoopav xrjx.sTat, X'yoo? xaXaxai. 

The temple of Artemis Limnatis stood in the village of Limnae on the 
borders of Laconia and Messenia, Pausan. Laconica, ii. 6, Messenicru, 
xxxi. 3. 

VI. Anth. Pal. vi. 209. 

/. 2. Xu'yoo; was the name of the white marble quarried in Paros. 
Eufcpiw], not 'when her prayer was heard', as in ii. 1 sujira, but like i% 
ju/5?, Ep. If), infra ; the Latin ex voto. 

I. 4. 6[i.oc)poauvrj ms. and Edd. ; 6[io«ppoeruvfl seems obviously right. Cf. 
ix. 24 infra, apxoo; ji.apTupi MaiovtSj). 

VII. Anth. Pal. vi. 55. The epithet in I. 2, and the word vulid'oc, 
imply that they are recently married. 

VIII. Anth. Pal. v. 263. 
/. 1 . Virgil, Georg. I 390 : 

Ne nocturna quidem carpentes pensa puellae 
Nescivere hiemem testa cum ardente viderent 
Scintillare oleum et putres concrescere fungos. 

/. 4. 'Hpio is ace, and the subject of ^ptioas is K'J-pu. She breaks oft* 
abruptly in terror of the bad omen of comparing herself and her husband 
to Hero and Leander. 

/. 6. ooo'v7] sc. the jealousy of Hephaestus. 

IX. Anth. Pal. vi. 340. 

/. 5. I/. CTc'Jkv dpyoLu'voic, beginning the year with worship to thee ; like 
the ix Aio? ap/(o;j.-a!>a of Aratus. 

X. Anth. Pal. xii. 53. 

/. 5. tout" e-o; ayys'iXaxc xaXirj voe'aw? [j.: xoLu'Cei MS. The first part of the 
line has been variously emended into tout" s'-o; ayyaXai or tout 1 ayyciXax' 
£-o?, with y.aXrj long, or vout' 'i~o; ayys'XaiTE, with xaXr' short. In the 
second half xaXai ve'ss, inc, y.z xofj.'£et Las also been suggested. 

/. 6. Before he can see Phanion he has to take the long journey on foot 
down the coast as far as Halicarnassus, whence he can cross by ferry to Cos. 
Some prefer to take it as a hyperbolical statement that he is ready to walk 
across the sea to her, but this does not suit the quiet tone of the epigram. 

362 ( : R E E K ANTHOLOGY [sect. 7 

/. 7. eu tsXoi ms., corr. Piccolos. The word Euayrs'Xiov was generally 
written in a contracted form by Christian copyists, and this probably 
accounts for the corruption. 

/. 8. For Zeus Oiipio; see v. 3, supra. 

XI. A nth. Pal vi. 146, and again after vi. 274. 

I 2. EiiXo/o; was one of the regular titles of Artemis Ilithyia : cf. Eur. 
Bippol. 167. 

The ms. reads euxcmri in the first version of the epigram, Euruyty in the 

second. Meineke would read euxoXit). 

XII. Anth, Pal. vi. 147. 

/.. 1. d-c'ystv is the technical word used in forms of receipt ; thus in the 
collection of Inland Revenue receipts recently found written on oaxpa-/.a at 
Karnak in Upper Egypt, the form runs ur.i/M -apa aou to teXo? . . . 
' I acknowledge to have received from you the tax . . .' 

/. 3. /.a( [xiv ar-a-ixf^ ms., corr. Porson. Jacobs would read fi[j.ov, a rare 
collateral form of T'.pjv. 

XIII. Anth, Pal. vi. 271. 

/. 2. -c'rcXwv 7rnJy;j.a is the oixloic, or long Ionic chiton which was folded 
over at the shoulders and fell in a sort of cape as far as the hips. 
I. 4. (hi xi. 198, 

out' Ej-u'y' ev [jtEyapotTtv Euaxo-o; lo/i'aipa 
of; dyavot? peXs'eaatv E-ot-/o;iiv7) xaxsnecpvsv. 

/. 5. Ae'ovto? ms. The sense requires Meineke's correction, Ae'ovti 
(governed by vsuaov). 

/. 6. uce' a£?o[jL£vov ms., corr. Meineke. But the ms. reading gives a 
possible sense, ' grant that Leon's infant son may in time see a son of his 
own growing up.' 

XIV. Anth, Pal vi. 59. 

XV. Anth, Pal vi. 357. Those who know Rome will remember the 
monument — a pathetic contrast to this — in S. Maria della Pace to the two 
little Ponzetti children, 'indolis fcstivitatisquc mirandac,' who died on the 
same day at the ages of eight and six in 1505, with their likenesses side by 
side on it. 

/. 2. /.e![j.evov etui means hardly more than -/.slTai or iariv alone. 

XVI. Anth. Pal vii. 228. 

XVII. Anth. Pal vii. 387. 

/. 2. ei; ooiiva; is equivalent to oSuvqpwg, like e!s tot/os, ei; xaXov, etc. 

XVIII. Anth. Pal vii. 464. There is another epigram on this same 
Aretimias ascribed to Heraclides of Sinope, Anth. Pal vii. 465, from which 
it appears that she was a Cnidian. The Aiop{8e« in I 4 are her country- 

ii-2i] NOTES 363 

women in the under world, Cnidoa being one of the cities founded in the 
great Dorian emigration from Peloponnesus to Crete and the southern 
portion of Asia Minor. 

/. 5. Most editors alter ijaivouaa to patvouaa, without necessity. 

XIX. Anth. Pal. vii. 555. Followed in the ms. by another couplet : 

Touto aaocpposuva; avxa^iov supeo, Noarw, 
odxoua aot yajA-'Ta; aralae xaiaoO'ifj.c'va 

which is clearly a separate epigram, and is so distinguished in 

XX. Anth. Pal, vii. 340. 

I, 1. MapaO-wvis has been doubted as a man's name, and the reading 
variously altered to NixotoXiv MapdOuv lasO-rjxaxo or evsO-^/caxo, or NtxoTtoXt? 
MapaO-wviv. But it is a possible masculine form, and in the uncertainty 
it seemed best to leave it alone. 

XXI. Anth. Pal. vii. 260. Cf. the celebrated passage in Veil. Paterc. 
L 11., on Q. Metellus Macedonicus, the paragon of human good fortune, 
ending, hoc est nimirum magis felieiter de vita migrate quam mori. 


I. Anth. Pal. xii. 127. 

/. 5. Cf. Soph. Track. 94, vu!j xaxeuvd^ei fjXiov. 

II. Anth. Pal. xii. 121. 

I. 3. t:ot\ and ijnjj(uvavxo go together. 

I. 6. avth'pti; or dWte'pixos is the tough stalk of the asphodel, of which 
basket-work was woven for huts (Hdt. iv. 190) or cages (Theocr. i. 52). 

III. Anth. Pal, xii. 54. For "l[xepoc, and ndQ-o; see note on i. 11 sw|>ra. 

IV. Anth. Pal, xii. 51. The first two lines are also quoted by the 
scholiast on Theocritus ii. 147. 

/. 1. Achelous is the god of fresh water ; he will drink to Diodes in 
unmixed wine. So Virgil, Georg. i. 9, poculaque inventis Achelo'ia miscuit 

V. Anth. Pal. xii. 56. The Eros of Praxiteles, his most famous statue 
after the Cnidian Aphrodite, and according to tradition his own favourite 
work, was given by him to Phryne and dedicated by her at Thespiae. Nero 
took it to Borne on his return from Greece, and it was destroyed there by a 
fire during the reign of Titus. 

/. 7. Mspo^wv ^dXtc, the city of Cos : cf. sv/pra iv. 15. 

VI. Anth. Pal. xii. 59. 

VII. Anth. Pal. xii. 159. 

/. 1. From Eur. Med. 770, iv. xouo' dvoc'1/djj.saO-a -pu^vrjTrjV /.dXwv. 

/. 2. ^vsu[xa to Xacpftev eti occurs again Ep. 11 infra. 

1. 5. Cf. a graceful couplet in an anonymous epigram, Anth, Pal. xii. 156, 

3G I (1I!KKK ANTHOLO G Y [sect. 9 

Kai -ox: 'j.:v cpa(vei{ icoXuv uexov ' ocXXote 8' kute 
euSio; aPpa y £ Xwv ojifiadiv ixxs'yuaat. 

VIII. 4n&. /',//. xii. 128. 

/. 4. The epithet -apJh'vio; is partly suggested by the legend of Daphne, 
but refers in the first instance to the delicate creamy blossom of the Greek 
laurel, the 'proud sweet bay -flower' of the poet. Of. Aristoph. A v. 1099, 
qptvct xs (3oT/.d|j.£0-a ^apOs'via Xsu/.dxcooa piupxa yapixtov xe xrj-£U[.iaxa. 

/. 5. Aacsvi; p.kv ev oupsai ms., corr. Dilthey ; exstinctum Nymphat 
Daphnin lugebant, Virg. Eel. v. 20. 

ctoi, to the lyre of Phoebus, i.e. to Phoebus himself. 

IX. Anth. Pal. ix. 341. This epigram is probably imitated from one by 
Zonas, Anth. Pal. ix. 556 ; if so, the date of Glaucus cannot be earlier than 
about the middle of the first century b.c. 

/. 2. Cf. Song of Solomon i. 6, 7. 

/. 5. Malea and Psophis were two towns in the north-west of Arcadia 
near the border of Elis. The former must not be confounded with the 
promontories of the same name in Laconia and Lesbos. 

X. Anth. Pal. xii. 138. 

/. 1. Cf. Archestratus in Athen. vii. 321 c, 

^vixa o' av ouvovxo; ev oupavw Qpltavoq 
jjL^xrjp oivo'^opou [jo'xouo; ya'!x7jv aTCO^aXXr,. 

/. 2. iaro'piov is a mistake. The autumnal setting of the Pleiades, the well- 
known signal for ceasing to put to sea and beginning to plough (Hesiod, 
Opera, 615 foil., Virg. Georg.i. 221) was in the morning ; their evening setting 
is in spring, on the 6th of April according to the calendar of Columella. 

XL Anth. Pal. xii. 72. 

/. 4. Cf. Dante, Purg. xxx. 90, Si che par fuoco fonder la candela. 


I. Anth. Pal. v. 118. 

/. I. With the phrase [iupov euSeiv may be compared the eap opav of 
Theocritus, Id. xiii. 45. 

II. Anth. Pal. v. 71. 

III. Anth. Pal. xii. 234. In Plan, under the name of Meleager. 

/. 2. epior; is a shortened form for Ippicp*] : so iizipvla in Pind. Pyth. 
vi. 37. 

/. 3. There is a play on the meaning of yodvo? ; as the words avfl-o? and 
xaXXog are of the same ' time ', i.e. musical or metrical value ( - w )J so Time 
brings them both alike to decay. Cf. the criticism of Longinus, xxxix. 4, 
on tlw uxntep ve'^pog of Demosthenes. 

/. 4. tp&ovEwv ypdvo;, the invida ados of Hor. Od. i. xi. 7. 

i -io] NOTES 365 

IV. Anth. Pal. xi. 53. 

/. 1. -apalil-r, sc. /povo;. Suidas cites a proverb, pooov napsXOwv |j.7]xeti 
£t]tsi 7iaXiv, from which it has been proposed to read 7tapeX9Tis here, perhaps 

V. Anth. Pal xii. 32. 

/. 3. -apOucjst ms., 7:apcp{>a(Tct (from racpacp&dvw), corr. Dorville. For the 
line cf. Simonides fr. 32, Bergk, and Omar Khayyam, vn. (first edition), 

The Bird of Time has but a little way 
To fly — and Lo ! the Bird is on the Wing. 

/. 4. Cf. Theocr. vii. 120, 

at ok yuveSxeg 

Ala!, cpavxt, <i>i)uvc, to toi xaXov av3o; d-oppst. 

VI. Anth. Pal. ix. 260. For Lais cf. note on ii. 23 supra. Athenaeus, 
xiii. p. 570 b, quotes from a comedy of Epicrates called Anti-Lais a passage 
moralising on the end to which such women come, which says that the 
Corinthian Lais in her age was glad to get anything she could, and took 
alms. Et jadis fusmes si mignottes ! 

VII. Anth. Pal. xii. 235. In Plan, under the name of Meleager. 

VIII. Anth. Pal v. 85. 

IX. Anth. Pal, v. 233. 

/. 5. So Arist. Poet. 1457 B. 23, dpioiu; iysi . . . y^pa; ~P°S f^ov /.a 
Ia-£pa ~po; ^;j.c'pav  Ipei toi'vuv t/jV iara'pav y*jpa? 7]p.s'pas xa\ to y^pa? iarepav 

X. Anth. Pal. x. 71. According to the ordinary version of the story as 
told by Hesiod, Opera, 11, 60-105, the casket of Pandora contained evil, 
labour, and sickness, which were spread among mankind when it was 
opened, hope alone remaining in the casket when Pandora shut it again ; 
cf. Theognis, 580 foil. But there seems to have been a different version in 
which the casket contained good things which escaped and were lost. 

1. 3. [i.£Ta ' among ' is used very loosely, the proper sense required being 
' over '. 

/. 5. [Xctoc rccopa seems to allude to a picture of Pandora holding the 
casket in front of her, much as in Rossetti's picture. 

XI. Anth. Pal, xi. 37 : headed 'Avxircdxpou simply. 

/. 1. The morning rising of Arcturus is placed by Pliny on the 12th of 
September. It marked the division between oWpa, the season of harvest, 
and oS>ivon<opov, our autumn. 

The year growing ancient 

Not yet on summer's death, nor on the birth 
Of trembling winter. 

The thatching of cottages would be pressed forward just then to anticipate 
the equinoctial storms. Ix £tov7js, unless ex means 'following upon', is not 


quite accurate, Arcturus Lying in the knee of Bootes a little below the 
belt : cf. Aratus, Phaen. 94 (of Bootes) : 

ur.o C'ovr, oi (A auto; 
'E£ aXXwv Apxxoupos IXtaasTai a[xcpa5ov aTrrjp. 

I. 5. Cf. Hesiod, Opera, 534-6. 

XII. Anth. Pal. xii. 141. This epigram is illustrated by another of the 
same general purport, Anth. Pal. xii. 140. 

/. 1. a [xr t ftco; sc. av cpih'Y^aiTO. 

//. 2, 3. The repetition is a favourite device of Meleager ; cf. supra i. 7, 
60, infra xi. 46 : also Anth. Pal. v. 165. 
ocuto; d-iTzr^, tu Fas voulu. 
1. 4. Cf. the epigram cited above : 

 a Nc[i.£3i; [J.E auvr^o-aa;, y.suO-u; EXEtpiav 

ev 7cup(, Tuotig o' It:' £;jlo v i Zeo; IxepauvoPoXei. 

XIII. Jnf/i. Pai. ix. 257. For the fountain Ka#ap»j, see vi. 12 supra. 

Pausanias, Bocotica xxx. 8, gives a legend of the river Helicon having sunk 
underground when the Pierian women would have washed their hands in it 
after the murder of Orpheus, "va or; |j.rj too oovou xa9-apaia to oSwp -apaV/r;TX'.. 
Cf. also the epigram of Antiphancs, Anth. Pal. ix. 258. 

XIV. Anth. Pal. ix. 269. In Plan, under the name of Philippus. 
Cicero, Off', iii. 89, 90, quotes a discussion of such cases of conscience 

from the work of Hecaton : quacrit, si tabulam de naufragio stvltus nrri- 
puerit, extorquebitne earn sa/pirns si potueritf negat, quia sit iniurivm 
. . . Quid si una tabula sit, duo naufragi hique sapientes, sibine uterquc 
rapiat an alter cedat alteri ? cedat, sed ei cuius magis intersit vel sua 
vel rei publicae causa vivere. Quid si haec paria in utroque? nullum erit 
certamen, sed quasi forte aut micando victus alteri cedat alter. The some- 
what parallel case of the ship Mignonette is familiar to all modern readers. 

/. 4. If he had been fortunate enough to escape the notice of Aixtj, who 
is here half personified, or if his K^ps? had not predestined him for punish- 
ment, it was a case 00 ve|ie<n]Tov, in which the moral sense of plain men 
would not have demanded the infliction of a penalty. 

/. 5. Aelian, Hist. An. i. 55, describes the xuwv 9-aXaTxtos as one of the 
largest x»jT7j. 

XV. Anth. Pal. xii. 148. For the phrase roupiov ovstpov s;j.oi, see note 
tin iv. 26, supra. 

XVI. Anth. Pal. v. 113. In Plan, under the name of Philodemus. 

1. 1. rjpaa&Tjs is passive, as in Eur. fr. Dan. 8, ouos\; -poaouTtov ptoTov 
qpaath] ppoTcov ; and in /. 2 I have accordingly put the passive £pa for 
ipa? of the mss. and Editors. 

/. 3. From Bion i. 71, to aov jiupov (oXet' Aowvig. 

/. 4. Note the sense of the name Menophila, a month's lover. 

XVII. Anth. Pal. ix. 530 Headed in the MS. e'c apyovTa avatjiov. 

12-21] NOTES 367 

XVIII. Antk. Pal. ix. 51, headed HXec-cuvog; and again after A nth. Pal. 
xi. 441, together with an epigram of Plato 6 Nswxspo;. It is probably 
by the same hand. 

/. 1. From Virgil, Eel. ix. 51, omnia fert aetas. 

XIX. C'.I.G. 4747, inscribed on the base of one of the twoColossi of Amunoph 
in, known as the Memnon statues, in the Nile valley under the edge of the 
Libyan mountains opposite Thebes. The inscription was first copied by 
Pococke, who gives a drawing of it in his great work (A Description of thi 
East and of some other Countries. By Richard Pococke, LL.D., F.R.S., 
London, 1743. 2 voll. folio). Above the verses is the author's name, 
'AT/.X^-tooo-ou, and below them Ilo[j.-o . . to . . i-tTpo'no'j, ' in the prefecture 
of Pomponius.' The date seems to be about the time of Hadrian. 

The story of Memnon, son of Eos, slain by Achilles at Troy, was given 
at length in the lost Aethiopiad of Arctinus which came next after the Iliml 
in the Epic Cycle, and is extant in Quintus Smyrnaeus, B. ii. 

XX. Anth. Pal. ix. 151. On the capture of Corinth by the consul 
Lucius Mummius, B.C. 146, the citizens were killed or sold for slaves and 
the city levelled to the ground together with its walls and citadel. All 
rebuilding was prohibited, and the site remained desolate till the city 
was refounded as a Roman colony by Julius Caesar a hundred years later. 

Compare the famous letter of Ser. Sulpicius Rufus to Cicero (Cic. Fam. 
iv. 5) : Ex Asia rediens cum ab Aegina Mega/ram versus navigarem, coepi 
regiones circumcirca prospicere ; post me erat Aegina, ante Megara, dextra 
Piraeeus, sinistra Corinthus; quae oppida quodam tempore florentissima 
fuerunt, nunc prostrata et diruta ante oculos iacent. And Sen. Ep. 
xci ; non vides quemadmodum in Achaia clarissimarum urbium iam 
fundamenta consumjAa sint, nee quiequam exstet ex quo appareat Mas saltern 
fuisse ? 

I. L Sisjphus was the Legendary founder of Ephyre or Corinth. 

/. 7. The wailing of the sea-birds as they flew across between the two 
gulfs was the only sound in the deserted city. A translation can hardly 
convey the exact force of the rhetorical confusion in this couplet. Gram- 
matically a/Etov depends on aXxudvE?, and the phrase might be "translated, 
' the shrill wailers of thy woes,' the reference being to the wailing cry of the 
halcyon. But the Nereids or sea-nymphs are these halcyons, namely the six 
ilaughters of Alcyoneus who were according to the legend changed into 
halcyons, and can be thought of either as birds or as semi-divine beings of 
the sea. 

XXI. Anth. Pal. ix. 408, with the heading 'AzoXXwvioou, ol oz 'Avti- 
narpou. The authorship is fixed by the allusion to it (ouoe Xoyoi; Bo;xa'. 
'Avuratpou) in an epigram by Alpheus, Anth. Pal. ix. 100. It follows from 
the fact that the desolation of Delos is alluded to as of long standing, that 
Antipater of Thes^alonicu is the author ; Antipater of S"idon was dead 
before the disaster of Delos. Cf. supra p. 299. 

After the destruction of Corinth, Delos became the great centre of the 
trade between Europe and Asia, and the largest slave-market in the ancient 

368 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 9 

world. In b.c 88 it was occupied by the Pontic fleet under Archelaus and 
Menophanes, all the merchants in the island were massacred, the city razed 
to the ground, and the inhabitants sold for slaves. From this crushing blow- 
it never recovered ; see Pausan. Laconica xxiii. 3, 4. 

/. t. There is an allusion to Callimachus, Hymn to Ddos, 316 : 

Tt? Be nt vauxr,; 
"E[J.~opo$ Atyatoio -apr^XuSs vrfi ■Osouar, : 

XXII. Anth. Pal. ix. 155. One of four epigrams by Agathias on Troy, 
Anth. Pal. ix. 152-155. 

/. 1 . For the desolation of Sparta see Ep. 26, infra. 
1. 8. From Virgil, Am. vi. 851. 

XXIII. Anth. Pal ix. 101. In Plan, attributed to Antipater of Thes- 

In b.c. 468 Mycenae was besieged by the Argives, and though the 
Cyclopean walls resisted assault, the inhabitants were ultimately forced by 
famine to evacuate the town, which was then destroyed and has never been 
since repeopled. Pausanias gives an account of its destruction, and of the 
Lion Gate and other remnants left in his time, Corinthiaca xvi. 5, 6. 

/. 4. akoXJou is awkward with the ai-oXi/.ov of the next line following 
so closely. Jacobs, comparing I, 2 of the next epigram, plausibly emends 
eyvw/.a, ny.o-D~.QM 7:avT0i; £p7j[j.0Tc'prjv. 

XXIV. Anth. Pal ix. 28 : headed no^iou, 01 Ss Mapxou Nsampoo. 
These are probably, however, the same person, M. Pompeius Theophanes, 
son of Theophanes of Mitylene, the friend of Pompey. 

XXV. Anth. Pal. vii. 705. 

/. 1. The Hellespont had a somewhat loose geographical signification : 
properly it meant the straits between the Propontis and the bay of Sigeum, 
but in Hdt. i. 57 (cf. also iv. 38) it includes the Propontis. In the list of 
Athenian allies at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian war (Thuc. ii. 9) the 
enumeration going round the Aegean is 'iiovfa, 'E^a-ovxo?, tcx lid. Gpay.r];; 
and probably there was no definite line of division between the two last. 
I '.ut in any accurate geography Amphipolis would belong to xa li& Opax»]?. 

/. 2. For the legendary foundation of Amphipolis and the story of Phyllis 
and Demophoon, see Ovid, Heroid. ii. 

I. 3. Artemis Aethopia was worshipped at Aethopion in Lydia, Artemis 
Brauronia at Brauron in Attica, and also on the Athenian acropolis. 

I. 4. Two attempts to colonise Amphipolis, from Miletus in B.C. 497 and 
from Athens in B.C. 465, were unsuccessfully made, and the colonists 
massacred by the Edonians, before the final colonisation of b.c. 437. The 
position of Amphipolis commanding the coast road between Europe and 
Asia and the great waterway of the Strymon was of the utmost military 
and commercial importance. Its loss in the Peloponnesian war was a most 
s,ii,,us blow to Athens. For its later history down to its capture by Philip 
of Macedon in B.C. 358, see Grote, capp. 79 and 86. After the Roman con- 
quest it still remained an important libera civitas, and it is not certainly 

22-28] NOTES 369 

known when it fell into decay. Probably the population and traffic were 
absorbed by Philippi and its seaport of Datum, where a Roman colony was 
planted by Octavianus after the defeat of Brutus and Cassius. The date of 
this epigram cannot be more than twenty or thirty years later. 
I. 5. AtysiSai, the Athenians. 

XXVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 723. In B.C. 189, Philopoemen, then general of 
the Achaean league, advanced at the head of an allied force into Laconia, 
and to save themselves from destruction the Lacedaemonians were com- 
pelled to pull down their walls, dismiss their mercenaries, abrogate the 
laws and customs of Lycurgus, and become subject to the league : Livy 
xxxviii. 33, 34, and Polyb. vii. 8. 

It was the boast of the Spartans, according to Plutarch, Agesilaus, c. 31, 
that no Laconian woman had ever seen the smoke of an enemy's fire ; until 
the invasion by Epaminondas in the spring of B.C. 369 no enemy had ever 
set foot on Laconian soil. Xenophon says of the march of the Thebans 
(Hell. vi. v. 27) sv ozfyz e/ovte; xov Eupwrav rapfaav xocovte; xal 7:op9'ouvx£g, 
twv 8' ix. T7)s jtoXsm; ai [j.ev yuvaixs; ouos tov xarvov optoaai ^vEr/ovTO, axs 
ouoe7:ots toouaat j:oXe£juqu;. 

I. 2. Olenus, a small town on the Corinthian gulf near Patrae, was one of 
the less important members of the Achaean league, and so is put here to 
emphasize the contrast between the former and the present state of Sparta. 

I. 3. So Arist. JRhet., n. xxi. 8, quotes a warning of Stesichorus to the 
Locrians not to presume, oiziot; y.r oi TErny^? -/ajjLofrEv aowaiv, sc. all the trees 
having been cut down by invaders. 

/. 4. The wolves prowl unchecked, but find no flocks to attack. 

XXVII. Anth. Pal. ix. 501, with no author's name ; and again after 
Anth. Pal. xi. 316, under the name of Palladas. If the heading si; -c^v tcoXiv 
B7]puTov be correct, it was written upon the destruction of the Roman colony 
of Berytus in Syria by an earthquake, followed by a fire which broke out 
among the ruins, on the 9th of July a.d. 551, in the reign of Justinian, 
when the reputation of the city as the great school of civil law was at its 
height. The catastrophe is recounted by the historian Theophanes, and is 
the subject of two epigrams by Joannes Barbucallus, Anth. Pal. ix. 425, 426. 
As it happened more than a century after the date of Palladas, this epigram 
is either not his or refers to some other city. The former is the more pro- 
bable. But ' the greater part ' of Berytus had been destroyed by an earth- 
quake before, in a.d. 349, the twelfth year of the reign of Constantius 
(Georg. Cedr. 299 b.), and the epigram may possibly refer to this. 

XXVIII. Anth. Pal. ix. 106. Cf. the epigrams with a similar point, 
probably imitated from this, by Antiphilus, Secundus, and Julianus 
Aegyptius, Anth. Pal. ix. 34, 36, 398. 

I. 2. Cf. Catull. iv. 10, ubi iste post jihasehis antcafuit comata silva. 

I. 3. sV f,ovo<; MS. and Edd., sV T|dva; Plan. I have written fo'va ; 
oisawasv ic, rdva would be the regular construction. It is very clumsy to 
put a comma after ot huiisv and make eV f,dvos a mere repetition of ev yd-ovl ; 
and oiEawasv eV f,dvo? is hardly Greek. 


370 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, io 

XXIX. Anth. Pal. ix. 138. 

XXX. Anth. Pal. ix. 75. Also quoted by the scholiast on Aristoph. 
Pint. 1130, and by Suetonius, Dom. c. 14, in a curious story of Domitian : 
in in imis suspicionib us emu mor< batur ; ut edicti de excidendis vineis propositi 
gratiam facere non alia magis re compulsus credebatur quam quod sparsi 
Ubdli rum his versibus erant, xav |xe «paf!W /..t.X. 

The fable is given in full in an epigram by Leonidas of Tarentum, Anth. 
Pal. ix. 99, the last line being the same as in this ; it is rendered in Latin 
by Ovid, Fast. i. 353-8. For the practice of such sacrifices, see Suid. s.v. 
Aaxo: and Varro B. R., I. ii. 19. 

XXXI. Anth. Pal. ix. 44 : under the name of Statyllius Flaccus, but 
the corrector has written in the margin, nXaxwvo; tou [xsyaXou. It is also 
quoted as Plato's by Diog. Laert. Vita Platonis, c. 33. 

XXXII. Anth. Pal. ix. 74, called aSe'tnto-rov. Attributed in Plan., and 
also by the scholiast on the Nigrinus, c. 26, to Lucian ; it is very much in 
his style. 

The thought is from Horace, Sat, n. ii. 133. Achaemenides and Menippus 
are conventional names for a rich and a poor man. 

XXXIII. Anth. Pal. ix. 49, headed aor^Xov. It is in the manner of 

XXXIV. Anth, Pal. ix. 172. 

XXXV. Anth. Pal. ix. 8. Cic. Or. in. 2 : fallacem hominum spent, 
fragilemque fortunam et inancs nostras contentiones ! quae in medio spatio 
saepe franguntur et corruunt, et ante in ipso cursu obruuntur, quam portum 
conspicere potuerunt, 

' So there came one morning and sunrise, when all the world got up and 
set about its various works and pleasures, with the exception of old Joseph 
Sedley, who was not to fight with fortune, or to hope or scheme any more.' 
— Vanity Fair, c. lxi. 

I. Anth. Pal. xii. 2. This is one of two prefatory epigrams at the 
beginning of the Mouaa 2-cpaTtovo?, the twelfth section of the Palatine 
Anthology ; cf. Intr. p. 18. 

I. 1. xapoL [3io[jlo!;, sc. at the altar of Zeus "Ep/.eio; where he was slain by 
Neoptolemus : cf. Virg. Aen. ii. 550, which follows the details of the story 
as given in the Hecuba and Troades of Euripides. 

I. 3. Od. xix. 518 foil. : 

(o; 8' ote Ilavoapi'ou xoup7] -/Xwpr/i; cciqowv 
xaXov a£'!or,atv saoo? ve'ov iata[Ji£voio 
oevops'wv ev ^ETaXoiat xaite^oijtivT] rtmvoiaiv, 
7,te 9-ajj.a Tpio-waa -/eel r.okvrf/ia. owvrjv, 

Titxlo' 6Xo<pUpCl|J.EV7) ItuXoV Ot'XoV. 

1-9] NOTES 371 

II. Anth. Pal, v. 81. 

/.I. i] xa 6d3a sc. syouaa or epopouaa. 

III. ^nf^. Pa?, xi. 1. 

/. 1. The festival of the Hermaea was a sort of Greek Saturnalia on a 
modified scale, celebrated with games and a general relaxation of discipline. 
The scene of Plato's Lysis is laid during a celebration of the Hermaea by 
young men and boys conjointly (206 d). Athen., xiv. 639 b, says that at the 
Cretan Hermaea servants feasted and were waited on by their masters. 

Si; /pa?, between four and five gallons, which we must suppose to have 
been in a single earthenware jar. 

I, 2. r=v9-o? £'ib]-/.Ev is an epic phrase (like aXys' &8t]xev) introduced to give 
a tinge of parody and lead up to the next line with its more obvious 
reference to Homer. 

/. 3. From Od. xxi. 295, oivo? xou Kivxauoov ayaxXuxov Eupuxiiova aaaev. 

IV. Anth. Pal. vi. 44, headed ao7jXov, 61 ok Aswvioou Tapavxivou. It is 
also attributed to Leonidas in Plan., and is quite in his manner. 

1. 2. rpwxrj? ms. ; -ptoxa is restored from Suidas s.v. opa' 
I. 6. For JuXsfova (ace. pL) cf. supra i. 9, xai SiaS-sl; xou'xwv yapova. 

V. Athenaeus iii. 125 c, KaXXi<Jxpaxo? ev c(Soop.o> aup-paxxiov cprjatv, to; 
laxuojjLEVo; — apa: xiai SljitoViSir]; 6 r.oir\irc, xpaxaiou xau[j.axo$ wpa, xai xtov 
o'vo/^otov xot; aXXot? [xtayovxiov e'; xo t:ox&v yiovo;, auxw o' ou, d-EayEoiaas 
xooe xo E-typap.p.a - xf] pa x.x.X. 

The snow is put into the wine directly : to cool jars of wine in snow was 
a later refinement : see infra Ep. 37. 

/. 1. xfi sc. /tdvi : the speaker is supposed to point to it. 

/. 3. Exap.cpQ-7] mss. corr. Brunck. 

/, 4 The same phrase is used of burial, supra iii. 8. 

VI. Anth. Pal. v. 135 : headed ei; Xayuvov. Cf. supra i. 1. 

VII. Anth, Pal. vi. 77. 

VIII. Anth, Pal, ix. 270. He will revel, taking pattern by the dances 
of the stars, and will imitate heaven itself in adorning himself with a lyre 
and crown. 

1. 1. Cf. Comus, I, 111, 'we that are of purer fire imitate the starry quire.' 

1. 2. Xai; Ipapuvadpoj ms. It is not certain that we have recovered the 
original line. (3apuvsiv seems to be used as equivalent to the classical 
PapuvE(j9-ai, acgreferre. For the phrase cf. Xai; axfafls Aesch. Eum, 540. 

I. 3. For the force of av9o[3oXov see note on i. 17 supra. 

I. 5. There is a play upon the two senses of xo'ap.o;, ' order ' and ' universe '. 

7. 6. The Lyre of Orpheus and the Crown of Ariadne are the constella- 
tions still bearing these names. Their two chief stars, Vega and Alphecca, 
are among the brightest in the northern hemisphere. 

IX. Anth, Pal. ix. 546. ' Navigantium oblcctamenta recensentur,' says 

372 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, io 

Jacobs ; it is a curious and almost unique piece of description in the 
manner of a Dutch painting. 

/. -2. oizid-epldz; (Lat. segestria) were awnings of skin stretched over the 
quarter-deck for protection against spray and rain. 

/. 3. The cooking fire forces its way in little jets of flame through the 
stones which are built up into a hearth ; over it a piece of meat is boiling 
in a pot. 

/. 5. xat xps u7crovxa loiootpu ms., corr. Schneider comparing II. xi. 775, 
d[j.<p\ Poo; freerov -/.pice. 

I. 6. -pw-n] ms. corr. Boissonade. Cf. Pers. v. 146, Tu mare transilias ? 
tibi torta cannabe fulto cena sit in transtro ? 

1. 7. oo; Xa8c was a game of chance. It is referred to again in an epigram 
by Strato, Anth. Pal. xii. 204. 

X. Anth. Pal. ix. 446. Imitated from the epigram of Metrodorus, infra 
xii. 40. 

I. 7. tzoXct] sc. -9-pi? : for the full phrase cf. Ep. 49 infra. 
I. 8. £<i)c may be either the vocative of £wo; (with retracted accent) or 
the imperative of £wEtv. 

XI. Anth. Pal. x. 43. In the Greek system of numerals, 7, 8, 9, 10 are 
represented by the letters £, tj, &, i. 

For the special force of J^O-i cf. the Vivamus mea Lexbia of Catullus, and 
the celebrated motto dum vivimus vivamus which apparently is first found 
on the tomb of Aelia Restituta at Narbo : Gruter, G. I. p. 609. 

XII. Anth. Pal. ix. 133. 'A gentleman who had been very unhappy in 
marriage married immediately after his wife died : Johnson said, it was 
the triumph of hope over experience.' Dr. Maxwell, quoted in Boswell's 
Johnson, ann. 1770. 

XIII. Anth. Pal. x. 55. 

I. 3. cprjaiv 'one saith,' for the more usual <pa<rtv. The proverb is from 
Od. xix. 163, where Penelope says to Odysseus in asking who he is, ou yap 
a.T.o opuo; laat jraXaacpaxou ou$' arco TOtpTjs. Eustathius ad. I. says of the 
phrase, ou [j.ovov apyaioyoviav —aXatoxat^v ar)|'vct aXXa /.at tjO-o; aTipa;.ivov, 
and it has the latter sense here. There may also be some slight touch of 
cynical reference to the more famous passage where the phrase is first found, 
II. xxii. 126 : 

ou (jiv Tztoq vuv Eoxtv a.r:6 opuo; ouo' oltzo jreTQTjs 
xo> 6api£s'[jLSvai octe 7tapxh'vo<; ^(xhd; xs 
7:apih'vos qtiTEo; V oapii^EXOv aXX^Xoiaiv. 

/. 6. From Juvenal, Sat. i. 56, 7. 

XIV. Anth. Pal. xi. 68. 

XV. Anth. Pal. xi. 186. Under the name of Lucilius in Plan. The 
vuxT-./.o'pa? is identified by some with the horned owl, strix bubo, whose 
ferale carmen is spoken of by Virgil, Aen. iv. 462 ; by others with the 

10-22] NOTES 373 

heron, ardea. The 'night-raven' who sings in L' Allegro, I. 7, is merely a 
literal translation of the word. 

ArjjidepiXos, ' Mr. Popular,' is of course an imaginary name ; so the name 
of the unlucky painter, infra, Ep. 17, is Euxu/oc, and of the little man, 
Ep. 22, Meexpwv. 

XVI. Anth. Pal. xi. 255. 

XVII. Anth. Pal. xi. 215. 

XVIII. Anth. Pal. xi. 82. Of. the next epigram ; also Anth. Pal. xi. 
83, 86. 

I. 1. The odXiyo; 8pdp.o$ was of various lengths ; it seems that anything 
longer than the oiauXo; or double stadium was included under the name. 
Twenty-four stadia or something under three miles is the longest men- 

Arcadian games are also spoken of in an anonymous epigram, Anth. Pal. 
ix. 21 ; contests at Tegea in one attributed to Simonides, Anth. Pal. xiii. 19 ; 
and at Lycosura on Mount Lycaeus by Pausanias, Arcadica, ii. 1. 

XIX. Anth. Pal. xi. 85. The opdp.o? oxXitwv was introduced into the 
Olympian games in the 65th Olympiad (b.c. 520) p-eXe-n^ ivexoc -rijs i? to 
jEoXspiixd according to Pausanias, Eliaca A, viii. 10. 

I. 4. Tipfc avs-/.a, ' honoris causa,' goes with twv Xi^Kvidv ; the statues 
erected in honour of victors in the race. 

1. 5. e?s wpa? usually means ' next year,' as in Theocr. xv. 74, /.si; wpa; 
xfj-sixa •, and so the scholiast on this epigram explains it lv xfj i'?rj? 'OXup.:tid8i. 
But it rather means at the regular hour of opening next day. 

I. 6. axdoiov comes in at the end -apa npoaSoxfav, ' still short of the course 
by — the course.' 

XX. Anth. Pal. xi. 89. The oopuops'racvov was a hook mounted on a 
long pole and used as a grappling-iron in sieges and sea-fights. Caesar B. G. 
iii. 14, fakes pracacutac insertae adfixaeque longuris non absimili forma 
muralium falcium ; Strabo in his account of the same battle calls these 

XXI. Anth. Pal. xi. 92. 

V 3. /.axapa? oto? o^ e£r) ms. Brunck's correction, inserting oXoc, which 
might easily have dropped out before oto;, the more so on account of the 
oXeo? in I. 2, is the simplest way of filling up the line. 

I. 4. s/sXetov (sc. awp.a) is, according to etymology, rather a mummy than 
a skeleton ; but in medical Greek it means the latter. 

I. 5. The opaxpiat were subdivisions of the cpuXrJ ; ippaxopss were supposed 
to be united by a common ancestry, and had common religious rites. 

XXII. Anth. Pal. xi. 95. In Plan, under the name of Ammianus. 

I. 3. 'iiXo'c, ' without armour,' like y ,j [ j - v ^?- 

374 GEEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, io 

XXIII. A nth. Pal. xi. 88. 

/. 2. oto ms. ooio corr. Hecker. The gnat serves her for the eagle of 
Ganymede: 'in raptoi~is p>otentia excusationem facilitates suae quacrif 

XXIV. Anth. Pal. xi. 101. 
X XV. Anth. Pal. xi. 103. 

XXVI. A nth. Pal. xi. 106. Compare the stories of Cinesias in Athenaeus 
xii. 551, 552. 

/. 3. ap'/vrj here of course means the web, not the spider itself, and in 
/. 6, v^;j.a zr t i ixpixyyr^ ' a thread of the web.' The usual word for a spider's 
web is apa/vtov. 

XXVII. Anth. Pal. xi. 113. There is a play on the word a-"a9-a'., 
which is used (1) of a suppliant embracing the knees or hand of a god, and 
(2) of a disease attacking a patient. Zeus ' caught the Marcus ', as Beatrice 
says, M. Ado L 1, 'God help the noble Claudio ! if he have caught the 
Benedick, it will cost him a thousand pound ere he be cured.' 

XXVIII. Anth. Pal. xi. 114. A physician called Hermogenes is men- 
tioned by Galen, and another by Dion Cassius ; but the name here is pro- 
bably taken at random. The names Hermogenes and Diophantus have 
both occurred already, supra Epp. 20 and 25 ; see also the next epigram. 

/. 3. Koovoc, the l ininus Saturnus' of Horace Od. ii. xvii. 22. 
/. 5. ixTEiva? sc. -/3pa. 

/. 6. bwcaaxapifro is a verb used to express the struggles of a dying fish 
out of water. 

XXIX. Anth. Pal. \i. 257. Cf. Martial vi. 53, in somnis medicum 
viderat Hermocratem. 

XXX. Anth. Pal. xi. 115. 

/. 2. Cf. Juvenal xiii. 93, Isis et irato feriat mea lumina sisti-o. Harpo- 
crates (Egyptian Her-pe-chruti, Horus the child) is a form of the name of 
the hawk-headed Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis. 

XXXI. Anth. Pal. xi. 121. 

XXXII. Anth. Pal. xi. 159. 

XXXIII. Anth. Pal. xi. 162. There is an epigram of similar point, 
attributed to Lucilius, Anth. Pal. xi. 163, where the name of the soothsayer 
is Olympus. Neither need be a real name ; these epigrams are merely 
academic exercises. 

For the practice of such consultations cf. the story of Xenophon's journey 
to Delphi before he joined the expedition of Cyrus, Anab. in. i. 4-7. 

XXXIV. Anth. Pal. xi. 365. 

/. 5. The i|n)qSi8s$ are the balls on the abacus used for calculations and 
helped out by the fingers, which were used to express different numbers as 
they were held straight or crooked. 

23-41] NOTES 375 

/. 8. uXaiT], 'wild' : cf. the use of silva for an undergrowth of weeds, 
Virg. Georg. i. 152. 

I. 11. xe[j.a? is a young deer between the fawn (vs(3po?) and the full-grown 

/. 12. X7jYa must be understood again as the subject to 5<|*erai, unless, with 
some editors, we read od»sai. 

XXXV. Quoted in an anonymous argument to the Panathenaic oration 
of Aristides of Smyrna, the pupil of Herodes Atticus and friend of Marcus 
Aurelius, as having, however, been made not on him, but on a later 
rhetorician of the same name. 

Athenaeus, viii. 348 d, has a similar story of a music teacher who had 
figures of Apollo and the nine Muses in his schoolroom, and when asked 
how many pupils he had, replied, 2uv toi? Q-eoic, owSsxa. Cf. also the story 
of Diogenes in Diog. Laert. vi. 69. 

I. 2. au'k'Xia is a barbarous transliteration of the Latin mbsellia : [BaD-pa 
would be the pure Greek word. 

XXXVI. Anth, Pal. xi. 251. 

I. 2. tou'twv ou'o ms., the second -wv having fallen out. 

I. 3. The one party in the suit claimed five months' rent for a house ; 
the other replied that he had used the mill at night. The last may refer 
to some question of rights over a mill-stream which might only be used at 
.certain hours. Or possibly auxov is to be supplied again from /. 3, and 
the counter-suit was on the ground of annoyance from his neighbour grind- 
ing corn by night. 

XXXVII. Anth. Pal. xi. 244, with no author's name ; in Plan, under 
the name of Nicarchus. 

There is an epigram with the same point in Martial, ii. 78. 

/. 1. The original sense of miliarium (which must not be confounded 
with miliarium, a milestone) was the socket in which the upright iron 
beam of an olive-press was fixed ; Cato de Agri Cultura, c. 20. Later 
it seems to have been applied to a tall narrow caldron in baths of a similar 
shape, and so it is explained by Athenaeus iii. 98 d, as equivalent to i-voX^ir,;, 
the urn in which water was kept hot over charcoal for mixing with wine ; 
cf. supra i. 16. 

1. 4. [3auxaXi; is the same as 'iu/cx^p, a wine-cooler. 

XXXVIII. Anth. Pal. xi. 259. The horses and witches of Thessaly 
were both famous from early times : for the latter cf. supra ii. 24. 

XXXIX. Anth. Pal. xi. 315. The covers of the cushions used at dinner 
in rich houses were made of precious stuffs and embroideries. Compare 
with this the lines of Catullus (xii) on the man who stole napkins at dinner. 

XL. Anth. Pal. xi. 236. There are several versions of this jot attributed 
to Phocylides (fl. 520 B.C.) from which this epigram is probably imitated. 

XLI. Synesius, Ejrist. 127, and Suidas, s.v. opuvo?. Of the many towns 
called Laodicea, that in Asia on the Lycus, and that on the coast of Syria 

376 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, io 

south of Antioch were the most important. It is not known to which this 
epigram refers. 

/. 1. a.Qr.iz is the Egyptian cobra ; 091; the common (venomous) snake. 

XLII. Aath. Pal. xi. 331. In Plan, under the name of Antipater of 

/. 1. The mss. give the form Sioxrlpt/p; here and in 1. 3. More than one 
Athenian trireme was called SwTrjpta-, Bbckh, Secwesen dcs Att. Stoats, p. 92. 
Among upwards of 250 names of triremes in Bockh's lists, all are feminine 
with two doubtful exceptions, the 'HyrjatroXt; and the *<o? (or 4>w;?). 
Perhaps we should read Stoxrjpiov as a feminine diminutive in both lines 

I. 2. The allusion is to Zeus under his title of Swr^'p or Somjpio;, the 
preserver of voyagers. 

/. 4. The play on the double sense of -apa, 'alongside of and 'to' can 
hardly be preserved in a translation. Grotius neatly turns it : 
Nomen inane gerit ; nam fertur quisquis in ilia, est 
Aut ubi litus adest, aut ubi Persephone. 

XLIII. Anth. Pal, xi. 391. 

XLIV. Anth. Pal. xi. 410. Attributed in Plan, to Palladas. 

I. 1. paxTporpo'aaiTo?, one who extorts amis by the help of his cudg 
strolling Cynics were accused of doing this. 

1. 5. $6l$a. is a transliteration of the Latin vulva. It is called cxpuovr] 
because it was served with a sharp sauce flavoured with silphium. 

/. 6. Cf. the story which Lucian tells of the Cynic Demonax (Fit. Demon. 
c. 52), IpofjLEVbi os rtvt si xai auxo; -Xaxouvxa; saO-i'ot, 0U1 ouv, sot], rdi? uwooic 
xa; [j-sXi-cxa? xtOc'vat xa xrj'pia ; One of the sayings recorded of this same 
Demonax was a}aup.a£w Atoysv^v xai <piXco 'Apiaxt~7:ov : and indeed in the 
lives of their more refined professors the Cynic and Cyrenaic philosophies 
tended to become undistinguishable. 'The heathen philosopher, when he 
had a desire to eat a grape, would open his lips when he put it into his 
mouth ; meaning thereby, that grapes were made to eat, and lips to open.' 
— As Yoxi Like It, v. i. 

XLV. Anth. Pal. vii. 121. Also quoted by Diog. Laert. viii. 44. 
XLVI. Anth. Pal. xi. 406. 

XLVII. Anth. Pal. xii. 50, //. 1-4. For the remainder of the epigram 

as it stands in the ms. see infra xii. 11, and the notes there. 

1. 3. xaxsOrJxaxo ms., corr. Schneidewin. The verb applies strictly to 
iou; only, but xocja xai Jou; is treated as a single phrase. 

/. 4. Cf. the epigram of Antipater in Anth. Pal. xi. 158, <ru 5' e^ug ouv 
T7tooifai xufov. 

XL VIII. Anth. Pal. xi. 429. The sense is from Theognis, 627, Bergk : 
Atoypov xoi p.£i>uovxa ^ap' avooaat vrjooai p.Eivai 
aioypov o' d vr ( cpti>v reap [j-sO-uouat pivot. 
I '.nt Lucian has just made that slight change in form which makes an 
epigram out of what was a yv(o[j.7j. 

42-49] NOTES 377 

XLIX. Anth. Pal, v. 112. Cf. Songs before Sunrise, Prelude, vv. 10 
and foil. : ' Play then and sing ; we too have played.' 

/. 1. 7}oaa0-7]v here is middle, not passive like r^oaiib]?, supra ix. 16. 


I. Anth. Pal, vii. 566. 

II. Anth. Pal, xi. 8 : also engraved on the tomb of Cerellia Fortunata 
at the Villa Pamfili-Doria at Rome, C. I. G. 6298. The marble reads in 
I. 1, aT7JXr) yapioT)* Xi$-o; iarfv, and in 1. 3, el Tt iyeic, ptxTaSo?, and adds another 

Tout' eaoj-ioct yap lyw - aii o\ toutoi; yrjv Imyioaa; 
ei'cp', o x' syw oux r]v, touto ratXiv ye'yova. 

Cf. the pseudo-Anacreon, 30 Bergk : 

Tt ae oft Xifrov [xupi^stv 
ti oe yyj yiew [j.aTaia ; 
Ijjik [j.aXXov w; Irt £co 

/. 2. ' Neither make the fire blaze ' sc. with wine and ointments poured 
over it. Cf. Georg. iv. 384, ter liquido ardentem perfudit nectare 
Vestam, ter flamma ad summum tecti subiecta reluxit. It is not therefore 
necessary to read pps'!^; with most editors. 

III. Anth. Pal, vii. 655. 

1. 4. 'AX/.avopw ms. Pal., "AXxavooo; Plan. \ Hecker very ingeniously reads, 

el [xe ■9-avovTa 
yvioaov-', 'AX/a'vop<o touto t(; ; 

But the sense rather seems to be that he will take his place in the under 
world without the certificate of a pompous tomb and inscription, and be 
known there simply by his own name, ' A son of B ' being the full name 
of a citizen. yvtoaovTat has a double construction, with a direct object and 
an object- clause, 'the dead will know me dead, (and) that this (dust) is 
Alcander son of Calliteles '. 

IV. Anth. Pal. vii. 321. 

/. 3. The olive was propagated from long pieces of the trunk sawn off and 
stuck in the ground, Tzpi^a.^ Latin caudices. Cf. Virg. Georg. ii. 30, and 
for the verb hzaTr^ev (Salmasius' correction of the ms. avsaTrJp^sv) the 
stirpes obruit arvo of the same passage. 

/. 4. Perhaps we should read /.Xrj;j.aai <? r yXaVasv. 

V. Anth. Pal. vii. 78. On the famous geographer Eratosthenes of 
Cyrene, principal keeper of the Alexandrian binary under Ptolemy ill, iv, 
and v, who died at the age of more than eighty about 196 B.C. 

378 GKEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 1 1 

/. 1. ct[xaupr] carries on the metaphor in eojieaev} 'such sickness as makes 
the light of life burn dim '. 

/. (J. ' The beach of Proteus ' is the coast of Egypt, where Menelaus meets 
Proteus in the Odyssey, Book iv. 

VI. Antli. Pal. vii. 731. 

I. 1. auxw ms., auto corr. Meineke. 

/. 4. -oixc, 'mowing times' i.e. summers; the use is not unfrecpient in 
later Greek. ' Suaviter hoc dictum de sene, cui nihil apricationc iucundius ' 

/. 6. e; ttXeovmv ^XQ-e [i.£Toi/.sa'rjv is the Latin ad plures conmigravit. See 
note on iii. 36, supra. 

VII. Quoted as by Theaetetus, in the life of Grantor, Diog. Laert. iv. 25. 
Crantor of Soli was head of the Academy about 300 b.c. Diog. Laert. 

mentions his having written poetry. It is not known to what age he lived. 

/. 2. Cf. the famous line of Menander, A\? 'Efc-axwv jr. 4, ov oi (hcA 
oiXouaiv anO'dvrjaxEc v:o;. 

I. 4. cu0-u[j.i7) ms. against the metre. I have written sueppoauvrj which has 
about the same sense. Cf. the tribute paid to Sophocles in the under world, 
Aristoph. Ran. 82, 6 o euxoXo? jj.ev ivfrdS*, su/.oXo; o' e/.eI. 

VIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 717. 

I. 1. xauxa may either agree with poauXta or be the object of Xeifaxe. ¥u/pa 
(JoauXia are the frig ida rura of Virgil, Gcorg. iii. 324. 

IX. Anth. Pal. vii. 657. Cf. the description of the shepherd's funeral in 
Longus i. 31 : ouxa 7j[ -oXXa iyuTeuoav xai i^ipxrjaav auxtov xwv spytov 
a-ap/a;" aXXa xa\ ydXa xaxEa-siaav xa\ pdxpua; xaxE'DXi-Lav xai aupiyya; ^oXXa? 
xaxe'xXaaav" 7Jxouatb] xai xtov (Botov IXc'stva [j.ux7j[, xai to? ev jcoifie'aiv £ixa£sxo, 
xauxa Qpfjvo; r,v xwv poiov eVi (BouxoXto xexeXeux/jXoxi. 

//. 1, 2. There is a curious inversion of the verbs, sjipaxsovrss going in 
sense and construction with pa/tv, and ckg-gXeIxe with aiya; xai oV?. Some 
editors propose to read pdyiv EjjipaxEovxss . . . oio-oXeix' oYa?, but there is no 
justification for doing so. The disarrangement of the words is merely a 
piece of not very happy over-refinement of style. 

I. 5. Cf. Keats, Isabella, stanza 38, 

' A sheepfold bleat 
Comes from beyond the river to my bed '. 

With the a;ETxo; jce'xpa may be compared the 'large flint-stone' of the same 

X. Anth. Pal. vii. 171. 

XL Anth. Pal. vii. 209. Also quoted by Suidas s.vv. SinjiwJbji and 

/. 1. ouTj-aOrjs is explained by Suidas as equivalent to xapxepixJ; ; it has 
much the same force as the Homeric xroXuxXa?. 

/. 1. So fl-aXd[j.7] is used of the cells in a honey-comb, Anth. Pal. vi. 239, 
ix. 404. 

6-19] NOTES 379 

XII. Anth. Pal. vii. 203. On a decoy partridge (waXeuxijs). Aelian, 
Nat. An. iv. 16, gives an account of the way in which they were used : 
TrpoaaysToci ok apx 6 TCEpSi§ xait ivor^/xt e; to icpoX/.ov npotElvEt to twv ocXXojv 
tov Tpo'-ov toutov. eottjxev aStov, xai eariv ot to [juXo; -poxXrjTi/.ov, i§ [-tayrjv 
u^ofHJyov tov aypiov, IVnjxE ok eXXo/wv ~po; tt Trayf - 6 8k tojv aypuov xopu- 
oaio; avTa'aa; rpo t^; aysXi^ [J.ayou(.iEvo; epyETou - 6 toivuv TtO-aao; sVt 7:doa 
dvaycopsi, SsStsvai ay.7]~T0[j.EV0<;, 6 ok EJiEtai yaupo; ola 87]i:ou xpaTiov tj07], x.a\ 
laXwxev ivayzd-ii<; ttJ TiayrJ. Cf. also Xen. Mem. n. i. 4, and supra, iii. 56. 

/. 1. Spfo? uXrjEv is a variation of the ordinary 6p(os uXrjs, a forest copse. 

XIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 199. The MS. has the heading Stg opvsov doidyvuxrcov, 
olpiai ok Xapov. This probably indicates that the words cpiXs Xdps, which are 
the reading in the ms. I. 3, are a conjectural restoration where the original 
ms. was corrupt or illegible. It is a bad guess ; Xdpo? has a short in 
classical Greek ; and a sea-gull would never be kept on account of its voice. 
' De hunts aviculae cantu nihil legi quod ad eius commendationem pertinet* 
as Jacobs quaintly observes. This must be some sort of singing-bird ; and 
in fault of a better, we must retain the reading of Plan., epiX' IXais', which 
may indeed be right, if s'Xato; be a collateral form of sXeoc, a bird mentioned 
by Aristotle in the Hist. An. and apparently a kind of reed- warbler. 

/. 4. Cf. supra iii. 55, and the note there. 

XIV. Anth. Pal. vii. 189. On a field-cricket (gryllus campestris) kept 
as a plaything ; cf. supira i. 65 : and White's Selborne, Letter xlvi, ' One 
of these crickets, when confined in a paper cage and set in the sun, and 
supplied with plants moistened with water, will feed and thrive, and 
become so rnerry and loud as to become irksome in the same room where a 
person is sitting : if the plants are not watered it will die.' 

/. 3. KXJ;j.3voc, the Renowned, was one of the names of the lord of the 
under world. Pausanias, Corinthiaca, xxxv. 9, says that behind the temple 
of Chthonia at Hermione there was a ' place of Clymenus ' with a chasm in 
the earth through which Heracles was said to have brought Cerberus up 
from Hades. 

I. 4. Crickets were supposed to feed on dew. Instead of the wetted turf 
in its cage it has now all the nieadows of Hades and the dew of Persephone 
for playground and food. 

XV. Anth. Pal. ix. 432. Placed by Ahrens among the ditbia et spuria 
attributed to Theocritus. 

/. 2. SiyXrjvws w-a?, the gcminas acies of Virgil, Aen. vi. 788. 

XVI. Anth. Pal. ix. 417. 

XVII. Anth. Pal. vii. 173, with the title Ato-c£p.ou, ot 3k Aswv!oou. 

XVIII. Anth. Pal. vii. 398. Cf. the epigram by Leonidas of Tarentmn, 
Anth. Pal. vii. 660, from which this is probably imitated. 

XIX. Anth. Pal. vii. 477. On an Egyptian woman, buried at Eleu- 

380 GIIEEK ANTHOLOGY [sect, ii 

tlierne in Crete, according to the generally accepted correction of Reiske, 
'EXsuih'pvr,?, for the MS. IXeu&Epfojs in /. 3. 

/. 4. Cf. the saying of Aristippus quoted in Stobaeus, Flor. xl. p. 233, 
rl ou zavTa-/dO-£v Karj xa\ 6;xoia 7) £i? Aioou ood? ; 

XX. Anth. Pal. viL 510. The ms. reading Xiov in /. 4 has generally been 
regarded as a false quantity, indicating either a corruption in the text or a 
very late date for the epigram. The ordinary name of the island in classical 
Greek is Xto; with i short. Many alterations have been suggested, and will 
bo found detailed in Bergk Lyr. Gr. ill. p. 470. Bergk himself in his fourth 
edition reads ouo' " Kitov tzcxXv/ aji-^ipuTriv. But some doubt is thrown on 
the supposed necessity of an alteration by an epigram of the 3d or 4th 
century B.C. where the original marble is extant (Kaibel Epigr. Grate. 88) 
with a line : 

Xtog dyaXXo;j.i'vr) 2u[j.[jia/_(o soft naxpi? 

where the form Xto; is quite unquestionable. This epigram has the all but 
inimitable touch of Simonides, and if not authentic is a very clever forgery. 

XXI. Anth. Pal. vii. 376. 

/. 6. Cf. Winter's Tale iv. 3 : 

' a wild dedication of yourselves 
To unpath'd waters, undream'd shores' : 

and the last verses of M. Arnold's Scholar Gipsy. 

XXII. Anth. Pal. vii. 630. 

7. 2. 8u<ntXoti] ms. Hecker's correction owrr.wiri seems almost necessary : 
xo-a^civ, 'to abate', of a storm (e.g. Hdt. vii. 191, aXXw« zw; auto; sfoXwv 
£-/.d-aa£v, of the great storm which fell on the Persian fleet at Artemision) 
could hardly be used of a voyage. 

XXIII. Anth. Pal. ix. 82. 

I, 6. The story of 'the Tuscan mariners transform'd' is told in Horn. 
Hymn. vi. and Ovid, Met. iii. 660 foil. 

XXIV. Anth Pal, vii. 287. 

1. 8. Observe the metaphor in etXxuffapjv ; the fisherman drew up Death 
in his nets. 

XXV. Anth. Pal. vii. 286. 

XXVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 534. The first couplet is in Plan, under the 
name of Theocritus, and the whole epigram is generally printed among the 
Theocritean epigrams (26 ed. Ahrens). 

/. 4. Hollow Syria is properly the plain between the two ranges of 
Libanus and Anti-Libanus ; but it was also used to include Damascus and 
the country east of Anti-Libanus up to the edge of the desert, and here 
seems to include the coast west of Libanus as well. 

/. <;. The morning setting of the Pleiades was about the 3d of November. 

20-31] NOTES 381 

XXVII. Anth. Pal. vii. 278. 

/. 2. Jacobs would read dyou-vou Xr]ao; 'Iovtou, without any obvious 

/. 4. ?stvou ms. Pal. ; Seivtov, Plan. 

/. 6. After this line the mss. add another couplet : 

Mo/O-wv ouo' 'AtOTj; [j.££uvaa£v, fjvix.a [aouvo; 
ouok -0-avwv XetT) x£ ^auyfr,. 

which has the appearance of being a later addition, as it only repeats rather 
feebly what has been said already, and this is not like Archias. 

XXVIII. Anth. Pal, vii. 636. 

I. 1. The metrical quality of this line should be noticed ; it is a bucolic 
hexameter with no caesura, so that the rhythm slides heavily down on the 
spondee followed by a pause at the beginning of the pentameter. I do not 
know that this can be precisely paralleled elsewhere ; the effect is very 

I, 2. The word XeuxoXo^ov does not occur elsewhere ; the picture seems 
to be of a white limestone hill with grassy slopes towards the sea. Keiske 
compares XEuxoraxpov, which is used by Polyb. iii. 53 and x. 30. 

/. 3. tots pXTjyrjfAi'va {3d£wv ms. which in spite of Meineke's defence is mere 
nonsense, the -ox£ being meaningless, and the phrase pXr)-/7]jjL£va pd£eiv, ' to 
talk bleatingly ', ridiculous even if there were such a word as pXrjyjiji.s'va. 
The reading in the text is Lobeck's, which is the most satisfactory correction 
yet suggested. 

I. 4. 7] is equivalent to jxaXXov f], as in iv. 30 supra, vijo/a is another 
aracJj sipyipivov. It probably means little if anything more than vaoxixd. 
If there is any special force in the latter half of the compound it would 
seem to be ' that make the ship keep her way '. 

I. 6. a-r^-ic'saxo, Salniasius from ms. £?7][j.{aaxo. Others read Eowp^iiaxo. 

XXIX. Anth. Pal. vii. 284. 

XXX. Anth. Pal. vii. 271. 

II. 3 and 4 are imitated from the epigram of Simonides, supra iii. 23. 

XXXI. Anth. Pal. ix. 271. 

I. 1. I have retained the ms. reading, as, though rather harsh, it gives a 
sufficiently good sense. The heading in the ms., efe x^v Iv BocTrdpto 
9-dXaacav, does not seem to have any further foundation than a misreading 
of this line ( — po? -o'po;). Jacobs suggests /.at zoxs 07] vr^a'f acpo(3o; -opo;. 

I. 2. The days of the halcyons, at aXxuov&eg or aXxuoveiat, were the week 
before and the week after the winter solstice, when there was usually fine 
weather, in which the halcyon was believed to breed. Cf. Simonides, 
jr. 12, Bergk : 

w; OTXOxav yet{JL£piOV xaxa [j.f;va -tvua/.rj 

Z£ii; d[ XEaaapa xa\ Se'xa 

XaO-dv£[j.ov xe [xiv wpav xaXi'oisiv im^oviot 

tpav JuaiSoxpocpov -oi/.iXa; 

aXxudvo?. ' 

and Aristotle, Hist, An. v. 9, n o' dXxuwv t£xtsi izepi xpora; xa; y«{i£ptvds. 

382 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 1 1 

oio xaXouvxat, oxav euSieivat ys'vwvxat at xpo~ai, aXxudvstat ^jjipat, &rc« 
(lev 7rp6 xpo-tuv, I'— a ok pisxa xpo-d;. For the story of Ceyx and Alcyone 
and a description of halcyons 1 weather, see Lucian, Halcyon sivc de trans- 
formatione, sub in. 

/. 3. Tnjptj-aTo zuij.a refers to the solid appearance of a smooth sea, the 
ma/rmor of Latin poetry. 

/. 5. The construction is ^vtxa au-//t; (slvat) (j.ata. 

XXXII. Anth. Pal. vii. 263 : ascribed to Anacreon. It is certainly of 
later date, and is in the manner of Leonidas of Tarentum. 

/. 2. From II. xi. 306, Noxoto jjaO-ctr, XatXa7;t. 

/. 3. topr ; avfyyuo;, a season that there are no means of binding down. 

XXXIII. Anth. Pal, vii. 482. 

/. 1. A boy's hair was cut at the festival of the Apaturia next following 
his third birthday, when his name was enrolled in his opaxpta. The festival 
was called Koupstoxt;. 

/. 5. Ilspt/Xstxoc, Edd. after Salmasius. The ms. has rspt, with a mark 
signifying that something was lost. 

1, 6. Cf. Antipater in Anth. Pal. vii. 467, s; x6v dvoTajxov ytopov s'J^s 

XXXIV. Anth. Pal. vii. 662. Ascribed to Theocritus in a note in one 
of the mss. of Plan., and also found in some mss. of Theocritus. The 
heading in ms. Pal. is AeuviSou merely ; but from the style it is safe to 
ascribe it to Leonidas of Tarentum. 

I. 2. Ahrens would read -oXXot;, and 7:oXu ttk has also been suggested. 
But -oXXfjs 7jXixi7i; is equivalent to -oXXtov 6jj.7jXix.wv. 

II. 5, 6. The mss. of Theocritus read octet sXstvd or at eXsstvd, and xa 

XXXV. Anth. Pal. vii. 483. 

XXXVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 466. 

1. 6. nr/ios i^Xtou is from Mimnermus, jr. 1 1 Bergk. This couplet may 
have suggested to Gray the opening of his noble sonnet on the death of 
Bichard West. 

1. 8. The dead boy becomes almost identified with the Angel of Death, 
Hermes -po-o;j.-o;. 

XXXVII. Anth. Pal. ix. 254. 

1. 8. Xouxal;, to all other mothers. With the passionate exaggeration may 
be compared the famous me primam absumite ferro of the mother of 
Euryalus, Aen. ix. 494. 

XXXVIII. Anth. Pal, vii. 671 ; with the heading dorjXov, ot ok Btdvopo?. 
It is headed dorjXov in Plan. 

XXXIX. Anth. Pal, vii. 513. 

1. 1. of? 7:oxe 7:p6p.a-/o; ms. Pal. np(oxd|j.a/o; is the correction generally 
accepted. Plan, has Tt|j.ap/o?. 

/. 3. If the ms. text is right, there is a construction ad sensum, a sort 

32-45] NOTES 383 

of combination of the two expressions ou X^'ori raciod?, out' aps-r^v outs 
aaojppoTu'virjv and ou Xr ( ar| —aioo?, -OtH'wv apSTTjv xai aaoopoauvr)v (ocutou). 
Bergk alters X^or, to Xr^si?, and Dilthey would read ou T? apE-njv -oO-s'wv ou 
~b aaocppo<JuvT]v. 

XL. Anth. Pal. vii. 711. 

/. 1. Pitane was one of the Aeolian colonies on the bay of Elaea in Asia 
Minor. It was never a place of any importance. 

I. 3. SitoXs'viov, held at the full stretch of the arm. Cf. The Ancient 
Mariner (verse omitted after the edition of 1798) : 

They lifted up their stiff right arms, 

They held them straight and tight ; 
And each right arm burnt like a torch, 

A torch that 's borne upright. 

/. 6. A7]9ti; -sXayo? occurs again in an epigram by Dionysius of Rhodes, 
Anth. Pal. vii. 716. So Styx is spoken of indifferently as a river or a lake. 

/. 7. For the 1-id-aXauto? x.tu'-o; on the doors of the bridal chamber, see 
the next epigram, and Hesychius s.v. xtujkwv. 

XLI. Anth. Pal. vii. 182. 

1. 1. There is a reminiscence of Soph. Ant. 815, ouV i7civu{Jiy£Sio? 7:w pi 
Tis u(j.vo; U|-iv7j<j£v, aXX' 'A/s'qovti vujjicpc'uato. 
/. 3. For Xwtoi see note on iv. 19 supra. 

XLII. Anth. Pal. vii. 600. In Plan, under the name of Paulus 

I. 1. The ms. has eTXe in both places, aye, the ordinary reading, is no 
doubt right. It is taken up again by xate/ei in I. 6. 

XLIII. Anth. Pal. v. 108. 

I. 4. Brunck and Jacobs alter rjO-o; to avO-o?, but the former is more in 
the manner of Crinagoras. 

I. 6. Tiov h& ao( is simply equivalent to twv awv. 

XLIV. Anth. Pal. vii. 735. The grave of Theano would seem to have 
stood outside the city gate of Phocaea. 

/. 2. For the epithet cf. the last words of Meleager in Atalanta in 
Calydon : 

Kiss me once and twice 
And let me go ; for the night gathers me, 
And in the night shall no man gather fruit. 

XLV. Anth. Pal. vii. 378. 

/. 3. otfAcpw o' (o; ujiivatov ms. corr. Jacobs. 

/. 4. Cf. Rom. and Jul. v. 3 : 

— Here lies Juliet, and her beauty makes 
This vault a feasting presence full of light. 
... I still will stay with thee 
And never from this palace of dim night 
Depart again. 

384 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 

XLVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 476. 

/. 4. |;jia ms. in both places ; corr. Brunck. 

XLV T II. Anth. Pal. vii. 41. This epigram and the next following it in the 
Anthology, vii. 42, both on Callimachus of Alexandria the famous scholar 
and poet, are -written as one in ms. Pal. but are properly separated in Plan. 
and in modern editions of the Anthology. Another epigram attributed to 
Apollonius Rhodius, Anth. Pal. xi. 275, gives the criticism of a jealous 
rival on Callimachus. 

I. 1. The Anna of Callimachus opened with an account of a dream in 
which the poet found himself among the Muses and received instruction 
from them. 

/. 2. From 17. xxiii. 19, Achilles over Patroclus. 

XLVIII. C. I. G. 6789; Kaibel Epigr. Graec. 548. On a tomb at 
Nimes. Above the verses is the inscription, 

D. M. 

I. 2. atyircupov or aiyircupos was a weed with a red flower (perhaps the 
loosestrife ?) : it is mentioned in Theocr. iv. 25 as growing by a river-side 
br.H v.aXa. 7:avxa epuovrt. 

XLIX. Anth. Pal. vii 307. 

L. Anth. Pal. vii. 342. 

LI. Anth. Pal. vii. 670. This, perhaps the most perfect epigram ever 
written in any language, is most probably authentic. See supra i. 5, for a 
reference to the whole cpiestion of the epigrams ascribed to Plato, and supra 
i. 41 for Aster. Cf. also the well-known /.ai ou^H "Earepo? ou3 J 'Etoo$ outw 
•O-aui-iaTCos in Arist. Eth. v. i. 15. 


I. Anth. Pal. v. 12. 

I. 1. nuxa^Etv, 'to crown with garlands' as in Hdt. vii. 197. The full 
phrase, ore^dvots xeoaXa; Kuxaaciiped'a, occurs infra Ep. 10. 

II. Anth. Pal. v. 39. 

I. 3. When I am dead, there will be many bearers ' kirkward to carry 

1. 4. tcovo' SvExev, sc. to save them their trouble, 'iaw; is sarcastic, like the 
Latin credo. 

III. Anth. Pal. xi. 168. 

I. 4. The diminutive spwjjLEvtov does not seem to occur elsewhere. Plan, 
reads yvou? ti [x{kin[xa.ziov, probably from the same reason which induced the 
change in the text of Ep. 10 infra, I. 2. 

i-ii] NOTES 385 

I. 6. Lucian da Luctu c. 10, sraioav nq a-o!)avr„ -pwxa piv yipovxeq dJEoXov 
s? To axdp.a xaxc'O-rjy.av auxco, pitaO-ov xtj> 7zop0[ zr^c, vauxtXia; yeV7]aou.evov. 

IV. Anth. Pal. xi. 62. This epigram is a free rendering into elegiacs of 
Eur. Ale. 782-791, for the greater part keeping pretty closely to the words 
of Euripides. 

V. Anth. Pal. xi. 56. 

1. 3. 5-vrjxa Xoyt£oo is equivalent to the common Ov^xcc opovstv. 

/. 5. The force of Soraq p.dvov has been well illustrated from Seneca da 
Brevitate Vitac c. 10 : praesens tempus in cursu semper ast,fluit et praecipit- 

VI. Theognis 11. 887-8 Bergk ; who inclines, rightly as it seems to me, to 
think that the couplet is not by Theognis but by Mimnermus. 

VII. Anth. Pal. xi. 28. 

/. 5. aooirj; ;do; go together ; ' the Beason of philosophy ', as one might 
say 'the Socrates of the Phaedo', i.e. the rational human being according 
to philosophy. 

For Cleanthes and Zeno, see supra i. 1. 

VIII. Anth. Pal. xi. 25. 

/. 2. fioipiSb) [xeXsxrj is a rather awkward way of saying p-sXcxr, p.oi'p7)s. 
Sleep, the shadow of death, is by a bold extension of language called the 
rehearsal of death. Cf. Ep. 46 infra. 
1. 5. -oXuc sc. ypdvoc. 

/. 6. r\ aovcTTj sc. -9-pt?. For the full phrase cf. Philodemus in Anth. Pal. 
xi. 41, 

Horj xal Xsu/.ai p.s xaTOCffJtetpouaiv I&sipai, 
2av0'i7:~rj, suvcxrj? ayycXoi 7]Xtxi7]£. 

IX. Anth. Pal. xi. 23. He will ride by the highway to death like a 
gallant, and not skulk along by-paths. 

/. 5. Cf. Nicaenetus in Anth. Pal. xiii. 29, where the line oivo? xoi yapi'evxc 
jreXet xa/u? "r-.oc, acuow is quoted as a saying of Cratinus. 

X. Anth. Pal. xi. 19. 

/. 2. I have adopted in the text the reading of Plan., which Jacobs says is 
due to a mala monachi manus. The Palatine ms. has ractoi auvsacrdp.cila. 

XI. Anth. Pal. xii. 50, //. 5-8. In the ms. this epigram is run on to 
another of four lines which is here printed in another section {supra x. 47). 
The eight lines are obviously not a single poem. Most editors strike out 
the last couplet and retain the first three as a single epigram ; and there is 
sufficient connexion of thought to give countenance to this. But there is 
an even stronger connexion between the third and fourth couplets, and it 
seems pretty certain that each half of the ms. poem is a complete epigram 
by itself. 

1. 1. From Alcaeus /r. 41 Bergk, nivwp.ev x{ xd Xu/vov pivop.£v ; oay.xuXo; 
ctfjiepa. Apparently the meaning of the expression in Alcaeus is 'day passes 


386 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 

quickly', is no bigger than a fingers breadth : c£ Minmermus,//-. 2, Bergk, 
-7J-/U10V lid. yjpovov avihaiv r$r\z tepndftE&a. But as modified here it is a 
curiously exact parallel to a verse in Omar Khayyam (first edition), 

Dreaming while Dawn's Left Hand was in the Sky 
I heard a "Voice within the Tavern cry, 

' Awake, my Little ones, and fill the Cup 
Before Life's Liquor in its Cup he dry.' 

/. 2. xoipurrq; Xuyvo;, the lamp that says bed-time ; like ' the star that 
bids the shepherd fold' in Comus. 

I. 3. -tvo;i.£v ou yap epws ms. ; Salmasius restored yaXspw; from Hesychius, 
who explains it as equivalent to IXapwc. 

XII. Anth. Pal. vii. 32. Probably for an epitaph on Anacreon : cf. 
supra iv. 8 and 9, and the notes there. 

XIII. Anth. Pal. xi. 43. Compare Omar Khayyam, xxxv-xxxviii (edition 
of 1879). 

XIV. Anth. Pal. xi. 3 : headed dos'a-oxov ; it is in the style of Palladas. 
/. 4. ylwaaox.ojj.ov or (usually) yXo)aao-/.o;xsiov was the case in which the 

mouth-pieces (yXuaatos;) of flutes were kept when the instrument was not in 
use. Here it is applied to the case in which the dead man is put away, 
' this little organ ' in which ' there is much music, excellent music, yet 
cannot you make it speak ' any more. 

/. 5. cc/.ttJ (the ArjjxrJTEpo? d/.TrJ of Homer) is fine meal, which kneaded and 
soaked in wine was the simplest form of Greek food. 

The y.oTuXir] was about half a pint : the force of the article here (rat; 
-/.oTuXai;) is to imply, without expressing it directly, the two cotylae of wine, 
which with a choenix of meal were a slave's daily allowance. 

XV. Anth. Pal. ix. 412. 

/. 2. /.o«[j.p7], the spring cabbage, of which -pcoTOTO[j.o; was the regular 
gardener's name ; cf. Columella x. 369. 

/. 3. A scholium in one of the mss. of Plan, says that [j.a'V7j is an sloo; 
|3oxdvr);, 'sort of vegetable,' but nothing further is known of it. A fish 
called by this name is mentioned by Pliny, but he says it was eaten salted. 
The epithet £ayXaysuaa is explained in the same scholium as ydXa/.To; |j.$Tnrj. 

apxi-ayrj; aXtTupo? is a newly made cream cheese, slightly salted to make 
it keep longer : cf. Virg. Gcorq. iii. 403. 

XVI. Kaibel Epigr. Graec. 640. From a tomb in the island of Lipara, 
of the second century a.d. 

/. 4. yXatpupds of persons is the Latin concinnus, the old English ' nice.' 
/. f). Ritschl would read riavsXsuO-spos as a proper name. 

XVII. Anth. Pal. xi. 364. 

/. 1. Xitoc, one of the minntus populus. The antithesis to Jatcl? is 

12-26] NOTES 387 

epaxat is Scaliger's correction of the Ms. opaTs. It is passive, as in ix. 16 
supra, and as in the phrase ipuv avxepaxai, Xen. Symp. viii. 3. 

/. 2. I have written xaori for the ms. iazi : Scaliger put a point of inter- 
rogation after ipaxat. 

XVIII. Theognis, U. 1069, 1070, Bergk. 

XIX. Anth. Pal. xi. 282. Attributed in Plan, to Lucilius. 

Cf. Seneca Ep. xxiv, ' Moriar' : hoc dicis, l dssinam mori posse? 

XX. Anth. Pal. x. 59. 

/. 2. touto, sc. to jJ.rj aviaaftx'.. 

/. 4. Shakespeare, Sonnet cxlvi, ' And, Death once dead, there 's no more 
dying then.' 

XXI. Stobaeus, Flor. exxiv. p. 616. 

XXII. Anth. Pal. x. 65. Cf. Marcus Aurelius, iii. 3, ive(b]g, EJcXsuaas, 
y.a.Tr l yJh l i, ex(37]$i. 

XXIII. Anth. Pal. x. 79. The thought in this epigram is often recurred 
to by Marcus Aurelius : cf. especially ii. 14, v. 23. 

XXIV. Plutarch, Consolatio ad Apollonium c. 15 ; yswatov o\ to 
Aax.tovtx.ov, vuv autiEg x.t.X. 

XXV. Anth. Pal. x. 75. 

I. 3. opyava, the musical instrument ; this is apparently one of the earliest 
instances of the modern name ; Vitruvius calls it hydraidicon. It was 
invented at least as early as 250 B.C., the date of Hero of Alexandria. There 
is a description of a man playing on an organ in an epigram attributed to 
the Emperor Julian, Anth. Pal. ix. 365. 

/. 8. The expression is adapted from the common proverbial phrase 'to 
feed on air ', of the cameleon's dish. 

XXVI. Anth. Pal. vii. 472. In the ms. this epigram is followed by ten 
more lines which are very corrupt, but which seem to have been inscribed 
below a relief representing a human skeleton. Probably this relief and 
inscription Avere carved on the same tomb with the six lines above, and so 
the whole was transcribed as a single epigram into the Anthology. 

/. 1. r.po; r]co, to the dawn of birth. 

I. 2. eI; 'A!oY,v, stretching onwards through the realm of death. Cf. Simo- 
nides Amorg. fr. 3, Bergk, according to the generally accepted reading, 
-oXXoe yap 7)|j.1v e; to (est! in Stobaeus) TsDvavou ypovo;. 

/. 3. For the expression cf. Aristoph. Vcsj). 213, ?l oux a-cx.otjj.rjOrjia.Ev oaov 
oaov ot'Xtjv ; 

/. 4. Tou avdpwTCivou ptou 6 jxev ypovo; aTiy;j.r], says Marcus Aurelius ii. 17; 
he also uses the phrase o yapou. [3(o?, vii. 47. For the different uses which 
may be made of the doctrine it is interesting to compare Plutarch de Educa- 
tion Pucrorum c. 17, where the tempter says to the young man, ariyuri 

388 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 

-/povou r.a$ estiv o (iio;* ^v xoct ou 7rapa£rjv rcpoaqxei, with the Co7isolatio ad 
ApoUomwn c. 17, where it is used as an argument against excess of grief: 
■ra y«° yiXia zai t<x [J.up''a, xa-ra 2i[-uov(3r,v, stt) <myp] ti? etuv adptarog, [j.aXXov 
ok p.opiov n ppayuTOtov (miftufc. 

XXVII. .4»&. Pa?, xi. 209. 

/. 4. avaXusiv or avaXusaOat, to weigh anchor, is used of setting out on a 
journey generally, and is frequently applied in sepulchral inscriptions to the 
journey of death (e.g. Kaibel, 340, 713). But this sense does not agree 
well with xeiOT) in the previous line, and perhaps it rather means 'dissolv- 
ing' like SiaXuop-evov in Ep. 36, infra. 

XXVIII. Anth. Pal. x. 60. 

XXIX. Anth. Pal xi. 13. 

7. 2. o -opcpupsoc, the jcop^pupeog D-ava-o; of Homer. 

/. 3. o-T7jsa; sc. by parching fevers. The three natural causes of death 
are enumerated, viz., decay of the tissues, and defect or excess of the 

XXX. Anth. Pal. x. 58. Also attributed in one MS. to Lucian. 

/. 2. The yujo-vdv here has a further shade of meaning; 'seeing clearly 
and not through a veil how all things end.' 

XXXI. Anth. Pal. x. 31. Attributed to Palladas in Plan. 

XXXII. C. I. G. 6745, Kaibel Epigr. Grace. 1117 a. An inscription on 
a Hermes in the Museum at Bologna. 

XXXIII. Anth. Pal. x. 124. Followed in the ms. by two fragmentary 
couplets on the advantages and disadvantages of having a wife and children, 
which have no connexion with it, and are rightly separated by Boissonade. 

XXXIV. Anth. Pal. x. 118. Attributed to Palladas in some copies of 

/. 2. Compare the sophistical paradox in the Euthydemus of Plato, that 
it is impossible to learn what one does not know already, and hence impos 
sible to learn at all. 

//. 3 and 4 are repeated in another anonymous epigram, Anth. Pal/vu. 
339, with ou5e'v instead of r,a. 

1. 4. ouosv xal [J-tjoc'v, nihil ct nihili : cf. Eur. Meleager, fr. 20 : 

•/.atDavcov Sk i«; avr,o 
Y7j -/.at axia' to [xrfizv s'; ouoev p:—si. 

It is unnecessary, and makes the xac very awkward, to connect ouoev with 
r^a as Meineke proposes. 

/. 5. Evxufo is a Homeric word. 

XXXV. Anth. Pal. x. 85. Cf. King Lear, iv. 1 : 

As flies to wanton boys are we to the gods ; 
They kill us for their sport. 

27-39] NOTES 389 

/. 1. 0-avdtw might be either the dative of the secondary object, ' for 
death ', or of the agent, ' by death ', but probably is the former. 

XXXVI. Anth. Pal. x. 84. 

Cf. Lucretius v. 226, and Munro's note there for parallel passages. 

/. 3. -oXuoax.puxov ms. : and in II. xvii. 192, Eustathius read [J-a/r,; 
roXuoa/.puxou with u short ; but modern editors read ^oXuoax.p-Jou there, and 
it is perhaps best to make the same change here. 

/. 4. cp£pop.svov MS. Pal., tjco; Plan. oupoj-isvov and oatvo;i.cvov have 
also been suggested. 

XXXVII. Anth. Pal. x. 123. 
/. 1. ouyoi ms., corr. Meineke. 

I. 3. The thought in this couplet is expressed even more nobly in 
Menander, Hypobolimaeus, fr. 2 : 

— xouxov suxu/iaxaxov Xe'yto 
ocjti; d-zioprficts aXu~toc, napjjiviov, 
xa asij-va Taux 1 , a-^Xihv Gxtev rjXfhv xayj, 
tov 7)Xiov xov y.oivov, aTXp', uotop, vsor), 
7:up" xauxoc xav E/.axov et>] f3i<*>€, as\ 
O'isi ~apovxa, y.av sviauxou; a<poSp' oXiyou?, 
ac[xvox£pa xouxtov sxspa o' ow. o^ei jcote. 

XXXVIII. Theognis, ft. 425-428, Bergk. From these lines Sophocles 
took the famous passage in the Oed. Col. 1225-8 : 

;j.7j G'jvat ijljv a-avxa vi- 
xa Xoyov " xo o' Inet oavf, 
prjvat xsifl-ev, ofrsv-sp tjxei, 
-oXu osu'xspov to? xa/iaxa. 

XXXIX. J.w£fc. Pal. ix. 359. Also quoted by Stobaeus, Flor. xcviii. 
p. 533. 

This epigram was also assigned, according to the ms. Pal., to Plato the 
Comedian, and according to Plan, and Stobaeus to Crates the Cynic. A 
worthless Byzantine tradition ascribes this and the next epigram to 
Heraclitus the weeping and Democritus the laughing philosopher. With 
the whole epigram cf. that of Julianus Aegyptius on the same subject, 
supra x. 10. 

I. 2. Besides its general sense of 'business', -paEi; is specially used to 
signify the collection of debts, and probably includes the latter meaning 

/. 8. at jxoXial sc. -? ! .yzz : for the ellipsis cf. Ep. 8 supra, r\ auvsxrj. 

/. 9. r ( v apa, ' there is then in the end ' ; the imperfect ' implying the 
actual result of antecedents prior in fact or in idea 1 (Madvig). The 
most striking example of this use is in the Aristotelian xo xi ^v slvat, the 
essence which is antecedently in a thing as the necessary condition of its 
being that thing. 

xotvos ouotv corr. Brunck from ms. xotv Sutftv. The ordinary reading, 
xtfiv oiaaolv (from /. 9. of the next epigram) is not so good here, where the 

390 GREEK ANTHOLOGY [sect. 12 

alternatives are about to be stated, as in the other epigram where it refers 
back to them as already stated here. In Stobaeua the line runs, qv apa twv 
juavTiov tooe XcoVov. 

XL. A nth. Pal. ix. 360. See the notes to the last epigram. 

/. 3. I do not know any other passage in classical literature where ' the 
beauty of nature' in the completely modern sense of the words is spoken 
of so explicitly. 

XLI. Anth. Pal. x. 77. I have omitted in the text the last two lines of 
this epigram : 

MoXXov e-' eu^ppoffuvvjv ok (jia£so, xa\ -apa poipqv, 
tl SuvaTov, 'I/ir/rjv Tsp^o|i.3vrjv [xzTa.yv.v. 

which have the appearance of being a later addition. 

XLII. Anth. Pal. x. 73. Also attributed, with some verbal variations, 
to S. Basil in a ms. epioted by Boissonade. 

To (ps'pov (cf. to epe'pov ex ■9-Eou in Soph. Oed. Col. 1694) is hardly so much 
' Fortune ', though it includes this sense, as the stream of the world that 
carries all things along upon it. Like the avr/ou seal ar.iyov of the Stoics, 
os'ps xa\ <p3pou sums up the practical philosophy of the Epicureans. Aequo 
animoque agediim magnis concede; necesse est, Lucr. iii. 692. 

Cf. also Montaigne Essais, ii. 37 ; Suyvons de par Dieu, suyvons ! II 
meine ceulx qui suyvent ; ceulx qui ne le suyvent pas, il les entraisne. 

XLIII. Anth. Pal. x. 72. 

It would be difficult to trace back to its first original the comparison, 
developed to its fullest extent by Shakespeare (As Yon Like It, ii. 7), of 
human life to a stage play. In one form or another it has probably existed 
ever since plays did, and it recurs again and again in all literatures. On 
the Globe Theatre in which Shakespeare played was inscribed the motto, 
Totus mundus agit histrionem. This form of the proverb may be traced 
back to two passages in John of Salisbury, Fere totus mundus ex Arbitri 
nostri sententia minium videtur implere, and again, Fere totus mundus juxta 
Petronium exercet histrionem, the reference being to a snatch of verse in 
Petr. Sat. c. 80, beginning, Gfrex agit in scena mimum. Gataker on 
Marcus Aurelius, xi. 6, where life is called y\ fxet£u>v ov.tjvtJ, quotes this 
epigram among many other passages, Greek and Latin, of which the most 
noteworthy are Plato, Philebus, 50 B, [^ to"; opa[j.a7i jaovov, aXXa xat ttJ 
too piou cjoij.-asrj Tpaytoo'ia x«\ xwjjiioSia ; Seneca, De tranquillitate auimi, 
c. 15, veruni esse qiiod Bion dixit, omnium hominum negotia similia 
mimicis esse ; and the dying words of Augustus in Suet. Aug. c. 99, amicos 
admissos pen imtutas cM, liquid iis videretur mimum vitae commode trans- 
egisse. There is a somewhat similar view of life, not as a play, but as a fair, 
in the fragment of the Hypobolimacus of Menander already referred to in 
the note on Ep. 37, supra : 

-avr^yupiv vo'jj.itov tiv' Etvai tov y_povov 
ov orjpu toutov, fl '^to/jpuav, ev <>> 
o/Xo;, ayopa, xXesrcat, xupstai, oiaTpipai. 

40-46] NOTES 391 

XLIV. Anth. Pal. x. 76. 

The thought is rather confusedly expressed, and the connection of //. 3 
and 4 with the rest is not at once obvious : death is often better than life just 
as poverty is than wealth, for life itself, if not informed by wisdom, becomes 
a misery just as great riches do, giving more trouble to keep than it is 

XLV. App. Plan. 201, with the heading, si;"Epwua £<rxs<pava>[jtEvov. 

Compare with this epigram the next following it in the Planudean 
Anthology, supra vi. 1, and the notes there. Love in the other epigram 
says he is the son of a garden-nymph ; here he denies this and claims 
heavenly parentage. Both epigrams are a protest against the sensuous view 
of Love. With this one cf. Plato Sympos. 180, 181. But it foreshadows 
Dante as much as it recalls Plato. 

/. 5. From the epigram of Theocritus, supra vii. 9, 'A Ku'-pi? ou -avox;j.oc. 

1. 9. The other vfrtues are Justice, Temperance, and Fortitude. 

XL VI. Anth. Pal. xi. 300. Cf. Plato, Phaedo 67 e, tw ovxt apa oi opfl-w? 

atXoTO?o£vx£? a-oO-vrJax.siv [j.sX£Ttoai, -/.a\ xo xsO-vavat rj/aax' auxot; av9pio'-wv 
<po(j£pov : and 80 E, lav [^ 'iu'/^] xaO-apa d-aXXaxx^xai, (i7]0£v xou awpiaxoc 
5ov£OcX/.ouaa, ax£ ouokv xoivwvooaa auxw £v xw piio Exooaa eTvai, aXXa <p£u'youcja 
auxo xat <j'jV7;0'poi.a[j.£vr) auxr, s?s auxrjv, ax£ pi£X£X«aa a si xouxo — xouxo ok ouokv 
aXXo £<rx"tv 7] opO-to; tpiXoaooousa scat xw ovxt xsxh/avai (j.£X£Xtoaa pxoito;  rj 
ou tout" av s'trj ueX£X7) fravaxou ; 



Addaeus, v. 12 ; vi. 18. 

Aeschylus, iii. 8, 12. 

Aesopus, xii. 37. 

Agathias, i. 10, 16, 30, 35 ; ii. 44 ; 

iii. 56 ; iv. 28, 43 ; v. 2 ; vii. 8, 

14 ; ix. 22 ; x. 34. 
Alcaeus of Messene, iv. 17, 19 ; 

vi. 2. 
Alpheus, ii. 4 ; iv. 3 ; ix. 23. 
Ammianus, xii. 27, 29. 
Anacreon, iii. 7. 
Antipiiter of Sidon, ii. 29, 41 ; iii. 

25 ; iv. 2, 4, 9, 10 ; vi. 27 ; vii. 

18; ix. 11, 20; xi. 11, 16, 18, 

40 ; xii. 9. 
Antipater of Thessalonica, i. 24 ; 

ii. 8 ; iii. 41 ; iv. 21 ; vii. 6 ; ix. 

14, 21, 25 ; xi. 23-25. 
Antiphanes, xii. 3. 
Antiphilus, ii. 3, 12 ; vi. 17 ; x. 9 ; 

xi. 22. 
Anyte, ii. 36 ; vi. 14, 24. 
Apollonides, ii. 9 ; ix. 13 ; xi. 31, 

45 ; xii. 8. 
Arabius, iv. 38 ; vi. 29. 
Archias, ii. 38 ; iv. 20 ; v. 7, 8 ; 

xi. 27. 
Aristodicus, xi. 14. 
Ariston, iv. 27. 
Artemidorus, iv. 34. 
Asclepiades, i. 2, 9, 28, 29, 67, 70 ; 

ix. 8 : x. 47; xi. 29 ; xii. 11. 
Asclepiodotus, ix. 19. 
Automedon, xi. 26. 

Bacchylides, ii. 34. 

Bianor, vii. 17 ; xi. 38 ; xii. 17. 

Callimachds, i. 14, 38 ; ii. 13, 26 ; 

iii. 21, 34, 39, 58, 63 ; iv. 26, 30- 

32 ; vii. 11, 12 ; viii. 4 ; ix. 15 ; 

xi. 30. 
Carphyllides, vii. 21. 
Cometas, vi. 10. 
Crinagoras, ii. 2, 40 ; v. 17 ; vii. 4 ; 

xi. 21, 28, 43. 

Damagetus, iii. 24 ; xi. 44. 
Demodocus, x. 40. 
Diodorus of Sardis, iii. 44, 45. 
Dionysius, ii. 19 ; x. 2 ; xi. 5. 
Dioscorides, i. 59 ; iii. 52 ; iv. 11. 
Diotimus, iii. 38 ; xi. 17. 

Eratosthenes, x. 7. 
Erinna, iii. 40. 
Erycius, iii. 15. 
Euphorion, iii. 13. 
Evenus, vi. 19 ; ix. 30. 

Gaetulicus, ii. 25. 
Glaucus, iii. 22 ; viii. 9. 
Glycon, xii. 33. 

Hegesippus, ii. 27. 
Hermocreon, vi. 7. 

Joannes Barbucallus, vii. 7, 19. 
Julianus Aegyptius, x. 10 ; xi. 42 ; 

xii. 12. 
Julius Polyaenus, ii. 1 ; ix. 35. 

Leonidas of Tarentum, iii. 19, 49 ; 

iv. 7; v. 10, 13; vi. 3, 26; ix. 

28 ; x. 4 ; xi. 3, 6, 9, 34, 36 ; xii. 





Leontius, iv. 18. 

Lucian, iii. 32 ; x. 44, 48 ; xii. 31. 
Lucilius, iv. 23, 24; x. 14, 17, 19- 
26, 29, 32, 38, 39, 43. 

Macedonius, i. 23, 37, 45 ; ii. 5, 
7 ; v. 4 ; vii. 1 ; ix. 9, 10 ; xi. 1. 

Maecius, i. 64 ; ii. 10. 

Marcus Argentarius, i. 4, 39, 54 ; 
vi. 16 ; ix. 1, 16 ; x. 8 ; xii. 7. 

Marianus, vi. 9 ; xii. 45. 

Meleager, i. 7, 11-13, 17-21, 25, 26, 
33, 44, 46-50, 52, 53, 55-58, 60- 
63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 71-76 ; iv. 15, 
16; vii. 10; viii. 1, 3, 5-8, 11 ; 
ix. 12 ; xi. 41, 46. 

Metrodorus, xii. 40. 

Mimnermus, xii. 6. 

Mnasalcas, ii. 39 ; iii. 5 ; vi. 23 ; 
viii. 10 ; xi. 10. 

Moero, ii. 17, 21. 

Mo.sehus, iv. 37. 

Myrinus, vi. 22. 

Nicaenetus, iii. 27 ; vi. 28. 
Nicarchus, x. 3, 15, 18, 27, 28, 30, 

31, 33, 36, 37, 42, 46 ; xii. 2. 
Nicias, ii. 28 ; iii. 29 ; v. 6. 
Nossis, i. 3 ; iv. 14. 

Palladas, ix. 34; x. 13, 16; xii. 

4, 20, 22, 23, 25, 28, 30, 35, 36, 

41-43, 46. 
Pamphilus, vi. 21. 
Parmenio, iii. 3. 
Parrhasius, iv. 46. 
Paulas Silentiarius, i. 15, 22, 27, 

34, 36 ; ii. 14, 42 ; vii. 2 ; xi. 49 ; 

xii. 44. 
Perses, v. 11. 

Phaedimus, iii. 28 ; vii. 13. 
Philetas, xii. 21. 
Philippus, ii. 11, 15, 32 ; xi. 37. 
Philodemus, i. 32, 40 ; ii. 6 ; vii. 3 ; 

x. 49 ; xii. 15. 
Plato, i. 5. 41 ; ii. 23; iii. 10, 11. 

16, 17 ; iv. 13, 45 ; vi. 5, 8 ; ix. 

18, 31 ; xi. 51. 
Pompeius, ix. 24. 
Posidippus, i. I ; ii. 22 ; iv. 5 ; xii. 

Ptolemaeus, iv. 33. 

Rhianus, viii. 2. 

Rufinus, i. 8, 31 ; ix. 2 ; xii. 1 . 

Satyrus, v. 9 ; vi. 15. 
Secundus, ix. 6. 
Simmias, iv. 12 ; xi. 12. 
Simonides, iii. 1, 2, 4, 9, 23, 57, 59, 

62 ; x. 5 ; xi. 20, 39. 
Strato, i. 6, 77 ; ix. 3, 7 ; x. 1 ; xii. 


Theaetetus, iii. 26 ; v. 1 ; vii. 15 ; 

xi. 7. 
Theocritus, ii. 16, 20, 37 ; iv. 22 ; 

vi. 13 ; vii. 9 ; xi. 15. 
Theodorides, iii. 18. 
Theognis, xii. 18, 38. 
Theophanes, i. 43. 
Thymocles, ix. 5. 
Tymnes, iii. 55 ; xi. 13, 19. 

Zonas, ii. 31 ; xii. 13. 



'A 5eiX' 'AvtixXsis, . 



'A Kurot? ou navoa[i.o;, . 



'A KuTrpt? tav Ku7:ptv, 



' A Ku~pov a xe Ku^rjpa. . 



"A [ a[j.[Bpo-j{r ( at, 



'A TZtxpoi aopujxo;, . 



'A ~oXu 2E'.p7jVWV, . 



'A oiXspio; y_apo-ot;, 



'A 'iu-/T| papu'pur/jvh, 



'A^pou? va x t tov "Epw-a, . 



* AyyEiXov x<x5e Aopx.a;, . 



"AyysXs <£sp3E»ovr;; 'EpjJi^j, 



'Ayvov ypr, vr,cito, . 



'Ayvo; zsl; te'jjisvo;, . 



'Aypo; *A"/ai[Xcvioou, 



'AyyiaXou pr ( yp.1vo; s-ii/.on:. 



ASiov ouSev i'pioto?, 



'Ao'j [^Xo; va\ Ilavx. 



'Aevaov KaS-apr ( v ;j.e. 



A'. XapixE; xe'(JL£VOS, 



A?a£to IloXuavO-ov, . 



AtyiaXtra np'!r,-E, . 



A'-ytfiaTT, xgoe Ilavi, 



A'ior) aXXtxaveuxe, . 



Aiei fioi oivfi piiv, . 






AfaoXtxai a'jp'.yys;. 



AicyuXov EuipopJwvo;, 



AJaVv -avxa qps'pei, . 



Aiopf ibjpeiov i[j.ai7o;j.;vo:. 



'Azaalo; poiKr, vr/i Spop.0?. 



'Axp\; £u.a>v a~aTr];j.a, 



AXXov 'ApiTJOTcXr,'/, 



Aato; p.:v Mouaau, 



Apwxauasi xa\ "rifSe, 



Ajj-tzeXe [j.tjtjoxe cpuXXa, 
'A|J.-sXo; w$ rfir h 

Av 7:avo xopxa^T,;, 
"AvopoxXo; eo-oXXov, 

Avopo[j.ay7]; e'xi ^prjvov, 
'AvEpa XuaarjXTjpt, . 
"Av&Ea ^oXXa ysvoixo, 
'AvOooiaiTE [j.s7,fj(ja, 

AvO-pW7TE £(07}; -Ep'.iELOE 

'ApiM; e£ aupr)?, 

'Ap/.E! p.ot yaiT)?, . 
ApvElxai xov"Epti>xa, 
AprzaTTat xi? xoaiov. 

'Ao/eXew XipLEvtxa, . 

'Ap/iXcto [j.e oapiapxa, 
Apxejii aoi xa -sotXa, 

'Apxi Xo/Euo[j.i'vrjV IE. 

"ApTl [J.E yEU0[i.EV0V, . 

'Apxi/avr; potav xe, . 
"AapEsxov xXe'o; o"oe, 
Ai-iox cppuvov ocpiv, 
'Aa-opa Ilav Xo'^i^xa. 
'Aaxs'pa? EtjaD-pEt;, . 

'ATxf ( p 7Tp\v [AEV EXa[i."C. 
\\x0'\ X.dpa [J.EXt9-pE^XE, 

'Ax9\? Eyto* xeiv»] y a Pi 
*Ax»Fl; s[jlo\ ^rjaasa, 
Axpsua; to <[eve [ia'v-, 
AuXaxt xafc y^pa, 
Aupiov afrpr^aio -e, . 
Aoaovir, p.E A'! l 3'j7 , jav. 
Auxo'p.axai 5eiX£, 
AuxofAaxw; Saxupis/.E, 
Auxou [aoi axEoavoi, 
A'Jto'j 7o; -ao' aXcovc. 










































































A.UTW /.x\ T3/.::7ii, . 
.v_povE; avOpco-oi, 
'V/r^'.; WTttf, 

Baid; ioav 6 Ilpirj-o;, 
BEpXrjaOvo x.d(3o;" a~£. 
Bi9"jvi; Kufhor, ps. 
BcoxoXtxai Molaai, . 

Tata x.a\ EiXrjfryta, 
Tata oiXr) xdv juoectSuv, 
TaVo; sx.::vsuaa;, 
rife 3-:,3rjv yupvd;, 
rXsuxo-oxat; SttTupoiCR, 

Aax.pua aot x.a\ vs'pOc, 
Aax.pyys'tov y£vop7]v, 
Aa-iv^v xai Nioprjv, 
Aaovi; 6 Xsux.oypw;, 
AsiXair) xi as -pwxov, 
AsiXaiot X'! x.sva"tatv, 
Asivd: "Epw? ostvd;, 
As'Hai p* ' HpaxXeig, 
ArjO-JvEi KXsocsavxi;, 
Ar/Jt Xixpair,, 
Aix.Xioa; apfsrfvafev, 
Aixtuov axpopoXifiSov, 
Aipisuo; ISprjtbjpEv, 
Ao; pot xodx. yairj;, 
Apaypaxa aoi ytdpou, 
Auaxaxpw Suoxcjcpo;, 
Auapops Ntxav(op, . 
Aojosx.s'xt) xdv -atoa, 
A'opiya dax:'a psv aa. 

Ey/Ei /.a\ -aXtv e?jts A'.o 
Eyysi xa\ xaXiv e?7te ~aX 
Ey/et AUTlOtX.r,;, . 
Eyysi xa; Ilsifrou?, 

!•".• xai a-iaxa xXuouai, 

El /.a\ ipquafa], 

Ei xai asu -oXd-iiovo;, 

Ei xai aoi ESpaiog, . 

Ei x.aXXsi x.auya, 

E* ps nXaxcov ou ypa'ie, 

Ei psv a~o 2-apxr,;. 

Iv ;j.£v y7jpdox£i, 

Iv xi; ana? y^pa?, . 

Ei xo xaXol; fl-vrjaxeiv, 

vii. 16. 

xii. 18. 

i. 66. 

v. 8. 

i. 7. 

vii. 6. 

iv. 34. 

xi. 1. 

xi. 4. 

x. 21. 

xii. 30. 

x. 4. 

xi. 46. 

xii. 36. 

x. 16. 

ii. 37. 

xi. 43. 

xi. 21. 

i. 72. 

ii. 27. 

i. 27. 

ii. 31. 

i. 36. 

ii. 7. 

iii. 9. 

xii. 13. 

ii. 32. 

x. 36. 

. xi. 25. 

iii. 34. 

iv. 5. 


viii. 4. 


i. 56. 

i. 54. 

i. 55. 

iv. 46. 

ix. 24. 

ii. 1. 

v. !7. 

ix. 3. 

iv. 29. 

ix. 22. 

ix. 7. 

x. 12. 

iii. 1. 

I'.' xo epe'pov as cs'psi, 
E'tapo; rjvO-si psv, . 
E'trj JCOVT07Copu ttXoo;, 
E'i'9'S x.ptvov ysvdp7)v, 
E'iO'S ps TravTOiOiaiv, 
E'cfrs pooov ysvdpr,v, 
Eix.ova psv napirjv, 
Eucoat yswrjaas, 
Eipi psv ou cstXootvo:. 
Eivootr] ao v i xovoe, . 
K'vdoiov axsi/ovxa, . 
Eivoai'cpuXXov dpoc, . 
E't7:a; 7]Xts yatps, 
Etra xi; 'Hoax.Xsixs, 
Ei; AiotjV iJ-Eia, 
El; ooe Nix.avopou, 
Ei; ' Pooov ei -Xsu'asi, 
EujiSev 'Avxioyo;, . 
E'ixs au y* opvso;soixov, 
Eiys 3>iXwv Xsp|3ov, . 
'Ex £<orj; p£ (hoi, 
' EXx.o; r/to xov Eptoxa, 
EXx.o; c'yiov 6 ?sivo;, 
'EXmoo; odds Tujpjs, 
'EXjci? ds\ (Eio'xou, . 
"eX;ti; x.a'i au Tu/7], 
Ep~vsi Ilav Xapolaiv, 
'Ev naoiv psO-uouatv, 
'Ev ao't xapa MufaxE, 
'EvO-aoE yrj xaxr/sc, 
Evxo? £[; xpaoujs, 
'E? axdptov 'E^ixoupoc, 
"E? tooat pd/0-oi;, . 
'E5tJxovtout7js Atovuaioc, 
'Eppaio; ^pTiv 'AtppoSfato?, 
'Eppa; xao' saxaxa, 
'Eppoye'vTj xov iaxpdv ioojv, 
'Eppoys'vrj xdv taxpov 6 

"Epyeo x.a\ xax' £*pav 'i^eu 
'E; rroaiv aOpr ( aaaa, 
' Earcep£»jv Mdtpfj ps, 
EuaypEi Xayofhjpa, . 
Eupotrjc ys'vo; saps'v, 
EuSei? Zr^vooiXa, 
E'jost; o'jXXoaxpdTxi ttsoco 

E'JO/jpO; xdv VTJOV, . 

Euota pev -ovxoc, . 


































































































Eu[j.a0i7iv rxaxo, 

Eu<Jc(3i7] xo f/iXaSpov, 

Eu'jopxot vas? -sXayiT'.OH; 

EoOavsv 'HXiooiopo;. 

EcpOfy^d) va\ Kujcptv, 

E/O-aipto to -ofr^j.a, 

Zrjvo? x.a\ Atjtous, . 
Zwatv sfvaXo] 0s'ti, . 

'H KaO-aprj, Ndjxoat yap 
H ~at; (;>'/£x' awpo?, 
H -ou ai yO-ovta;, 
'H r:up\ rdvxa Texouaa, 
'Ho' o;xd aro\ Xapioac, 
'H pa y£ xa\ au, "fciXivva, 
'H pa vu xot KXsovi/.s, 
'H asu xal cpih|jiva<;, 
'H aopapov ysXaaaaa, 
'H xd pooa pooo£a<jav, 
'H xo TraXai Aaf$, . 
' Hj3a [JLOi cpiXs a>0|J.£, 
Hydpaaa; yaXxouv, 
'Hoa'a ~avxa x.iXc'jiVa, 
Ho7] pooov £ax\, 
'Hot; /.aXXi—;xr,Xov, 
"HoYj Xcuxo'tov S'aXXc'., 
'Hor, [j.kv yXux.u; op9-po;, 
Horj plv xpox.o'cU, . 
Ho7] — ou — axpr,; "Xaia 
Hon, xot cpO'tvo-(opov. 
Hou \hpou? Ol'!/lOVXl, 
'H;'pa Xc-xaXs'ov, 
'Hspfa] rspavs'.a, 
' HxhXov av — Xouxfiv, 
'HXOs xak e; MiXaxov, 
H;j.£?s |J.£v -axs'ovxs;, 
H[i.r,v a/psiov /.aXa[j.o;. 
'Hvvso; dXXd ~£vrj?, 
"Hv -ap'lr,; qpwa, • 
*Hv xdya aupi^ovro?, 
'Hv xi "aO'w KXco[BouXc. 
"Hv xiv' i'/T,; £/!>po'v, 
HvoavEV dvOpw-ou, 
'Hou; ayysXs yatpc, 
' HpaxXee? TpijyjEva, 
"Hpaa&ijv T15 o' oj/% 
'Hpaa3Tj; jcXouttov, 




















































































. 7. 


. 21. 


. 19. 


. 49. 


. 16. 

'Hps'ji.' urap xujJLpoio, 
'Hpiov £t[j.\ Bixwvo?, 
'Hoiotov xapux' dpExa;, 
'Hpwwv oXIyat [j.e'v, 
'H^idoou t:oxc j3ipXov, 
'Hw; i<; i^oy; -apa-i'iji-sxai 

Ostovorj; sxXaiov, . 
Qhr.i$ ooc xpayi/.rjv, 
GsaaaXov 'i'-7:ov £/£'.;. 
Q7]p£uxr,v Aa[j.-(ova, 
BvtjXa xa xojv ■9 , vr)xwv. 
Gupai? 6 -/.(ojxrjXrjC, . 

' Ii^u ur:' aiyapoisiv, 

I^su utzo a/.i£pav ;:Xaxavov. 

I[i.spov auX7)iavxi, . 
'ivou; to McXtxs'pxa, 

Ittttov 'aOtjviov rjasv, 

'iTia? ^OU-VcUTTE, . 

Iaxw vuxxo; £[i.rjc, . 
"iuy? ^ Nixoug, 

Ka\ x.a-upov ycXdiac, 
Ka\ Vc/.uv aTrprliivxo;, 
Ka\ -dXiv EiXr]i>uia, 
Ka\ rcis vuv xal spa, 
Ka\ ~dx£ oivrjct^ dcpopo;, 
Ka\ roxs Gu;i.tdor];, 
Ka\ ok KXcr ( vop{o7j, . 
KaXXiy£V7]? dypolx.oc, 
Katj.1 x6v Iv sfxixpdig, 
Kav [JL£/pt; 'Hpax.X:'ou;, 
Ka~-aooxt>)v e'O-vou;, 
Kapx£po; Iv -oXe'iaoi?, 
KaxO-avov dXXd [jle'vw oe, 
KetjjLai" Xd^ £-'!|jaivs, 
KaTai orj yo'ja£av, . 
K£/.oont palv£ Xayuve, 
K£p/.toa xdv dp8-ptvd, 
Krjv [j.£ odyr,; iizi p'^av, 
Krjv rpuj-tvr, Xayixto [A-. 
K^purj-jw xov Epioxa, 
KXaal>£iar); -oxk vr,dc. 
KX(ov£; d-rjdpiot, 
Kpr,9'!oa xtjv noXuiJ-uO-ov 
Kprjjj.vopaxav oixeptov, 
Kp^i; y£Vcdv Booxayo;, 

iv. 12. 

iii. 27. 

iv. 2. 

ix. 23. 

i. 4. 

xii. 29. 

vii. 17. 

iv. 11. 
x. 38. 

xi. 16. 
xii. 31. 

vi. 22. 

iii. 29. 
vi. 7. 
iv. 21. 

ii. 6. 

i. 59. 

ix. 1. 

iii. 44. 

ii. 24. 

iv. 14. 

vii. 11. 

xii. 10. 

xi. 31. 

iii. 24. 

xi. 32. 

x. 34. 

v. 11. 

xii. 27. 

xii. 16. 

iii. 7. 

xi. 50. 

i. 73. 

ii. 21. 
i. 1. 

ii. 29. 

ix. 30. 

x. 9. 
i. 13. 

ix. 14 

vi. 17. 

iii. 39. 

ii. 35. 

iii. 62. 



KuecvET] xat tousos, . 
Ku;j.a to rctxpov Eptoxoc, 
Ku-pioo; outo; o yopo;, 
Ku|xa((>) ypuaEiov, . 

Aaij.-aoa *}s"i; xai Toi|a, 
Asiyavov a;j.'-/'//./.a7TOV, 
Aeu/.ocoo; alnuv sytov, 
\r t ; -o~\ xav Moiaav, 
Afaaou.' 'Epto; tov aypum/ov, 
Aou-rausvot HpoSiX7], 
Auoo; sytd, vai Auoo;, 

Maxpo? eV sv xoXraxaiv, 
MsXXov aoa aruyEpav, 
Me';j.vt ( zou [Up-VT], . 
Mrj C^tei SeXxoiotiv, 
Mij (j.e tov ex Aipavoto, 
M^ [J-qx'irj -apuov, . 
Mr, uiupa [J.rj TTEcpavouc. 
Mr, adi touto <I>iXaivi, 
Mr, au ye -oiovdfxoio, 
Mr,o" oV eV ayy.-Jpr]?, 
Mtjxe'ti OEiuaivovTE?, 

MrjXETl VUV [J-lVUpt^E, 

Mijvrj /puadx.Eptos Sspxr), 
Mrj7COTE Xuyvs [, 
Muv 'A<rxXr]7cia8T){, . 

Mupio; r,v tovftptozE, 

Naao; s[j.a 9-pE7rxeipa Tupo;, 
Naur,you xacpo; stpi" 6 o* ovtiov, 
Naur,you Tacpo; elp.£' au ok 7cXe'e, 
NauTiXs |J.rj zeuOgu, 
NauTiXoi to jcXwovte?, 
NEJ3pE(tov o-07ov aaX-iyH, 
N'r^a «joi to rrovxou, . 
NrjVaos; xoa i|iu^pee (JoauXta, 
Ntjwv tox.uzoptov o; s'ysi;, 
NtxojtoXtv MapaD-tovi:, 
NIoe yaXa£o[ioXst, . 
Noxxa jJLEarjV Ezoirjas, 

Nux.TEplVT) OlX.EptOC, . 

Nuxxixdpaj; aost, 
Nj/.to; a-Epyo[jLEVTj?, 'AvtypiaoE;, 
Nup-tpat zEuO-opivto, Baux.ioo; i|X(ii, 

iii. 8. 

i. 47. 

vi. 24. 

x. 8. 

iv. 37. 

ii. 8. 

ii. 11. 
iv. 22. 

i. G3. 
\ii. 1. 
iii. 52. 

i. 46. 

ii. 28. 

ix. 5. 

x. 1. 

vi. 1. 

vii. 21. 

xi. 2. 

xi. 19. 

vi. 3. 

xi. 23. 

vi. 25. 

vi. 16. 

i. 39. 

vii. 8. 

x. 43. 

xii. 26. 

iv. 16. 
iii. 16. 
iii. 18. 
iii. 20. 
iii. 26. 
iv. 10. 

ii. 5. 
xi. 8. 

ii. 4. 
vii. 20. 

i. 9. 

x. 19. 
i. 40. 

x. 15. 
xii. 23. 

ii. 17. 

viii. 9. 

iii. 40. 

Nuv ap.jj.Es 7Cpd<J\H aXXot, . xii. 24. 

Nu5 ispr, xat XuyvE, . . i. 68. 

Nu£, as yap oux aXXr ( v, . . i. 29. 

Seive xacpov iiapa Xitov, . . iv. 9. 

Sstvot XatvEa; |xr] 'I/ocuete, . iv. 41. 

'O Ppayus 'Ep{JLOysV7]S, . . x. 20. 

'O Tzkooi topaio;, . . . vi. 26. 

'O -tocvo; tov -tocvgv, . . iv. 36. 

Oio' oti •O-vaToc syio', . . iv. 33. 

Oio' oti [jiot -Xoutou, . . ix. 15. 

Oios zaTpav -oXuoax.puv, . iii. 5. 

O'ios ~ot' A?yai'oio, . . . iii. 10. 

Otvo-OTa; Esvotptov, . . x. 7. 

'Ox.Tto | JOjyjSiS azsys, . . xi. 29. 

"OXpta XEXva ysvoiafrE, . . vii. 15. 

'oXx.aoa Jtup |j.' scsXsijs, . . ix. 28. 

OSjupoat x.tovtozs;, . . . i. 20. 

'0~Xi£su Ku-pt to 5a, . . i. 51. 

" Op Ops ti [j.oi Sutrepaore, . . i. 25. 

"OpO-ps ti vuv ouaEpaaTE, . . i. 26. 

"OpOpo; EpTj XpuotXXa, . . i. 24. 

OpvEov to Xaptitv, . . . xi. 13. 

'Opcii'os oiyojAEvou, . . . iv. 18. 

Ou yajj.ov aXX' 'Afoav, . . xi. 41. 

Ou oE/ETat Mapxov, . . iv. 24. 

Ou xXa(&> ^Etvtov as, . . xii. 21. 

Ou xovt; ouo' oXtyov, . . iii. 22. 

Ou [j.ovo; E|j.'iu"/(ov, ... x. 45. 

Ou zXo/.a[j.ov Ar]jj.ou?, . . i. 50. 

Ou ao\ tout' sjjotov, . . i. 74. 

Ou to ^v yapiEaaav, . . xii. 44. 

Ou to 3-avslv aXyctvov, . . iii. 36. 

Ou Tpijyjs cte XiOeioc, . . iii. 13. 

Ouoc ve'xu; vau^yd;, . . xi. 27. 

Oux a~oO'vr i a/.Eiv oil ;j.e, . . xii. 2. 

Oux. EihXouaa Tu/r ( , . . ix. 17. 

Oux sikXto $tXdOTjpE, . . vi. 28. 

Oux. e'i'jj.' ouo' ete'iov, . . i. 67. 

Oux 7j(j.r)v yEvdjj.rjV, . . . xii. 32. 

Oux oto' ei Aiovuaov, . . xi. 18. 

OuxeV ctv' uXf^EV, . . . xi. 12. 

Oux.e't' ava ^puyir^v, . . iv. 19. 

Ouxe'xi o^ as XiyEia, . . xi. 14. 

Oux.eti a>EXyo[j.Evac, . . . iv. 4. 

Ouxe'xi zou tXt)|j.ov, . . iii. 56. 

Ouvopia |j.of xi oe touto, . . xi. 49. 



Ou~w aoi xaXuxwv, 
O'jtto) tot 7:Xoxa|xoi, 
O up tov ex rpujJLvrj?, . 
O'jto; 6 [xtjoev 6 Xtxo'c, 
Outcog u-vtoaat?, 
'OsQ-aXixot, ts'o [i-i/pi;, 

Ilatoa |xe jTCvras'njpov, 
Ilaioo; aTTOOihai'voio, 
IlaXXa? Tav KutHpEiav, 
Ilav ss'Xs JnjxT'Sa jj.ijjlvs, 
Ilava [xe tovo' iepfj*s, 
Jlavoioprj; opocov ycXoto, 
Ilavxa yiXw; xa\ -avTa, 
Ilav-a Xaptov emXriaxe, 
ndvTs; [xkv KtXtxE?, 
ITavxc; tiZ 9-ava-w, 
IlavTOtrjv [jioTOto, . 
Ilavxwv [xkv [j.7] o'Jvat, 
napfrevtx^v vEoatoo'v, 
HapixEvi; oux Epyto, 
17a sa 0-dXajsa S-aXaasa 
Haia aoi otyojxsvio, 
ITaaav syio tt^v vuxTa, 
nasi S-avstv ixspo-Eaatv, 
ITEtO-ol /.at Ilafpta, . 
IIe'jxtiw cot 'PoooxXsta, 


IIevts jxet aXXtov Xdpjxo: 
nlv* AaxXTj-taoTj, . 
Hive xa"t Eucsoatvou, 
IIivtotxEV Bax/ou £wpdv, 
nXs^td XeuxoVov, 
IlXou? aipaXspo? to ~rjv, 
nXo'jxst; xa\ t{ to Xo'.-o'v 
nXwajps; a«£otai)-s, 

Il017)V T15 [jtOTOlO, . 

IIotjjivEs 0" TauTTjv, . 
Ho'.;x3v'av ayXtosaoc, 
IIotur ( v to [xaxap s'tfh, 
IloXXdxt |xkv too* aEtsa, 
IloXXa XaXa; dvO-ptorrE, 
IIou sot Tojfov Ixjtvo, 
IIou to 7CEp'pXe7rrov, 
IIprjUTEpov Y^Jpd; <je, 
ITpoaooxtrj ftavaTOu, 
ntaiTis [xot xtovwi, . 
IlTavtiji TTTavov EptoTa, 

vii. 3. 

xi. 33. 

v. 3. 

xii. 17. 

i. 38. 

i. 34. 

iii. 32. 

iii. 35. 

iv. 39. 

vi. 10. 

v. 7. 

ix. 10. 

xii. 33. 

xi. 38. 

x. 40. 

xii. 35. 

xii. 40. 

xii. 38. 

iv. 7. 

i. 37. 

iii. 25. 

iv. 17. 

i. 30. 

xii. 4. 

vii. 7. 

ix. 2. 

xii. 7. 

x. 18. 

x. 47. 



xii. 11. 

i. 17. 

xii. 22. 

xii. 28. 

iii. 17. 
xii. 39. 

xi. 9. 

vi. 15. 

xi. 28. 
xii. 12. 
xii. 46. 
xii. 45. 

ix. 20. 

xi. 5. 

xii. 20. 

i. 62. 

iv. 35. 

ncaXeiadto scat [xaTpd?, 
II«o; yevo;xtjv ; -Ot)-sv Et|x' 
Hioi ti; dvsu 0-avccTOu, 

Pt-i(,(ov ev u-vou, . 

POUCpiVO? XT) '[X7j, 

Sr^xa ecdyvioo; sijxi, 
SiyaTto Xdatov Apudowv, 
SxrjvTj ^a; 6 |3to?, . 
2o\ xa\ vuv u;:d yfjv, 
2o"t TaoE ndv axo-i7;Ta, 
2o\ tboe ouptxtd, . 
2~7]XuyY£; Nujxcptov, 
2TpoyyuX7j EoxdpveuTS, 
2Tpufj.ovt xa\ [xEyaXio, 
2tm;xsv dXtppavToto, 
2cpatpt?Tav tov EpwTa, 
2(o^eo ao"l (jlsXXwv, . 
2to[xa jxkv dXXooanr', 

Ta 000a Ta opoTosvxa, 
Tao' ut:o Ta; r:XaTavou;, 
Taos xaTa yXospolo, 
Tdv sXaoov Aaotova, 
Tac Tp'ya; oj NixuXXa, 
Tc'9-vrjx* EuT'j/'or]?, 
Tf nacpiyi CTTEtpdvou?, 
Tf, pa ~ot' OuXujj.-oio, 
Tf^o* u~o TTjV apxEufrov, 
Tf^os 2awv 6 Aixtovoc, 
TfjOE tov ex MeXittj;, 
T^v Ato; dijLcpirroXov, 
Tr,v xuavwrtv Mouaav, 
Trjv tjLtxpTjV [xe Xs'youat, 
Trjv uixprjV ^at^ouaav, 
Tr^v ZEpivr)yo;x£vrjv, 
Tr^v — oXiv ot ve'xue;, 
T^v <Jc|xv(o; £7jaa?av, 
Trjv Tp'jjov 05 -apaystc, 
Trjv 'iuyrjV 'AydO-wva, 
Ti "Xc'ov ei? w6"va, . 
T' o~ruyviQ ; t' ok TauTa, 
TtjxapETa r.po yajxoto, 
Tt7;TE jxaT^v avO-pto-E, 

J Tt^TE [AS TOV CptXc'pr;[XOV, 

T'^te ^avri;x:'pto;, . 
' Tt; oJvaTai yvcovai, 

i. 53. 

xii. 34. 
xii. 37. 

x. 24. 
i. 31. 

iii. 59. 

vi. 8. 

xii. 43. 

iii. 53. 

ii. 38. 

ii. 18. 

ii. 40. 

x. 6. 
ix. 25. 
vi. 23. 

i. 49. 

i. 22. 
xi. 20. 

ii. 20. 
vi. 9. 
vi. 4. 

ii. 41. 

x. 14. 

iv. 23. 

vii. 14. 

x. 5. 

v. 5. 
iii. 63. 
iii. 55. 

v. 14. 
iii. 42. 

v. 13. 

x. 23. 

. 52. 

ix. 27. 

iii. 47. 

iii. 54. 

i. 5. 
iii. 38. 

i. 64. 

vii. 5 

xii. 41. 

iii. 50. 

vi. 20. 

vi. 21. 

i. 77. 



Ti? [JLOi ZT]VOf(Xav, . 
Tt? ^c'vos, to vaur,y:. 
Ti; tivo; Euaa ydvac, 
TjitoXto u^:' avih;j.o£VT'., 
To pdoov axp.a£si, . 
To ffxuepos r ( ou ycyrjO-c, 
To yoc'o; <o? arr/si?, 
Tov yai^; xai 7;ovtou, 
Tov [j.s XiO-ov [ie'(JLVTjao, 
Tov tuxpov Maxptova, 
Tov SaTupov Atdotopo;, 
Tov yaXxouv TsVciya, 
Too ypur:ou Nixmvg;, 
Tou Xiihvou Aid?, . 
Tou -toytovo'jopou Kuvixou, 
Tou; xaTaXci'iavxa;, 
Touto ao\ v Apx£[xi ota, 
Touto Tot ^[jLSTEprj?, 
TplyXav cc7:' av*9-paxi%, 
T(o [J.; Kavw^ixa, . 
Tco 7:aTpt p.ou tov aosXtpdv, 

"Yoaai xai X7]7COiai, . 
'Y^voki; to tatpc, . 
'Yotoctiov <£<dxaia, , 
'Y'i'//-0[j.ov -apa Tavo£, 

4>£tOT] TCOcp&Evfajg, 

<J>su tu Muowv -Xaaaa;. 

iii. 21. 
iii. 49. 

v. 4. 
ix. 4. 

i. 12. 
vii. 12. 
iii. 3. 
vi. 11. 

x. 22. 
iv. 45. 

ii. 14. 

x. 46. 

x. 27. 

x. 44. 
xii. 19. 

ii. 39. 
iii. 60. 

ii. 9. 

ii. 26. 

x. 32. 

vi. 29. 

xii. 8. 

xi. 44. 

vi. 5. 

ix. 8. 
iv. 44. 

<I>^ -or; IIp(oTO[J.a/o:, 
^TjOtv o |j.£ ar^aa;, . 
<£prjv ispr] [j.$yaXou, 
^pilfoxopia xooc riavi, 

4>(OTCpdpS [i.^ TOV 'EpMTOC, 

XaipEiv xdv xaTa yac, 
XaipEV 'ApiaTsioou, 
XeiXo? 'AvixijTSia, . 

Xsipoupycov i'a<pa?sv, 
Xpuadv dvrjp Euptov, 

Shwi^Et? xaxdoatpiov, 
tyuyi] ouaoaxpuTE, . 
¥uyrj |j.oi JtpoXs'yet, . 

'Q osiXaiE tu ©u'pai, 
'O [J.UE; £i [jiv in 5 apTov, 
'i2 vu? (o tpiXaypu-vo$, 
'{2 ?e1v' ayyEiXov, 
'i2 ?£Vc tovos Taoov, 
'fl Ilav cpEpPofte'vais, 
'Q XpovE Jtavrofeov, 
'{2xU[J.OpOV [J.£ XsYOUdi, 
'I2[J.oXdy7]a , r)(;Etv, . 
"i27:Xt7[ 7:pd;"EpwTa. 
"Qpio; slyi it -aarac, 
w Q«peXe p]8' iye'vovTO, 

xi. 39. 

ii. 13. 

ii. 2. 

ii. 36. 

i. 23. 

iii. 37. 
x. 35. 

vii. 2. 

x. 31. 

ix. 31. 

xii. 3. 
i. 48. 
i. 32. 

xi. 15. 
iv. 27. 

i. 69. 
iii. 4. 
iv. 8. 

ii. 43. 
iii. 6. 
xii. 9. 

i. 28. 

i. 8. 
xi. 42. 
xi. 30. 


Epigrams in the Palatine Anthology and Appendices 
included in this selection 

Anth. Pal. 

Anth. Pal 

V. 3 

i. 24 

V. 145 


i. 68 



i. 31 



xii. 1 



i. 39 



ii. 25 



i. 38 



i. 32 



xii. 2 



x. 4 



i. 52 



i. 9 



ix. 2 



i. 5 



x. 2 



i. 42 



ix. 8 



i. 8 



i. 51 



xi. 43 



i. 54 



x. 49 



ix. 16 



ix 1 



i. 40 



vii. 3 



i. 64 



i. 1 



x. 6 



i. 56 



i. 55 



i. 59 



i. 60 



i. 19 




Anth. Pal. 






























i. 36 
i. 10 
vii. 8 
i. 15 
i. 27 
i. 35 

ii. 23 
ii. 19 
ii. 38 
ii. 30 

ii. 7 
ii. 33 
ii. 10 
ii. 32 
ii. 34 
ii. 14 
vii. 7 
vii. 14 
ii. 5 
ii. 42 
x. 7 
ii. 44 
ii. 31 
ii. 9 
ii. 41 
ii. 21 
ii. 28 
vii. 11 
vii. 12 
ii. 26 
ii. 13 
ii. 29 
ii. 37 

Anth. Pal. 

VI. 178 































































VII. 6 







































A nth. 1 

Anth. Pal. 

Anth. Pal. 

Anth. Pal. 

711. L60 

iii. 7 

VII. 346 

iii. 60 

VII. 671 

xi. 38 

IX. 270 

x. 8 


iii. 49 


iii. 20 


v. 12 


xi. 31 


iii. 46 


iii. 15 


iv. 20 


iii. 3 


xi. 10 


xi. 21 


iii. 44 


vi. 14 


xi. 17 


xi. 45 


vi. 22 


iii. 29 


iii. 52 


vii. 17 


ix. 25 


v. 11 


iii. 53 


xi. 18 


xi. 40 


vi. 23 


xi. 41 


iv. 11 


iii. 40 


v. 10 


iii. 41 


iv. 17 


xi. 8 


vi. 13 


xi. 14 


iv. 14 


ix. 26 


viii. 9 


i. 65 


iv. 16 


xi. 6 


iv. 29 


i. 66 


iv. 15 


xi. 44 


xii. 39 


xi. 13 


iii. 63 


iii. 28 


xii. 40 


xi. 12 


iii. 34 


vi. 20 


iii. 56 


iii. 39 

IX. 7 

ii. 1 


vi. 12 


xi. 11 


vii. 18 


ix. 35 


ix. 21 


iii. 55 


xi. 36 


ix. 24 


xii. 15 


vii. 16 


iv. 30 


ix. 31 


xi. 16 


iii. 5 


xii. 26 


ix. 33 


xi. 15 


iii. 6 


iii. 30 


ix. IS 


iv. 22 


iii. 4 


xi. 46 


vi. 21 


x. 10 


iii. 2 


xi. 19 


vi. 17 


ix. 27 


iii. 1 


xi. 33 


ix. 32 


ix. 17 


iii. 62 


xi. 35 


ix. 30 


x. 9 


iii. 8 


iii. 23 


xi. 23 


iv. 33 


iii. 10 


iii. 24 


vi. 16 


vi. 10 


iii. 11 


iii. 26 


ii. 4 


vi. 9 


vii. 21 


iii. 27 


iv. 3 


v. 4 


iii. 38 


iii. 59 


ix. 23 


vii. 1 


xi. 32 


xi. 20 


ix. 28 


vi. 29 


iii. 19 


xi. 39 


v. 13 


vi. 25 


iii. 16 


iii. 58 


vi. 19 


iv. 44 


iii. 17 


xi. 26 


x. 12 


vii. 2 


xi. 30 


vii. 19 


ix. 29 


vi. 8 


iii. 21 


xi. 1 


ii. 35 


xi. 27 


iv. 18 


vi. 24 

X. 1 

vi. 26 


iii. 18 


xi. 42 


ix. 20 


vi. 27 


xi. 29 


xi. 22 


ix. 22 


iii. 14 


iii. 22 


xi. 28 


i. 4 


v. 8 


xi. 25 


iii. 25 


iv. 25 


v. 7 


xi. 24 


iii. 13 


ix. 34 


v. 9 


xi. 49 


xi. 3 


iv. 34 


v. 5 


iii. 32 


xi. 9 


xi. 37 


v. 2 


iii. 61 


xi. 34 


ix. 13 


v. 1 


xi. 4 


iii. 50 


ix. 6 


ii. 3 


vii. 20 


i. t 41 


iv. 21 


ii. 2 


xi. 50 


xi. 51 


ix. 14 


xii. 31 



A nth. Pal. 

Anth. Pal. 

Anth. Pal. 

Anth. Pal. 

X. 42 



XI. 85 



XI. 410 x. 


XII. 235 

ix. 7 







429 x. 


■2 i> 

i. 77 













XII. 2 x. 


XIV. 71 

v. 16 







32 ix. 








43 iv. 


XV. 35 

i. 43 







46 i. 








47 i. 








48 i. 


App. Pin n. 







50 (11 1-4) x. 



iv. 19 







50 (11. 5-8) xii. 



vi. 7 







51 viii. 



vi. 6 







53 vii. 



vi. 5 







54 viii. 



ii. 43 







56 viii. 



iii. 9 







59 viii. 



iv. 42 







72 viii. 



iv. 41 







74 i. 



vi. 15 




80 i. 



iv. 40 

XI. 1 






114 i. 



iv. 39 







117 i. 



v. 6 







121 viii. 



iv. 37 







127 viii. 



xii. 45 







128 viii. 



vi. 1 







131 ii. 



iv. 38 







132 (11 1-6) i. 



vi. 2 







132 (11. 7-14) i. 



vi. 4 







134 i. 



vi. 3 







138 viii. 



iv. 43 







141 ix. 



iv. 45 







147 i. 



iv. 36 







148 ix. 



iv. 35 







159 viii. 



vi. 11 







177 i. 



ii. 36 







234 ix. 



iv. 10 

Errata. — Page 14, line 1, for Damagetas read Damagetus. 
Page 17, lines 19, 33, for Euenus read Evenus 

Printed by T. and A. Constable, Printers to Hoi Majesty, 
at the Edinburgh University Press 






cop. U 

Anthologia graeca 

Select epigrams from 
the Greek anthology